Life Span Development
Chapter 10
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Methods in Developmental
Psychology
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Cross-Sectional Study


Study people of different ages at the same point
in time
Advantages




Inexpensive
Can be completed quickly
Low attrition
Disadvantages


Different age groups are not necessarily much alike
Differences may be due to cohort differences rather
than age
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Longitudinal Study


Study the same group of people over time
Advantages




Detailed information about subjects
Developmental changes can be studied in detail
Eliminates cohort differences
Disadvantages



Expensive and time consuming
Potential for high attrition
Differences over time may be due to assessment
tools and not age
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Biographical or Retrospective Study


Participant’s past is reconstructed through
interviews and other research about their life
Advantages



Great detail about life of individual
In-depth study of one person
Disadvantages


Recall of individual may not be accurate
Can be expensive and time consuming
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Prenatal Development


Period of time from conception to birth
Embryo


Fetus


From about two weeks after conception to three
months after conception
Three months after conception to birth
Placenta



Connects fetus to mother
Brings oxygen and nutrients
Takes away wastes
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Prenatal Development

Critical period


Terotogens


Time when influences have major effect
Substances that can damage an embryo or fetus
Fetal alcohol syndrome



Occurs in children of women who consume large
amounts of alcohol during pregnancy
Symptoms include facial deformities, heart defects,
stunted growth, and cognitive impairments
http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/pop11.php3?video
=quicktime&video_id=[stn2img:2023183:stn2img]&date
10=07.27.04&article_id=218392311
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
The Newborn Baby
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Reflexes

Rooting


Sucking


Enables newborn babies to swallow liquids without choking
Grasping


Newborn’s tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouth
Swallowing


Baby turns its head toward something that brushes its cheek and
gropes around with mouth
Close fist around anything placed in their hand
Stepping

Stepping motions made by an infant when held upright
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Temperament


Temperament refers to characteristic patterns of
emotional reactions and emotional selfregulation
Thomas and Chess identified three basic types
of babies

Easy


Difficult


Good-natured, easy to care for, adaptable
Moody and intense, react to new situations and people
negatively and strongly
Slow-to-warm-up

Inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they
do react, it is mild
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Temperament

Kagan has added a fourth type

Shy child
 Timid
and inhibited, fearful of anything new or
strange

Temperament may predict later disposition
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Perceptual Abilities

Vision
Clear for 8-10 inches
 Good vision by 6 months


Depth perception


Visual cliff research
Other senses
Ears are functional prior to birth
 Infants particularly tune in to human voices
 Taste and smell are fully functional

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Infancy and Childhood
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Physical Development
Children grow about 10 inches and gain
about 15 pounds in first year
 Growth occurs in spurts, as much as 1
inch overnight
 Growth slows during second year

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Motor Development

Developmental norms
Ages by which an average child achieves
various developmental milestones
 http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestone
s/


Maturation

Automatic biological unfolding of development
in an organism as a function of passage of
time
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Development

Sensory-Motor Stage (birth to 2 years)


Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)


Egocentric
Concrete Operations (7-11 years)


Object permanence
Principles of conservation
Formal Operations (11-15 years)
Understand abstract ideas
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRF27F2bnA&feature=related

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
Many question assumption that there are
distinct stages in cognitive development
 Criticism of notion that infants do not
understand world
 Piaget may have underestimated influence
of social interaction in cognitive
development

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Development of Personality
Freud believed that personality
development is the result of various ways
in which the sexual instinct (also called the
libido) is satisfied during the course of life
 There are several stages, each focusing
on different bodily areas
 These stages are called the psychosexual
stages

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Psychosexual Stages

Oral Stage (birth to 18 months)




Pleasure is obtained by sucking and swallowing
Too much oral stimulation may result in an overly
optimistic, gullible, and dependent adult
Too little stimulation can result in a pessimistic,
sarcastic, argumentative adult
Anal Stage (18 months to 3 ½ years)


Focus of pleasure is the anus, especially controlling
bowels
Strict toilet training may result in anal retentive
personality types as adults, i.e., stingy and
excessively orderly
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Psychosexual Stages

Phallic Stage (after age 3)
Erotic feelings center on genitals
 Boys experience the Oedipal complex
 Girls experience the Electra complex
 Fixation at this stage may result in vanity and
egotism in adult life

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Psychosexual Stages

Latency Stage (5 or 6 to 12 or 13)


Child appears to have no interest in the other
sex
Genital Stage (begins at puberty)

Final stage marked by development of mature
sexuality
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

Authoritarian



Tightly control children’s behavior and insist on
obedience
Can produce children who have poor communication
skills, who are moody, withdrawn, and distrustful
Permissive-indifferent


Parents have too little control and often are indifferent
and neglectful
Children tend to become overly dependent and lack
social skills and self-control
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

Permissive-indulgent



Parents are very attentive and supportive, but do not
set limits on behavior
Children tend to be immature, disrespectful,
impulsive, and out of control
Authoritative



Parents provide firm structure, but are not overly
controlling
Parents listen to their children’s opinions and explain
their decisions, bur are still clearly in charge
Children tend to become self-reliant and socially
responsible
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
Development

Preconventional (preadolescence)


Conventional (adolescence)


“Good” behavior is mostly to avoid
punishment or seek reward
Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later
adolescence, becoming a good citizen
Postconventional

Emphasis is on abstract principles such as
justice, equality, and liberty
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
Research shows that many people never
progress past the conventional level
 Theory does not take cultural differences
into account
 Theory is considered by some to be sexist
in that girls often scored lower on tests of
morality

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Language Development
 Cooing
Stage
 Babbling
 Make
the sounds of all languages
 da
 Holophrases
 One
word is used to mean a whole
sentence
 awgone
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Theories of Language
Development
Skinner theorized that language develops
as parents reward children for language
usage
 Chomsky proposed the language
acquisition device


A neural mechanism for acquiring language
presumed to be “wired into” all humans
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Bilingualism and the development of a
second language

Broca’s Area
Before age 11 same area
 After 11, separate area develops

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Social Development
Parent-Child Relationships in
Infancy
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Development of Attachment

Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz)


The process where young
animals can form an
attachment during a critical
period very early in life.
Attachment
Ainsworth’s strange situation
experiment
 Harlows’ work with monkeys

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Erik Erikson








Trust vs. Mistrust (autonomy) (0-18 months)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18 months-3 years)
Initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years of age)
Industry vs. inferiority (7-11)
 Social skills
 School skills
Identify vs. Role Confusion (12-18)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65-death)
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Social Development
Parent-Child Relationships in
Childhood
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Gender/Sex Identity

http://www.bratz.com/index.php?section=t
unestvlanding
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Relationships With Other Children

Solitary play


Parallel play


Children first play by themselves
As they get older, children play side-by-side
with other children, but not interacting
Cooperative play

By about 3 or 3½, children begin playing with
others
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Sex-Role Development

Gender identity
Knowledge of being a boy or girl
 Occurs by age 3


Gender constancy
Child realizes that gender cannot change
 Occurs by age 4 or 5

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Sex-Role Development

Gender-role awareness


Gender stereotypes


Knowing appropriate behavior for each gender
Beliefs about presumed characteristics of each
gender
Sex-typed behavior


Socially defined ways to behave different for boys and
girls
May be at least partly biological in origin
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Adolescence
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Physical Changes

Growth spurt


Begins about age 10½ in
girls and about 12½ in boys
Sexual development

Puberty
 Onset

of sexual maturation
Menarche
 First
menstrual period for girls
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Physical Changes


Early and late developers
Adolescent sexual activity



Approximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between 15
and 19 have had intercourse
Average age for first intercourse is 16 for boys and 17
for girls
Teenage pregnancy



Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50 years
Highest in U.S. of all industrialized nations
Children of teenage mothers are more likely to be
neglected and abused than those of older mothers
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Cognitive Changes

Imaginary audience


Personal fable


Adolescent delusion that
everyone else is always focused
on them
Delusion that they are unique
and very important (love crisis)
Invulnerability

Nothing can harm them
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Personality and Social
Development


Major occurrence in adolescence is
identity formation
Forming an identity

Achievement


Foreclosure


Settle for identity others wish for them
Moratorium


Successfully find identity
Explore various identities
Diffusion

Unable to “find themselves”
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Personality and Social
Development

Relationships with peers


Adolescents often form cliques,
or groups with similar interests
and strong mutual attachment
Relationships with parents

Adolescents test and question
every rule and guideline from
parents, a way to test
independence.
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Some Problems of Adolescence

Declines in self-esteem
Related to appearance
 Satisfaction in appearance is related to higher
self-esteem


Depression and suicide
Rate of suicide among adolescents has
increased 600% since 1950, but has leveled
off in ’90s
 Suicide often related to depression, drug
abuse, and disruptive behaviors

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
High Risk for Suicide
Female
 Thoughts about suicide
 Mental disorder (depression)
 Poorly educated father who is absent from
the home.

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Adulthood
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Love, Partnerships, and Parenting

Forming partnerships


First major event of adulthood is forming and
maintaining close relationships
Parenthood
Having children alters dynamics of
relationships
 Marital satisfaction often declines after birth of
child

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Marital Satisfaction
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Other Issues

The World of Work


Cognitive Changes


Thinking is more flexible and practical
Personality Changes



Balancing career and family obligations is a challenge
Less self-centered, better coping skills
Some men and women have a midlife crisis (or
midlife transition)
The "Change of Life"

Menopause
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Late Adulthood
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Physical Changes
In late adulthood, physical deterioration is
inevitable
 A person’s response to these changes are
important

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Social Development
Independent and satisfying lifestyles
 Retirement



Most people will stop working and face
challenges with that sudden change
Sexual behavior

Research shows that many older couples
continue to be sexually active
Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Cognitive Changes
Research has demonstrated that those
who continue to “exercise” their mental
abilities can delay mental decline
 Alzheimer’s disease afflicts approximately
10% of people over 65 and perhaps as
many as 50% of those over 85

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
Facing the End of Life

Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying
Denial
 Anger
 Bargaining
 Depression
 Acceptance

Psychology: An Introduction
Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto
© 2005 Prentice Hall
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