No More Bullies at My School! A Unit Developed for K-12 Students Language Arts Nancy L. Gray, PhD Idaho Director of Bully Police USA Brenda L. High Founder, Co-Director, Bully Police USA Table of Contents Unit Goals Learning Objectives State Standards Rationale Materials Lessons and Assessments Long-term Strategies Resources Unit Goals This unit can be presented school-wide or in individual classrooms . The goal of this unit is to educate students on the harmful consequences of school bullying. Students will be encouraged to help make their school a safe place. They will learn to recognize bullying behavior, to develop strategies for coping with school bullies, and what to do if they witness school bullying. Unit Goals The goals of this unit also include increasing empathy among students in the school environment. Students will learn how to develop respect for one another, how to form personal and social judgments, and how to create a positive self –identity. They will learn to engage in social sensitivity and how to diffuse aggressive behaviors that may lead to harmful interactions. Teachers will learn how to recognize bullying behaviors and what to do to address these behaviors before they escalate to violence against others or violence against self, such as suicide (bullycide). Learning Objectives Students will be able to discuss and identify the affects of bullying behavior. Students will be able to write a narrative essay about bullying. Students will be able to write in response to literature. Students will be able to infer the affects of bullying behavior. Students will be able to create and perform a play about bullying. Students will be able to construct classroom/ school rules about bullying. Idaho State Standards- Language Arts 753.02 a Students will edit for correctness and clarity 753.06 a Students will write to communicate research findings 753.05 a Students will write to critically analyze and evaluate. 753.03 b Students will write to inform and explain 753.04 a Students will write for literary response and expression. 753.03 a Students will write to inform and explain 752.02c Students will interpret the social, cultural, and historical significance of a text. 752.04b Students will systematically organize and record information. 752.01b Students will preview materials to understand structure and anticipate content. 752.01c Students will develop analytic processes for understanding and remembering words, phrases, and information from reading material. 752.01e Students will synthesize and organize information. 752.01f Students will apply and extend information. 752.02b Students will identify and compare own experiences to those of others in situations, events, and cultures within reading selections. 752.01d Students will identify, collect, and/or select, and relate pertinent information to given situations. Rationale School bullying has become an increasing problem that may end in violence against others or “bullycide”, a suicide attributed to the effects of bullying. School shootings have also been linked to incidents of bullying. Bullying is often seen as “normal behavior” among students, yet the consequences of doing nothing can be deadly. Teaching students that bullying is not acceptable may save the lives of children. Suggested Materials “Do Unto Others” Wrist Bands (www.duntothers.com) Certificates of Completion Grade Appropriate Recommended Texts (see lists) Materials to create class or school rules (poster board and markers) Materials for student plays (construction paper, markers, costumes) Recommended Texts – Grades K-3 Goggles! by Ezra Jack Keats Archie and Peter find a pair of motorcycle goggles that the neighborhood bullies try to take from them. They use their dog, Willie, to help them outsmart the bullies. 1998, 40 pages, Grades Pre-K-3, Viking Stand Tall, Molly Lou Melon by Patty Lovell When Molly Lou Melon starts at a new school, the class bully, Ronald, teases her for being short, having buckteeth and a voice that sounds like "a bullfrog being squeezed by a boa constrictor." Molly remembers what her grandmother told her and she feels good about herself, which helps her overcome the bully's taunts. 2001, 32 pages, Grades Pre-K-2, G.P. Putnam's Sons Recommended Texts – Grades K - 3 Nobody Knew What to Do by Becky Ray McCain A boy tries to figure out what to do when he repeatedly witnesses a classmate being bullied. Though frightened, the boy decides to tell his teacher. When the bullies start up again, the boy and his classmates band together with the student who is being harassed until adults intervene and help. 2001, 24 pages, Grades K-3, Albert Whitman Rosie's Story by Martine Gogoll Unhappy because the other students in her class make fun of her red hair and freckles, Rosie writes a story about how she feels and discovers that she is not alone. 1994, 24 pages, Grades Pre-K-3, Mondo Publishing Recommended Texts Grades 3 - 6 Bully on the Bus by Carl W. Bosch Written in a "choose your own ending" format, the reader decides what action to take while dealing with a bully. The reader can choose from many alternatives that include ignoring, talking to an adult, confronting the bully, fighting, and reconciling. 1988, 64 pages, Grades 2-5, Parenting Press Milton's Dilemma by Patricia Gatto, John De Angelis Milton struggles to fit in, but is teased by the school bullies. With the help of a mischievous gnome, he learns the difference between right and wrong and the consequences of his actions when he vows to take revenge. 2004, 32 pages, Grades 2-5, Providence Publishing Recommended Texts Grades 3 - 6 My Secret Bully by Trudy Ludwig Monica is bullied, not by the class thug, but by her close friend Katie. This book explores relational bullying, a phenomenon that is often ignored. 2003, 32 pages, Grades 2-5, White Cloud Press Joshua T. Bates Takes Charge by Susan Shreve Joshua T. Bates struggles with the biggest decision of his life as he decides whether to disclose who is victimizing the new kid in fifth grade, Sean O'Malley. No stranger to bullies, Joshua repeated third grade and knows what it is like to be the target of Tommy Wilhelm and his gang. 1993, 112 pages, Grades 3-6, Alfred A. Knopf Recommended Texts Middle School Blubber by Judy Blume Fifth-grader Jill Brenner succumbs to the power of the most popular girl in the class and joins her in tormenting Linda Fischer, a vulnerable overweight girl who gives a report on whales and earns the name Blubber. 1976, 153 pages, Grades 4-6, Bantam Doubleday Dell Books for Young Readers Crash by Jerry Spinelli "Crash" Coogan, celebrated school jock, has been bullying Penn Wardsmall, poor, Quaker, and vegetarian-since the first grade. Crash begins to question his brutality, materialism, and winner-takes-all attitude when his beloved grandfather is disabled by a stroke. 1997, 176 pages, Grades 4-8, Alfred A. Knopf Recommended Texts - Middle School Buddha Boy by Kathe Koja At Rucher High, the new kid, Jinsen, is called "Buddha Boy" and considered a freak. He dresses in tie-dye shirts, shaves his head, and begs for lunch money in the cafeteria. 2003, 117 pages, Grades 6-10, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux Stepping on the Cracks by Mary Downing Hahn Elizabeth and Margaret have brothers fighting in Europe. On the home front these sixth-graders have their own war going on with the class bully, Gordy Smith. Hahn raises many issues, among which are pacification, dealing with a bully, and developing self-esteem. 1992, 216 pages, Grades 5-8, HarperCollins Publishers Recommended Texts – High School Cat’s Eye by Margaret Atwood "Cat's Eye" presents the retrospective of Elaine Risley, a middle-aged acclaimed artist who discovers that she cannot move into the future as she is still trapped in the past, because of the childhood trauma caused by Cordelia, Elaine's tormentor and soul-mate. Elaine was so deeply scarred by the sinister girly "power-games" of her childhood years that she lost herself, her memories, and "became" a cat's eye: cool as cold marble, detached, and almost devoid of feeling. 480 pages Anchor ISBN: 0-385-49102-6 Recommended Texts – High School I Wrote on All Four Walls: Teens Speak out on Violence by Fran Fernly The harrowing stories of nine contemporary teenagers who have witnessed, been the victim of, or instigated acts of violence... sometimes all three. In their own words, these teens offer thoughtful testimony on how such experiences have impacted on their lives, and their choices in dealing with those repercussions. 144 pages Annick Press, 2004 ISBN: 1550377574 Recommended Texts – High School Shooter by Walter Dean Myers Six months after a deadly shooting at a suburban high school, educators and psychological and criminal experts compile their interviews and analyses to assess any ongoing threat in the school environment. Myers, winner of many awards for his young adult novels, brings freshness and new anguish to this familiar tale (and growing social problem) of unstable victim tormented by bullies to homicidal rage. 223 pages Harper Collins Children’s Books ISBN: 0064472906 Recommended Texts - High School Please Stop Laughing at Me by Jodee Blanco In her poignant autobiographical work, Jodee Blanco tells how school became a frightening and painful place, where threats, humiliation, and assault were as much a part of her daily experience as bubblegum and lip-gloss were for others. It is an unflinching look at what it means to be an outcast, how even the most loving parents can get it wrong, why schools fail, and how bullying is both misunderstood and mishandled. 276 pages Adams Media Corporation ISBN: 1580628362 Lesson I - Personal Experience Rationale – Students need to express how bullies affect their day-to-day lives in order to make determinations on future behaviors. This series of lessons will provide opportunities for that expression. Anticipatory Set – Students will discuss their own experience with bullies Time - 3 hours (varies) Lesson II – Personal Essay Students will be able to discuss the affects of bullying. Time 3 hours (varies) Students will be able to infer the consequences of bullying behaviors. Students will be assessed through the completion of a graded narrative essay. Lesson III - The Experience of Others Students will read a grade-level appropriate text. Time 5 hours (varies depending on text) Students will discuss the text and how the text made them feel about bullying. Students will create online journals about the text as they read. Graded Journals will be used to assess student comprehension of the text and of key concepts. Lesson IV – Scenes from the Text Using a word processor, students will take scenes from the text and create a play that they will present for the rest of the class. Students will discuss the consequences of what has happened in the scenes. Students will be assessed on their ability to present key concepts in their play such as empathy, sensitivity, and social responsibility. Lesson V – Role-Playing Students will role-play to create a list of rules that illustrate prohibited bullying activities. Students will create a list of rules that illustrate what students will do to if they see bullying occur. Students will be assessed through their completion of a comprehensive list of rules that they develop using PowerPoint. Lesson VI Pledge – Long-term Strategy Students will write a pledge not to bully. The student pledge will include: Rules for student behavior Rules for reporting behavior Students will be assessed through the completion of the pledge they have created. Students who choose to pledge will receive a “DO UNTO OTHERS” wristband, www.duntothers.com. Lesson VII – Mentor Certificate for Long-Term Strategy Students will become mentors to bullied students Students will meet each week to discuss how to prevent bullying in the school or classroom Students will serve as mentors to students who are bullied Students will receive a certificate of mentorship Resources NEA National Bullying Awareness Campaign Bully Police - A Watch-dog Organization - Advocating for Bullied Children http://www.state.nj.us/njded/parents/bully.htm School TipLine – If you see it, Report it http://www.bullypolice.org/ New Jersey - Policy prohibiting harassment, intimidation and bullying http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html http://www.schooltipline.com Bullycide in America: Moms speak out about the bullying/suicide connection http://www.bullycide.org References ERIC Clearinghouse - Schoolwide Prevention of Bullying. By Request Series. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/co ntent_storage_01/0000019b/80/19/bc/c1.pdf About 30 percent of American children are regularly involved as bullies, victims, or both. Despite this number, bullying behavior is rarely detected by teachers and is even less frequently taken seriously. This booklet also has a list of programs along with contact information, a technical assistance resource, and reading resources. (Contains 27 references.) Borg, M. (1998, December) The emotional reactions of school bullies and their victims. Educational Psychology. 18 (4), 433-447. This resource included a 20-year study of more than 6,000 participants. Research found that many of those bullied had tried “to commit suicide, run away, refused to go to school, or had been chronically ill.” Crawford, N. (2002, October) New ways to stop bullying. Monitor. 33 (9) 64. This resource provides statistics on bullying and the profiles of students who are most likely bullied. It also outlines research that is being conducted on the prevention of bullying. Dake, J.A., Price, J. H., Telljohann, S. K., & Funk, J. B. (2003). Teacher perceptions and practices regarding school bullying prevention. The Journal of School Health, 73(9), 347-355. This resource examined teacher perceptions on school bullying and how they felt it should be addressed. The researcher found that teachers rarely addressed school bullying in the classroom. Dake, J.A., Price, J. H., Telljohann, S. K., & Funk, J. B. (2003). The nature and extent of bullying at school. The Journal of School Health, 73(5), 173-180. This resource found that 20% of students are bullied in the schools and that bullying affects academic achievement, school bonding, and absenteeism, yet preventing bullying is rarely a priority. Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review, 32(3), 365383. This resource looked at five model programs designed to reduce aggression in schools. The researchers found that teachers needed to be educated about bullying and their attitudes also needed to be assessed. Furlong, M. J., Morrison, G. M. & Greif, J. L. (2003). Reaching an American consensus: Reactions to the special issue on school bullying. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 456-470. This resource looked at legislative activities in response to school shootings and other bulling phenomenon. The authors felt that states had reacted well to hate crimes, but their reaction to school bullying was inadequate and inconsistent. Orpinas, P., Horne, A. M., & Staniszewski, D (2003). School bullying: Changing the problem by changing the school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 431-444. This resource looked at model for teaching bully prevention. The researcher found that models that reduce aggression and victimization by changing the school environment are usually more effective than models that use an expert consultant or punishment and reward. Smith, P. K., Singer, M. Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. L. (2003). Victimization in the school and the workplace: Are there any links? British Journal of Psychology, 2 (94), 175. This resource examines how bullying in school can impact later life, especially once the former student enters the workforce. The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-National Perspective. (1999). Adolescence, 34 (136), 817. This resource is a summary of school bullying in 19 countries. The study includes victim and bully demographics, the types of bullying, and interventions.