


Algonquian Speaking
Nation
Also known as the
Tsistsistas, which
means Beautiful
People and as the
So’taae’o
Split into Northern
and Southern
Cheyenne in 1850.


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
Similar to Christianity’s Old Testament and
God’s creation of Adam and Eve.
Haemmawihio created man from his right rib
and woman from his left.
Heammawihio moved woman to the north and
man in the south.
Twice a year the two battle for control of the
earth
•
•
•
•
Original homeland was in the woodlands near the
Great Lakes
Placed in Indian Territory 1877
Escaped Indian Territory on September 10, 1878
Tongue River Reservation 1884
“ We dodged the soldiers
during most of the way, but
they were always near us and
trying to catch us. Our young
men fought them off in seven
different battles. At each fight,
some of our people were killed,
women or children the same as
men. I do not know how many
of our grown-up people were
killed. But I know that more
than 60 of our children were
gone when we got to the
Dakota Country.”
~ Susan Iron Teeth
Little Wolf
and
Dull Knife
•
•
•
Women picked wild plant
foods
Buffalo were hunted in
two ways:
• Shooting or lancing
from horseback
• Impounding, jumping
or driving into deep
snow
Meat butchering was
shared by men and
women, but the drying
and storage was women’s
work.
MEN WORE
LEGGINGS
SHIRTS
BREECH CLOTHS
MOCCASINS
BUFFALO ROBES
WOMEN WORE
DRESSES
PROTECTIVE ROPE
MOCCASINS
BUFFALO ROBES
EARTHERN LODGES AND
BARK HUTS
TEPEES
•
•
3 POLE STRUCTURE
COVERED IN BUFFALO SKINS
Transportation
•
•
Before horses used
dogs to pull
travois.
Horses became
new way of
transportation:
• Saddles
• Bridles
• Ropes
• travois

Bear Butte




Deer Medicine Rocks



Central to spiritual ceremonies
North of Buffalo, WY
Cheyenne would go here for spiritual quests.
Sacred Hat




Located on reservation
Where Hunkpapa Lakota Chief Sitting Bull went prior to battle of Little Big Horn.
Lake DeSmet




Sturgis, SD
Known as Noavose, meaning “The Hill Where the People Are Taught.”
Sweet Medicine received the Four Sacred Arrows from Ma’heo’o here.
Esevone, the Sacred Buffalo Hat
Source of female renewing power.
Brought the Sun Dance, blesses the male and female relationships ensuring
continual strength, harmony, and new life for the people and their world.
Sacred Arrows

Four black painted arrows given to Sweet Medicine at Bear Butte.

Hoop Game

Dolls

Lacrosse

Musical
Instruments





Marriage was postponed until a man had a
respectable war record
Courtship lasted several years
Girls were chaperoned by families
A girl’s brother had authority over her
marriage.
Marriage was often to a brother’s friend or
member of his military society.

Babies




Puberty




For girls a horse was given away in honor of becoming a woman.
Boys took active role in hunting and war parties
Vision Quests
Adulthood


Umbilical cord was dried and saved
6 months ears were pierced
Were not named until 5 or 6 years old
Marked by achievement
Death


Spirits traveled up to the Hanging Road or Milky Way to Seyan.
In mourning women cut their hair and gashed themselves and
men loosened their hair.
MEN






WOMEN
Hunting
Meat Butchering
Warfare
Made weapons
Painted robes
Ceremonial Life

Doctoring the sick

Meat Butchering





Drying and storage
Gathering fuel and wild
plant foods.
Preparation of clothing
and robes
Preparation of Lodges
Pitching and
dismantling tepees

Education Included:













Language
Ceremonies, customs, and traditions
Tribal government
Gender roles
Morals
Botany, biology, astronomy, geography
Child rearing
Hunting, weaponry
Food preparation, nutrition, agriculture
Bead work, sewing, making clothing, tanning hides
Keeping a lodge
Religion
Healing and medicine
Education
Boarding
Schools
•
•
•
•
St. Labre Indian School
1884
Cheyenne children
forcibly taken from their
families and taken to
Catholic boarding
school.
1904, the Tongue River
Boarding school opened.
An Indian Bureau
School

Sovereign Government

Tribal Council


Members from Ashland, Birney, Bubsy, Muddy, and
Lame Deer
Maintains reservation including:


Waterways
Watercourses and streams
Problems
•
•
•
Loss of Land
Loss of
Language
Poverty


Located in Southeastern Montana
Districts
General- Lame Deer
 Ashland
 Birney
 Busby
 Muddy (vacant)



444,000 acres with 99% tribal ownership
10,050 enrolled tribal members with 4,939 on
the reservation
(April 2002). Cheyenne Indian. Retrieved from
http://www.cheyenneindian.com/cheyenne_history_001.htm
Biles, J. (2012). Exhibits feature Indian art, Curtis Photos. Retrieved from
http://cjonline.com/blog-post/jan-biles/2012-04-20/exhibits-feature-indian-art-curtis-photos
Marjane, A., Little Bear, R.E., Wilson, D., Tall Bull, L., Hantz, J., Ward, C., Wertman, B.
Northern Cheyenne People: our land, our history, our culture.
(2008). We, the
Northern Cheyenne Exodus. (2013, February 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:23, February
24, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northern_Cheyenne_Exodus&oldid=536684695
Omaha public Schools. (2009). Cheyenne.
http://www.ops.org/elementary/bancroft/SPECIALISTS/ComputerLab/MRSPEARSON/Curriculum/Plai
nsIndians/Cheyenne/tabid/210/Default.aspx
http://hoocher.com/Frederic_Remington/Frederic_Remington.htm
Rock, J. Whitehorse Tipi Village.
http://www.whitehorsetipis.co.uk/Tipis.html
Little Coyote, J. (2002). An Overview of Northern Cheyenne Culture and History.
http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/mt/field_offices/miles_city/og_eis/cheyenne.P
ar.48387.File.dat/Chap2.pdf
http://www.aaanativearts.com/cheyenne-indians/northern-cheyenne-tribe.htm
(2013). Countries and Their Cultures: Cheyenne-economy.
http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Cheyenne-Economy.html
http://www.cheyennenation.com/
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Northern Cheyenne