Improving Education for English
Learners: Research-Based
Approaches
San Diego County Office of Education
Tony Mora, Director
Terry Barron, Coordinator
English Learner and Support Services
Chapter 2 (pp. 83-148)
“English Language Development:
Foundations
and Implementation Kindergarten
Through Grade Five”
by
Marguerite Ann Snow and
Anne Katz

Based on a presentation by
Yee Wan, Region 5 COE Lead
and
Denise Giacomini, Region 4 COE
Co-Lead
Please post
How will the information from
this chapter impact your
district?
4
Main Goal of ELD
 Ensure
students develop the
levels of English proficiency
required to succeed
academically
5
What is instructed ELD? (p. 84)



S_____________
E________ I_______ of English
Takes place during d_________
ELD time periods in organized,
r_______ scheduled time blocks
What are some ways ELD
instruction can be configured?
(pp. 84-85)
3 minutes
 “Regardless
of the
instructional configuration,
 a specified ELD time allows
teachers to deliver explicit
English instruction designed
specifically for English
learners’ levels of
proficiency.” (p. 85)
Chapter Organization
1. Foundations of ELD Instruction for Young
Learners
2. Designing ELD Instruction and
Assessment
3. Examples of Effective ELD Instruction
4. Implications for Professional
Development
9
1. Foundations for ELD
Instruction for Young Learners



Primary Language
Sociocultural Considerations and
Parental and Community
Support
Second-Language Acquisition
Processes
Foundations for ELD Instruction
for Young Learners

Coffee Klatch
Did you know in the
area of …?
2. Designing ELD Instruction
and Assessment
(pp. 98-122
12
2. Designing ELD Instruction and
Assessment (p. 98)
Key questions in
designing
practice to meet
the
needs of ELs
What aspects
of language
do I teach?
Standards
How do I
know if
students are
learning?
Standardsbased
Assessments
How can I
integrate ELD
with content
learning?
The role of
academic
language
How can I
teach
effectively?
Strategies
for ELD
instruction
13
2. Designing ELD
Instruction and Assessment
Standards-Based Instruction and
Assessment (pp. 98-99)
 Plan for instruction must take into
account relevant standards because
they outline core content of instruction
 Components of standards-based reform
model



Standards
Assessments
Accountability
14
Planning, Enacting, and Evaluating
Instructed ELD (p. 103)
Identify learner’s proficiency level
Select standards-based language
objectives for instructed ELD
Design and enact activities
Assess learning through standardsreferenced assessments
15
Designing ELD Instruction and
Assessment, continued
Role of Academic Language (p. 105)

“Since learning the language
of school is the primary
purpose of ELD K-5, teachers
need to have a thorough
understanding of the notion of
academic language.”
16
Designing ELD Instruction
and Assessment, continued
Role of Academic Language
 Academic language includes:
grammar, vocabulary, discourse
structures, conventions, and
language for various functions
 Teachers plan instruction that will
help students develop the
decontexualized language skills they
need for cognitively demanding
academic subjects in upper grades
17
Designing ELD Instruction and
Assessment , continued
Role of Academic Language
 Students need to be able to
transition from ELD to ELA
 Teachers should teach the academic
language in a directed but interactive
manner
 One researcher (Gibbons) suggests
that teachers create a “language
inventory” or list of academic
language features found in a unit of
instruction
18
How Do I Teach Effectively?
Strategies (pp. 108)


Well-designed plan that integrates
standards, appropriate instructional
materials, and effective instruction and
assessment strategies that focus on
second-language development.
Plan must address (a) dedicated ELD
instruction in a specific time block and
(b) instruction during the rest of the day.
19
How Do I Teach Effectively?
Six Components of Language Learning (p. 108)
Crabbe, 2003
Components
Input
Output
Interaction
Feedback
Rehearsal
Language Understanding
20
Strategies for ELD Instruction
Match the title of the strategy to its
description.
21
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Listening, Speaking, Reading & Writing
pp. 112-122


Importance of utilizing protracted
language events, situated within a
context and for the construction of
meaning
ELD instruction includes a focus on
particular forms and patterns of their
construction and use
22
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Listening and Speaking
pp. 112-115
Find a “Golden Line” on these
pages and share with a
partner.
Discuss why you selected the
line.
6 minutes
23
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Reading
p. 115

ELs who have some literacy
development in their first
language tend to transfer
those skills to reading in
English
24
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Reading
p. 116

Teachers should provide as
many authentic sources and
purposes for reading as
possible in addition to the
required reading text.


Label items in classroom
Students read lists,
announcements, notes to
parents, etc.
25
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Reading
pp. 116-117

Introduce academic
reading skills to prepare
ELs for reading in the
content area



Prereading
During reading
Postreading
26
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Reading
p. 118

Introduce students to common
discourse patterns in content
areas.

Discourse Patterns in Science







Analyze
Classify
Demonstrate
Measure
Predict
Report
Summarize
27
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Writing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Explicitly draw attention to common
discourse patterns and function
words when teaching academic
writing skills
Provide sentence-starters
Introduce a variety of genre writing
Focus on writing as a way to express
meaning and also develop syntactic
skills
Process writing -prewrite, write,
share, revise, edit and evaluate
28
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Teaching Vocabulary
pp. 120-122
Underlying proficiency in listening,
speaking, reading and writing is
vocabulary.
The three categories of words are:
1. High-frequency general words used
regularly in everyday contexts
2. Nonspecialized academic words that are
used across content areas and not
specific to any content area
3. Specialized content-area words that are
unique to specific disciplines
Stevens, Butler, and Castellon-Wellington, 2000
29
Applying Instructional Strategies for
Teaching Vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
Use direct vocabulary learning strategies
● Word and wall charts
● Vocabulary flash cards
● Vocabulary journals and notebooks
● Work sheets on prefixes, roots and suffixes
Use indirect vocabulary learning strategies
● Extensive and narrow reading
●
Listening activities
● Strategies for guessing the meaning from
context
Capitalize on students’ native language, for
example, Spanish-speaking students can benefit
from highlighting cognates
30
3. Examples of Effective
ELD Instruction
10 Elements of Effective ELD
Instruction
Pg. 122 and handout
Identify one that you believe
teachers do well and one that
teachers find challenging.
8 minutes
31
3. Examples of Effective ELD Instruction
Elements of Lesson Plan
pp. 123-132
1. ELA and ELD Standards
2. Content and Language Objectives
3. Learning Strategy Objective
4. Materials/Resources
5. Assessment (self-evaluation)
6. Explicit Instruction in four language skills
7. Practice
8. Grouping Patterns
9. Closure
10. Homework/Extension
32
4. Professional Development
Five functions in preservice
development for teachers
p. 134
Match the functions and their
descriptions and discuss with
a partner
33
4. Professional Development
FAULTY ASSUMPTIONS in teacher preparation
programs, pp. 134-135, Harper and deJong (2004)
1. Needs of English learners do not differ significantly
from those of other diverse learners
2. Discipline of ESL is primarily a menu of pedagogical
adaptations appropriate for a variety of diverse
learners
How are these FAULTY ASSUMPTIONS manifested in
classrooms?
34
4. Professional Development
Ten competencies to equip
teachers in both preservice and
in-service training
pp. 136-137 and handout
35
Implications for Practice


To develop lessons for instructed
ELD, teachers need to draw on a
variety of resources to deliberately
plan for instruction that
incorporates components to
ensure they maximize student
learning.
Districts need to build a
comprehensive system that
promotes and sustains high quality
ELD instruction.
36
Whip Around
What is your reaction to the
information in this chapter?
ONE WORD ONLY
37
Please post
How will the information from
this chapter impact your
district?
38
“Perhaps most
important, it is
our hope that
teachers of ELD
K-5 will become
passionate
advocates for
English learners
in their school
communities.”
p. 137
39
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