Overhead 1
Literacy: Making
the Second
Language
Connection
Overhead 2
ESL/ELD Enrolment in HPEDSB
• Ministry Report for Elementary
•
•
•
•
2001-2002:
2002-2003:
2003-2004:
2004-2005:
• Ministry Report
25
36
36, plus 10 after Oct. 31
50+ (projected)
• does not include Canadian-born ESL students
• does not include International Student
Program
Overhead 3
ESL/ELD Elementary Student
Support in HPEDSB
• Withdrawal and Monitoring by 2 part-time
itinerant teachers
•
•
•
•
2001-2002:
2002-2003:
2003-2004:
2004-2005:
14 (25 on report)
23 (36 on report)
46 (36 + 10 after Oct. 31)
50+ (projected)
• 17 Elementary Schools with ESL students
(3 of these sites also host ISP students)
• 2 additional elementary schools with ISP
students
• 20 schools with ESL/ELD programming
needs
Ministry of Education
The Ontario Curriculum
Grades 1-8
English As a Second Language
and
English Literacy Development
A Resource Guide
2001
Orientation/Training Materials
Overhead 5
Part 1 --- Program Considerations
The three parts of the document are…
(p. 1-3)
•
•
•
Part 1. ESL/ELD Program Considerations
Part 2. Stages of Language Acquisition
Part 3. Adapted Sample Units
The ESL/ELD program at the elementary level is…
(p. 6)
•
a support or intervention program for English as
a Second Language and English Literacy
Development
Overhead 6
An ESL student…
• enters an Ontario school with little or no
previous knowledge of English but has
received educational experiences in his/her
own country.
or
• may be Canadian-born but have limited
proficiency in standard Canadian English
(p. 6)
Overhead 7
An ELD student…
• has had limited access to schooling
• may come from a country in which English
is not spoken, or
• may come from a country in which a variety
of English is in common use; and,
• has not had opportunities to develop ageappropriate literacy skills in his/her first
language.
(p. 6 and 7)
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The Four Stages in the
Acculturation Process
initial enthusiasm
culture shock
recovery
integration
(p. 8)
Overhead 9
For an ESL/ELD student to acquire
–
social English takes…
•
–
1-2 years
academic English takes…
•
5-7 years
(p. 11)
Optional Overhead 10
Years to Achieve Native-Like
English Proficiency
Adapted from “Teaching to Diversity”, Mary Meyers, 1993; designed by P. Steinhouse, 1997
Overhead 11
Factors Influencing SecondLanguage Acquisition
• age on arrival
• effects of possible
personal trauma
• length of time in
Canada
• stage of acculturation
• previous educational
experience
• level of first-language
literacy
• previous exposure to
English
• language(s) spoken in
the home
• presence of learning
exceptionalities
(p. 7)
Overhead 12
During the Initial Reception
Phase…
School staff should:
•
•
collect background information about the
student and
take steps to establish open and positive
communication with the home
(p. 13)
Overhead 13
Reception and Orientation
• Identify a school reception team.
• Provide essential orientation
information.
• Establish communication with the
home.
• Collect background information.
Overhead 14
The Role of the Parents
When parents continue to support the
development of the first language,
the child’s underlying knowledge,
conceptual base, and language ability
are improved.
(p.20)
Overhead 15
Diagnostic Assessment
• May include:
– first-language assessment;
– an ESL/ELD assessment; and
– a mathematics assessment
• Informally gathered over
several weeks
Overhead 16
Report Cards for ESL/ELD
Students
• ESL/ELD students should be given time to
develop their skills in English before their
achievement is assessed by the criteria used for
other students.
• In some cases, it may be appropriate to avoid
giving a mark in a particular subject, or even in all
subjects, on the report card.
• Use the space to make clear that insufficient
evidence of achievement is available at that time
and write anecdotal comments about the
student’s progress.
(p. 23)
The ESL or ELD Box on the
Report Card
Overhead 17
Checking the ESL or ESD box indicates that
accommodations and/or modifications of
curriculum expectations are in place for that
student.
When expectations have been modified, the
following statement must be included on the
report card…
• The (grade/mark) for (strand/subject) is based on
achievement of the expectations in the (ESL or ELD)
program, which vary from the Grade ___ expectations
(p. 22)
Ministry of Education, Ontario, Guide to the Provincial Report Card, Grades 1-8 (Toronto: Ministry of Education,
Ontario, 1998), p. 8
Overhead 18
Report Card Implications
• Expectations modified, accommodations
made: ESL or ELD box checked and Rider
Statement included, mark on modified
expectations
• Expectations NOT modified,
accommodations made: ESL or ELD box
checked, mark is class mark
• no accommodation made: ESL or ELD box
not checked, mark is class mark
Overhead 19
Part 2 --- Stages of Second
Language Acquisition for ESL
Students
• Four Stages
• Skill Areas of:
–
–
–
–
–
Listening,
Speaking,
Reading,
Writing, and
Orientation
• Grades 1-3, Grades 4-6, Grades 7-8
Overhead 20
Stages of Second Language
Acquisition and Literacy
Development for ELD Students
• Four Stages
• Skill Areas of:
–
–
–
–
Oral Expression and Language Knowledge,
Reading,
Writing, and
Orientation
• Grades 1-3, Grades 4-6, Grades 7-8
Overhead 21
Stages of
Second-Language Acquisition
Stage 1: Survival/Beginning English
Stage 2: English in Familiar and Supported
Contexts
Stage 3: English with Some Independence and
Inaccuracies
Stage 4: Independent and Accurate English
Programming
•
•
•
•
basis for ESL/ELD program planning
to establish identification of expectations for ESL/ELD learners
guide for development of Ontario Curriculum adaptations
basis for collaboration between ESL/ELD and classroom teachers
Tracking
• map of student progress
• basis for observation
Assessment/Evaluation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Overhead 22
initial assessment tool
conference/ team resource
evaluation of progress
development of report card comments
reporting to parents
student self-evaluation
Overhead 23
Part 3
Sample Adaptations and
Modifications for Selected
Teaching Units
Overhead 24
An Overview of Part 3
Section
Contents and/or Purpose
ESL/ELD
Descriptors
how to use descriptors to adapt
curriculum
ELD
Considerations
discusses specific literacy and
numeracy needs of ELD
students
Expectations
outlines OC expectations and
modified expectations
Overhead 25
Section
Contents and/or Purpose
Culminating
Task
multifaceted task used to
assess unit expectations
Assessment
Rubrics
provide criteria for assessing
modified expectations
Prior
Knowledge &
Skills
identifies basic knowledge and
skills needed to perform unit
tasks
Overhead 26
Section
Contents and/or Purpose
Teaching
Strategies
designed to meet the needs of
ESL/ELD students in a
particular unit
Assessment &
Evaluation
Strategies
describe diagnostic, formative,
and summative assessment
strategies for each unit
Overhead 27
Steps for Program Adaptation
Determine
student’s
ESL/ELD stage
in each language
strand and stage
in orientation
Evaluation based
on:
– modified
expectations,
or
– grade
expectations
Adapt program
in curriculum
areas, where
needed, based
on stage of
proficiency
Accommodations
Strategies used to help
student meet the
expectations (generally for
stages 1 to 4)
Modifications
Adjustments to
expectations and/or
performance criteria
(generally for stages 1
and 2)
Overhead 28
Example 1: Expectations and ESL Modified Expectations
Grade 5 Science and Technology:
Earth and Space Systems – Weather
Modified
Science Expectations Expectations for
Stage 1 ESL
Students
Modified
Expectations for
Stage 2 ESL
Students
demonstrate an
understanding of the
major climatic factors
and patterns
associated with
weather
demonstrate
understanding of the
difference between
climate and weather
demonstrate an
understanding of
selected key
vocabulary related to
weather and climate
Overhead 29
Example 1: Assessment Rubric for ESL Stage 1
Grade 5 Science & Technology:
Earth & Space Systems - Weather
Category
level 1
level 2
level 3
level 4
Knowledge
• demonstrates
minimal
understanding of
selected key
vocabulary
related to
weather and
climate
• demonstrates
some
understanding of
selected key
vocabulary
related to
weather and
climate
• demonstrates
understanding of
most selected
key vocabulary
related to
weather and
climate
• demonstrates
understanding of
all (or almost
all) selected key
vocabulary
related to
weather and
climate
• with much
assistance
examines how
weather
forecasts
influence people’s
decisions about
their homes
• with some
assistance
examines how
weather
forecasts
influence people’s
decisions about
their homes
• begins to
independently
examine how
weather
forecasts
influence people’s
decisions about
their homes
• independently
examines how
weather
forecasts
influence people’s
decisions about
their homes
Overhead 30
Modifying Expectations
• ESL/ELD students may need 5-7 years to understand
academic language and express complex and abstract
concepts
• adjust the language requirements to suit the
students’ age and stage of English language
acquisition
• set expectations that are challenging and
attainable
Overhead 31
ESL/ELD Students in FSL
• It is expected that ESL/ELD
students will participate in the
French as a second language (FSL)
program along with their grade-level
peers. Core French curriculum
expectations may need to be modified
according to the age, ability and/or
background of individual students.
Overhead 32
J’ai le français au
coeur…
Overhead 33
The Benefits of Second
Language Learning
• Research confirms that knowledge of a
second language strengthens first-language
skills, and that the ability to speak two or
more languages generally enhances
problem-solving and reasoning skills, [and]
the capacity for creative thinking…(The
Ontario Curriculum French as a Second
Language: Core French Grades 4 – 8, 1998)
Overhead 34
• …the development of competence in
two or more languages can result in
higher levels of metalinguistic
awareness. These facilitate the
acquisition of language by exploiting
the cognitive mechanisms underlying
these processes of transfer and
enhancement. (Jessner, 1999)
Overhead 35
• …research suggests that bilingualism
enhances children’s understanding of
how language itself works and their
ability to manipulate language in the
service of thinking and problemsolving. (Cummins, 1990)
Overhead 36
• Successful language learners transfer
their knowledge about language from
one language to another. (Simpson
Norris International, 2001)
Overhead 37
• Successful language learners often
use strategies in an orchestrated
fashion. For example, L2 writing, like
L1 writing, benefits from learning
strategies of planning, selfmonitoring, deduction, substitution.
(Oxford, 1994)
Overhead 38
Les stratégies
d’instruction
pour la lecture
Overhead 39
Les activités pour les
stratégies d’instruction de
la lecture
•
•
•
•
•
Établir des liens --- une toile des mots
Visualiser --- des notes visualisées
Questionner --- la grande question
Inférer --- une note en deux colonnes
Déterminer l’importance --- le problème et
des solutions
• Synthétiser --- un diagramme de l’histoire
Overhead 40
We have teaching
in our hearts…
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English As a Second Language and English Literacy …