Chapter 5: Nonstate
Actors and the
Challenge of Global
Governance
IGOs and NGOs
 IGOs: Intergovernmental organizations;
members are states; have authority from
state governments to make decisions
regarding particular problems
• 246 in 2007
• 34 universal membership
 NGOs: Nongovernmental organizations;
members are private individuals or groups
who focus on specific aspects of the
global agenda
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The United Nations
 Founded in 1945; successor to League of
Nations
 192 members
 Maintain international peace and security
 Promote peaceful relations between states
 Promote cooperation for solving
international problems
 Encourage human rights and freedoms
 Collective security—paralyzed during the
Cold War
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The Changing Membership
of the United Nations
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UN’s Agenda
 Six fundamental values
•
•
•
•
•
•
Freedom
Equality
Solidarity
Tolerance
Respect for nature
Sense of shared responsibility
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Organization of the UN
 The General Assembly (GA)
• 192 members, all with an equal vote
• Resolutions not considered law
• Power over the small UN budget
 The Secretariat
• 8,900 employees
• Secretary General
 The UN Security Council
• 15 members, “permanent five” have
veto powers
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The UN’s Headquarters
and Global Network
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Aspects of the
United Nations
 General Assembly dominated by the
Global South
 Controversy over size and nature of UN budget
 Dominance of U.S.
 Collaborate with NGOs
 Budget problems
• North–South differences over perceived priorities
• Controversy over dues amounts
• Controversy over inefficiency of UN bureaucracies
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The United Nations
 Great Powers
 Permanent members of Security
council w/ VETO
 Great Britain, China, France, the Soviet
Union, and the United States
 One State/One Vote scheme in the
General Assembly
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Important Functions
of the UN
 Deterring and Countering Aggression
 Peacekeeping
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Questions
1. In your opinion, should the UN be involved
in peacekeeping missions?
2. What needs to change to make UN
peacekeeping missions more effective?
3. Has the United Nations been effective in
bringing about change in Darfur? Why?
4. What other IGOs and NGOs likely have a
presence in Darfur?
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The Specialized Agencies
 Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC)
 The International Court of Justice
(ICJ)
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Four Views of the UN
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

UN as world government
The UN as irrelevant
The UN as a tool for states
The UN as a source of norms
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World Trade Organization
 Successor to GATT (1947)
 Promotes stable international
economic order and smooth
international trade
 Formal decision-making powers over
trade disputes
 Decreases state sovereignty
 Dominated by major powers
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World Bank
 Created at 1944 Bretton Woods
conference
 International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD)
 Private and governmental loans to
developing countries
 Upholds international economic system
 Promotes economic/political development
and environmental sustainability
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International
Monetary Fund
 1944 Bretton Woods; now a UN agency
 Stabilizes international monetary exchange
rates
 Lender of last resort; balance of payments
problems
 Dominated by wealthier states:
weighted voting
 Conditionality
 Tension with Global South
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European Union
 27 members
 Neoliberal theory: promote peace and
prosperity through IGOs
 1951 European Coal and Steel
Community
 Single economy with a common currency
 Most western European states; most east
European states also
 Third Way
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The
Expansion
of the
European
Union,
1951–2009
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Functionalism
 Remove the rationale for war
through political integration
 Peace by pieces
 Use IGOs, shared sovereignty
 Collaborate to solve technical
transnational problems
 Cooperation in one area would
spill over into other areas
 Cooperation based on self-interest
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Neofunctionalism
 IGOs created to manage common
problems provide benefits that exert
pressures for further political
integration, creation of new IGOs,
and increased interdependence
 Leads to regional integration
 Spillover—momentum builds
 European Union
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European Union
Components
 Council of Ministers
• Final authority over decisions
 European Commission
• Propose laws, execute Council decisions
 European Parliament
• Elected in member states, increasing power
 Court of Justice
• Interprets EU law -- Decisions are Binding
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The European Union’s
Governmental Structure
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Accomplishments of the EU
 Common foreign and security policy
 The single currency
 The European Constitution
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EU Decision-Making
Challenges
 Two decision-making procedures:
consultation and cooperation
 How far and how fast should a process
of pooled sovereignty proceed?
 How much should the EU’s
membership expand?
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Other Regional IGOs
 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
 ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian
Nations
 CARICOM: Caribbean Community and
Common Market
 CAEU: Council of Arab Economic Unity
 OIC: Organization of the Islamic
Conference
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Nongovernmental
Organizations
 Private interest groups
 Allow individuals to participate in
global affairs
 About 30,000 total
 Often work with IGOs such as the UN
 Challenge state sovereignty
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Trends in the Number
of NGOs Since 1956
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Indigenous Ethnic Groups
 Nonstate nations in the Fourth World
 Ethnopolitical groups: Common
nationality, language, cultural
tradition, kinship ties
 Form cultural domains that can cross
national borders
 Kurds in Turkey, Iraq, Syria
 Clash of civilizations?
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The Indigenous Cultures
of the World
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The World’s Major Civilizations:
Will Their Clash Create Global
Disorder?
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Religious Movements
(1 of 2)
 Politically active organization based on strong
religious convictions
 Theocracy
 Extreme militant religious movements
1. They view existing government authority as corrupt
and illegitimate because it is secular
2. They attack the inability of government to address the
domestic ills of the society
3. They believe that government and all its domestic and
foreign activities must be in the hands of believers
4. They are universalists
5. They are exclusionists
6. They are militant
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Major Religions
of the World
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Religious Movements
(2 of 2)
 Militant religious movements tend to
stimulate five specific types of
international activities:
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•
•
•
•
Irredentism
Secession or separative revolts
Migration
Diasporas
International terrorism
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33
Transnational
Terrorist Groups
 Terrorism today very different from
the past
 More lethal
 Waged by civilians
 Technology
 Postmodern terrorism
 War in Lebanon and Hezbollah
 Difficulty in defining terrorism
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Multinational Corporations
 Primary agents of globalization of
production
 Foreign direct investment
 Transnational banks
 Reduce political borders
 Distributed wealth unevenly
 Impact domestic politics
 Globally integrated enterprise
 Strategic corporate alliances
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35
Transnational Advocacy
Networks (TANs)
 Lobbying governments
 Setting agendas
 Providing services
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Issue-Advocacy and Global
Civil Society:
Can NGOs Transform World Politics?
 NGOs as a democratic force
 Networks of NGOs have contributed to
the emergence of global civil society
 Low politics
 Single issue NGOs more influential
 NGOs compete with one another to
influence decision makers
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37
Questions for
Critical Thinking
(1 of 2)
1. In what ways do IGOs and NGOs affect the
structure of the international system?
2. In what ways and in which issue areas could
NGOs conceivably be more effective than
IGOs?
3. How do IGOs reinforce the divisions between
the North and the South?
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38
Questions for
Critical Thinking
(2 of 2)
4. What are the prospects that the UN will
become a more powerful and more effective
institution?
5. In what ways do the WTO, World Bank, and
IMF affect the Global South?
6. Could the EU replace the United States as the
world’s hegemon?
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39
Web Links




United Nations
The World Trade Organization
International Monetary Fund
European Union
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Catholic
Church
 Poland
 Philippines
 South
Korea
 Latin America
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 World

Human rights / Democracy in Korea
 Nobel

Council of Churches
Committee,
Norwegian Nobel Committee (Peace Prize)
 Doctors
without borders
 Green Peace
 Amnesty International
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 International
Olympics Committee
 International Red Cross
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 Kennecott
Copper
 Alcoa Aluminum
 Exxon-Mobile, BP, etc.
 Monsanto Corp.
 Citibank
 Bank of America
 Wal-Mart
 Google
 CNN
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Global Governance (IGOs and NGOs)