Prepared By: Renee Brokaw
University of North Carolina, Charlotte
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
•Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
•Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;
•Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
1
Unit 1
Principles of Communication
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
2
Chapter 4
Understanding Verbal Messages
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
3
Communication Principles of a
Lifetime
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
4
Why Focus on Nonverbal
Communication?
• Nonverbal communication
– Communication other than written or spoken
language
– Creates meaning
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
5
Emotional Attitudes
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
Albert Mehrabian
6
Challenge Question
• According to Albert Mehrabian, the most
significant nonverbal source of emotional
information is
A. Vocal cues.
B. The face.
C. Personal space.
D. Emblems.
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
7
Answer
• According to Albert Mehrabian, the most
significant nonverbal source of emotional
information is
A. Vocal cues.
B. The face.
C. Personal space.
D. Emblems.
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
8
Nonverbal Messages are More
Believable
Verbal
Nonverbal
• Delivering a message
claiming you are not
upset
• Quivering voice
• Shaky knees
• Flushed face
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
9
Computer-Mediated
Communication
• Conveying emotion
– :-(
– :-l
– :-o
– :-D
Depressed or upset
Indifferent
Surprised
Laughing
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
10
Nonverbal Messages are Critical to
Successful Relationships
• William Chaplin’s “handshake index”
– Strength
– Vigor
– Completeness of grip
– Duration
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
11
Nonverbal Messages Serve Multiple
Functions
• Can substitute for verbal messages
• Complement verbal messages
• Regulate our conversation
• Accent or reinforce verbal message
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
12
Nonverbal Communication is
Culture- Bound
European
Culture
Wards off the
“Evil Eye”
Russian
Culture
Arrogance
African Culture
Casts a hex or
curse on
someone
Sign Language
Culture
“Bull….”
President
Bush’s Hook
and Horn
gesture to
motivate
team
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
Mediterranean
Culture
Your wife is
unfaithful
13
Nonverbal Communication is RuleBound
• Researcher Judee Burgoon
– Expectancy Violations Model
– Rules dictated by our:
• Cultural backgrounds
• Personal experiences
• Knowledge of others
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
14
Nonverbal Messages are Ambiguous
• Perception checking
– Observe nonverbal cues
– Interpret nonverbal cues
– Ask person being observed their opinion
– Seek second opinion
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
15
Nonverbal Language is Continuous
• Constantly changing
– Facial expressions
– Posture
– Hand gestures
– Eye contact
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
16
Nonverbal Language is
Nonlinguistic
• Body Language by Julius Fast
– Nonverbal communication was a language
• Pattern
• Grammar
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
17
Nonverbal Communication is Multichanneled
• Messages registered simultaneously
• Messages recognized one at a time
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
18
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Appearance
•
•
•
•
Body size and shape
Skin color and texture
Hairstyle
Clothing
– Artifacts
• Jewelry
• Tattoos
• Piercings
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
19
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Kinesics
– Movement
– Gesture
– Posture
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
20
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Emblems
• Nonverbal cue
• Meaning culturally bound
• Substitutes for word or phrase
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
21
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Illustrators
• Accompanies verbal behavior
– Complements
– Contradicts
– Accents
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
22
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Affect Displays
• Face reflects
– Kind of emotion
• Body reflects
– How much emotion you are feeling
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
23
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Regulators
• Control communication interaction
• Control communication flow
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
24
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Adaptors
• Satisfy a personal need
• Adapt to the immediate situation
• Quasi-courtship behavior
– Courtship readiness
– Preening
– Positional cues
– Appeals to invitation
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
25
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Eye Contact
More Likely
Less Likely
• Physically distant
• Discuss impersonal
topics
• Have no distractions
• Romantically
interested
• Female
• Cultural values
• Physically close
• Discuss intimate
topics
• Have distractions
• Not interested or
dislike
• Male
• Cultural values
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
26
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Eye Contact
• John F. Kennedy
– Appeared comfortable and confident
– Made eye contact
• Richard Nixon
– Darted eyes nervously
– Made less eye contact
• Regarded as shifty, untrustworthy and lacked
credibility
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
27
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Eye Contact
• Indicators of deception
– Rapid eye movement
– Diminished eye contact
– Rapid blinking
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
28
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Facial Expressions
• 250,000 facial expressions
• Ekman and Friesen’s six primary emotions
– Happiness
– Sadness
– Surprise
– Fear
– Anger
– Disgust or contempt
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
29
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Touch
• Study of human touch
– Haptics
• Individual standard of appropriate touching
– Touch ethic
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
30
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
The Voice
• Paralanguage or Vocalics
– Pitch, rate, use of silence, volume
• Back-channel cues
– End conversation by lowering pitch and
volume
– End conversation by lowering pitch and
volume
– Begin conversation with “I” or “Ah” or “Um”
• Response latency or response time
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
31
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Physical Environment
• Environmental contexts alter behavior
• Extensions of our personalities
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
32
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Space
Proxemics
Edward T. Hall’s Classification of Spatial Zones
Category
Definition
Distance Between
Individuals
Zone 1
Intimate Space
0 to 1.5 feet
Zone 2
Personal Space
1.5 to 4 feet
Zone 3
Social Space
4 to 12 feet
Zone 4
Public Space
12 to 25 and beyond
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
33
Edward T. Hall’s Four Zones of
Space
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
34
Challenge Question
• According to Edward T. Hall, your personal
space zone where most of your
conversation with others takes place, is
anywhere from
A. 0 to 1 ½ feet.
B. 1 ½ to 4 feet.
C. 4 to 12 feet.
D. 12 feet on.
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
35
Answer
• According to Edward T. Hall, your personal
space zone where most of your
conversation with others takes place, is
anywhere from
A. 0 to 1 ½ feet.
B. 1 ½ to 4 feet.
C. 4 to 12 feet.
D. 12 feet on.
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
36
Codes of Nonverbal Behavior:
Territory
• Territoriality
– Occupancy or ownership of space
• Territorial markers
– Things and actions claiming personal space
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
37
Interpreting Nonverbal Behavior:
Immediacy
Immediacy Cues
Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Proximity
Body orientation
Eye contact
Facial expressions
Gestures
Posture
Touch
Voice
Close, forward lean
Face-to-face, side-to-side
Mutual eye contact
Smiling
Head nods, movement
Arms other-oriented
Adapted to Culture/Context
Higher pitch, upward pitch
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
38
Interpreting Nonverbal Behavior:
Arousal
• Arousal cues
– Increased eye contact
– Closer conversational distances
– Increased touch
– Animated vocalics
– More direct body orientation
Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc
39
Descargar

Slide 1