English as a Second
Language
• Presented by:
Marnee
Dobrowsky
Overview
Topic: ESL Program Review and Development for Adult Educators
Audience: Regular classroom teachers, administrators, specialty area teachers, and
counselors, parents
Purpose: *To acquire knowledge and determine teaching methods for the culturally
diverse student and
classroom environment. To collaborate with peers and extend the learning theories
into the
classroom. This overview will allow for a better understanding on how to integrate a
variety of
activities and content lessons into the curriculum, become familiar with state
mandates and TESOL
standards, and implement several teaching techniques into a diverse classroom.
Topics: *What is English as a Second Language Overview (Terminology)
*Identification Procedures for ESL Students
* Placement of ESL Students (W-APT Evaluations/WIDA ACCESS TESTS)
*Implementing the Program (Expectations of Teachers)
*Techniques, Materials, and Accommodations
*Ways to collaborate and how to integrate ESL and Content
*Exiting and Monitoring the ESL student
What is English as a Second
Language?
• ESL or ELL may
stand for English as
Second Language or
English Language
Learners
• Students that have a
primary language
other than English
can be serviced in all
states
• This is available in all
grade levels, K-12.
Concerns for the ESL
Teacher
Concerns for the Classroom
Teacher
Identifying ESL Students
Home Language
Surveys
Home language Only identify easy
Limited English
Other than
Words and
schooling
English
sentences
All students must
bring back
a completed home
language
survey to be
viewed for
possible
evaluation.
Placement of ESL Students
• W-APT WIDA
Placement
Evaluations
• Levels of abilities
• Time and grouping
of students
• Try to ideally
replace Language
Arts or Foreign
Language classes
• After determining
proficiency of
Reading, Writing,
Speaking, and
Listening skills,
placement will occur.
• Students serviced in
an ESL program are
given the WIDA
ACCESS yearly to
determine proficiency
levels and progress
towards exiting
Implementing the ESL
Program
•
•
•
•
Creating schedules
Choosing ESL curriculum
Choosing grade level curriculum
Collaborating with content area
teachers
• Collaborating with administration
Bringing the Expertise Together
• Mainstream
• ESL Teacher
> Content Knowledge
> Strategies for
differentiation
> Cultural
knowledge
> Language
Acquisition Theory
> Learning
expectations
> Availability of a variety
of learning materials
> Class management
Techniques
Levels of English
Proficiency
Entering: Knows minimal social and academic language with visual
support
Beginning: Knows and uses some social English and some general
academic language with visual support
Developing: Knows and uses social English and some specific
academic language with visual support
Expanding: Knows and uses social English and some technical
academic language
Bridging: Knows and uses social and academic language working
with grade level materials and core content
Reaching: Knows and uses social and academic language at grade
level to the fullest potential
NOTE: Students at a Bridging or Reaching level are usually fully
functioning in all academic areas in regular classroom settings
and have, or are about to exit the ESL program.
Teaching Strategies
READING
-Organized in content-based
thematic units
-Multilevel reading groups
(Leveled Readers)
-Whole language with phonics
components
WRITING
-Teach the writing process -Use journal responses
-Use language experience
Approach
-Combine drawing and writing
Assessment in Collaborative Settings
• TESTING OPTIONS
 Performance rather
than score based
 Word banks, for openended, cloze, and
multiple choice
 Teacher modified
tests
 Multiple test forms
 “Think Aloud”
reflections
• GRADING OPTIONS
 Double Grading (ESL
and Mainstream
 Portfolio Assessments
 Rubrics
 Performance
Checklists
 Oral, rather than
pencil and paper
tasks
 Observation
checklists
Techniques to Accommodate ESL
Students
• Review packets and Book
• Allow for extended time
• Modify tests and
assignments ( **See Case
Studies)
• Grading procedures
• Authentic ways of
assessment
• Modeling/Variety of
activities
• Interactive Websites
(Hand-out)
Evaluation Example
(Vocabulary Strips)
FORECAST
NOUN
The weather forecast called for warm temperatures
and sunny skies.
Curriculum
Implementation
Align to PA and
TESOL standards
Lesson plans and
Objectives for
Each grouping
Integrate content
And technology
Report cards,
Progress reports,
Monitoring
TESOL’s Goals and Standards for PreK12 Students
Goal One: To use English to communicate in social
settings
*Participate in social interactions
*Personal expression-spoken and written
*Use appropriate learning strategies and styles
TESOL’s Goals and Standards for PreK12 Students
Goal Two: To use English to achieve academically in all content
areas of instruction
*Interact in the classroom
*Obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information
in spoken and written forms
*Use grade level and appropriate learning strategies
TESOL’s Goals and Standards for PreK12 Students
Goal Three: To use English in socially and culturally appropriate ways
*Use appropriate language variety, register, and genre according to setting,
audience, and purpose
*Use appropriate nonverbal communication for audience, purpose, and
setting.
*Use appropriate learning strategies to extend sociolinguistic and socialcultural
competence
TESOL STANDARDS CAN BE FOUND AT:
http://www.gisd.k12.nm.us/standards/esl/
http://www.helpforschools.com/ELLKBase/guidelines/ESLStandardsforPreK12.shtml
Collaboration with Staff
and Parents
• Communication Logs
• Conduct ESL staff
development
• Parent involvement
• Open communication with
administrators
• Report cards and progress
reports
• Work together on goals
and objectives
UNDERSTANDING BICS AND CALPS
“BICS”- Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
 Conversational fluency
 Functional level after about two years
“CALPS”- Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
 Grade appropriate academic fluency in second language
 At least five years to be functional with native speakers in content
area
 Failure to account BICS/CALPS-- Result in discriminatory assessments of bilingual students
 Premature exit from language support programs to mainstream
classes
Materials
• Hands-on
manipulatives
• Use of technology
• Models, designs,
and examples
• Relate to real
experiences
• Phonics
• Hampton-Brown or
Scott Foresman core
themed curriculum
• Supplement materials
• Vocabulary
• Graphic Organizers
• Rubrics
• Authentic
Assessments
Exiting ESL Students (BEC
Circular)
• Proficiency and passing score of a Level C
WIDA ACCESS state exam
• Demonstrates Reading, Writing, Speaking,
Listening proficiency in mainstream classes
• Maintains adequate grades in content area
subjects
• Conferences with teachers, parents,
administration
• Score of Basic or above on PSSA exams
• Exits into mainstream classroom with monitoring
Monitoring ESL Students
• Monitoring forms for
elementary and secondary
• Obtain grades and
progress for each nine
weeks from content area
teachers in each subject
• Adequate content area
grades
• Standardized tests
• Contact with student,
counselors, and teachers
• Score of Basic or
Proficient on PSSA exams
Benefits for ESL and
Mainstream Teachers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support
Collaboration
Team Work
Professional Growth and
development
Sharing responsibility
Students learn from two
experts
Meeting the diversity of all
student learning needs
Evidence of student
progress and growth
Bibliography
Ariza, E., Morales-Jones, C., Yahya, N., & Zanuddin, H. (2002). Fundamentals of Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages in K-12 Mainstream Classrooms. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
Brockett, R. & Merriam, S. (1997). The Profession and Practice of Adult Education. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Educating Students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and English Language Learners (ELL).
(2001). (n.a.) Retrieved from http://www.pde.psu.edu/BECattach/PC426lep&ell.html
O’Malley, J.M., & Pierce, L.V. (1996). Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners: Practical
Approaches for Teachers. Cleveland: Addison Wesley Publishing.
Ovando, J. Collier, V. P. & Combs, M. C. (2003). Bilingual and ESL Classrooms: Teaching in
Multicultural Contexts. McGraw-Hill Publishing.
TIP-Theories. (n.d.) Retrieved on November 10, 2005 from http://tip.psychology.org
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