DOES BULLYING STOP AT HIGH SCHOOL?
WHAT EVERY COLLEGE STUDENT
SHOULD KNOW ABOUT ADDRESSING
DISRUPTIVE AND UNCIVIL BEHAVIOR IN
A POSITIVE AND PROACTIVE MANNER
Larry Rute
Associates in Dispute Resolution LLC
Hosted by: Pittsburg State University
Pittsburg, Kansas
DISRUPTIVE AND UNCIVIL BEHAVIOR
IN COLLEGE
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•
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Behaviors can range from being rude or
intimidating, to badgering, bullying, hazing or
harassment.
Behavior can involve students, faculty, and
university staff.
Behaviors can occur in any setting—the classroom
or office, during a campus event, or in the
dormitory.
Regardless of the chosen term, everyone needs to
know how to address these behaviors in a positive
and proactive manner
2
Disruptive behavior can involve
anyone – student, faculty, staff, or
administrator.
Anyone can be uncivil.
Anyone can be a victim
3
BULLYING STATISTICS
An estimated 54 million adult Americans
will encounter bullying in the workplace,
including the educational setting.
Until recently, most bullying was poorly
documented or reported because it was
not fully recognized as a pervasive
problem.
Source: U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey (September 2007)
4
BULLYING STATISTICS
40% of U.S. students voluntarily report
being involved in bullying—as bullies or,
as victims—according to the results of
the first national survey on this subject.
Bullying is increasingly viewed as an
important contributor to youth violence,
including homicide and suicide.
Source: The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling,
and Stopping Bullies, and Bullying: A Complete Guide for
Teachers and Parents.
5
BULLYING STATISTICS
Today, social media and the popular
media, have revealed bullying as the
insidious national disgrace that it is.
Popular opinion against bullying and
the development of management
systems are being created at every
level from grass roots organizations
to local and federal courthouses.
6
BULLYING STATISTICS
For example, an October 18, 2010,
article in the nationally published People
magazine focused on four young adults
who had committed suicide as a result
of bullying by their fellow classmates in
the previous month. The students
included Rutgers Freshman Tyler
Clementi, age 18, as well as Billy Lucas,
age 15, Seth Walsh, age 13, and Asher
Brown, age 13.
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VICTIM
RUTGERS FRESHMAN
TYLER
CLEMENTI
On September 22, 2010,
Tyler Clementi drove to
the George Washington
Bridge and jumped into
the Hudson River.
AGE 18
Just three days earlier, his freshman roommate at
New Jersey’s Rutger’s University, allegedly
webcammed Tyler who was engaged in an encounter
with a man in their dorm room and streamed it live.
Authorities have charged Charun Ravi and another
student, Molly Wei, with invasion of privacy, which
could lead to five years in prison.
8
BULLYING STATISTICS
Actual examples of people bullied
include:
--Mackenzie Spainer – because
people were jealous
--Joey Kemerling – because he is gay
--Alex and Philippe Haussman –
because they are over-weight
--Morah Kilgore – because she is biracial
9
BULLYING – DEFINING THE PROBLEM
• SCHOOL BULLYING has many similarities to
workplace bullying and domestic violence.
• Bullied individuals have limited “protected
status” unless they are minorities, disabled
or provided special protection through
state or federal law.
• Bullying creates a “pressure cooker”
environment that may result in violence
and suicide.
Source: The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling,
and Stopping Bullying at Work, Margaret R. Cohut, MSW.
10
BULLYING - DEFINING THE PROBLEM
Bullying rarely begins with a “bang.”
It tends to be a subtle process of
intimidation and criticism rather
than erupting in a single event. As
the weeks and months go by, the
bullying not only continues, but
gradually intensifies to the point of
being relentless.
Source: The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling,
and Stopping Bullying at Work, Margaret R. Cohut, MSW.
11
CHARACTERISTICS OF A BULLY
A bully may be described as a person
who:
• Has never learned to accept
responsibility for their behavior.
• Unable to empathize with the
victim.
• Is socially immature.
• Advocates and denies
responsibility for their behavior
and its consequences.
12
CHARACTERISTICS OF A BULLY
(continued)
• Unable and unwilling to recognize
the affect of their behavior on
others.
• Does not recognize any other way of
behaving
• Resistant to recognizing that there
could be better ways of behavior
13
MOBBING
The term “to mob” means to crowd
about, attack or annoy others.
Dr. Heinz-Leymann, treated Swedish
victims of workplace “mobbing” for
trauma at work.
14
MOBBING
Dr. Leymann defined “mobbing” his
term for workplace bullying as:
•
Psychological terror or mobbing in the working life
involves hostile and unethical communication
which is directed in a systematic manner by one or
more individuals, mainly toward one individual
who, due to mobbing, is pushed into a helpless
and defenseless position and held there by means
of continuing mobbing activities.
15
MOBBING
These actions occur on a very
frequent basis and because of the
high frequency and long duration of
the hostile behavior, this
maltreatment results in
considerable mental, psychosomatic
and social misery.
16
CYBER-BULLYING
In the social media age, cyber-bullying has
become much more common and can also
create great psychological injury to victims.
17
HAZING
Hazing describes various ritual or other
activities involving harassment, abuse or
humiliation used in a way of initiating a
person into a group during the rushing,
induction, pledging, initiation or
membership process.
K.S.A. 21-3434(1983) classifies the promoting or permitting of hazing as a Class B NonPerson Misdemeanor.
18
HAZING
Florida A & M University Hazing Death
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/01/us/florida-am-universitystudents-death-turns-spotlight-on-hazing.html?pagewanted=all
19
HARASSMENT
Disruptive and uncivil behaviors can be
illegal harassment.
• Title IX—gender discrimination in
education activities.
• Americans with Disabilities Act of
1990.
• Title VII—discrimination against race,
color, religion, gender, or national
origin.
Source: The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling, and Stopping
Bullying at Work, Margaret R. Cohut, MSW.
20
EXAMPLES OF UNCIVIL BEHAVIORS
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A dishonest, disingenuous style of dealing
with people and issues.
Plays favorites.
Demands that others provide “damning”
evidence against the target.
Uses lies, half truths and threats to the
target.
Makes nasty, rude, hostile remarks to the
target.
Breaches the target’s confidentiality and
shares personal information with others.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
21
EXAMPLES OF UNCIVIL BEHAVIORS
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•
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Constant verbal and written barrages,
challenging the target’s competency, stability,
sobriety, honesty and morality.
Blatant discrimination based upon age, gender,
sexual preference, religion or ethnicity.
Continual violations of personal and emotional
limits and boundaries, e.g., unwanted semisexual touching and inappropriately inviting
casual or intimate relationships.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
22
EXAMPLES OF UNCIVIL BEHAVIORS
•
•
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Personal and professional exploitation,
intimidation, and terrorizing of the target.
Gradual escalation of bullying behaviors,
eventually creating such emotional pain
for the target that self-harming behavior
of some sort is likely.
Criticism of the target’s abilities.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
23
EXAMPLES OF UNCIVIL BEHAVIORS
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•
•
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Threats, insults, and put-downs,
sometimes publicly.
Discounting or denying the target’s
accomplishments.
Exclusion of the target from information.
Yelling, swearing, name-calling and/or
body language of disrespect or aggression.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
24
EXAMPLES OF UNCIVIL BEHAVIORS
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•
•
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Ignoring people
Talking too loudly and disrupting a
roommate or others around you.
Not responding to emails or phone calls.
Impolite conversation/talking down to
someone.
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EXAMPLES OF UNCIVIL BEHAVIORS
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Rude emails or texts.
Jokes about another’s race, gender, age,
disability, sexual preference or religion.
Ignoring rules (e.g. Smoking in nonsmoking area).
Using cell phone text messaging during a
meeting or appointment or in the middle
of a conversation with someone else.
Practical jokes.
26
IMPACT ON THE TARGET
•
Profound feelings of confusion, fear,
isolation, paranoia, embarrassment,
shame, rage, guilt, depression, anxiety,
lack of confidence, poor self-esteem, grief,
shock, rejection, and worthlessness.
•
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and
prolonged distress disorder (PDD).
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
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IMPACT ON THE TARGET
•
Hyper-vigilance to perceived emotional
threats.
•
Impairment in focus and concentration.
•
Social withdrawal and isolation.
•
Suicide attempts and completed suicide.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
28
IMPACT ON THE TARGET
•
Substance abuse and other selfdestructive habits.
•
Spontaneous crying.
•
Impairment of cognitive thinking
•
Inability to reason and cope with the
problem.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
29
IMPACT ON THE TARGET
Physical Symptoms of Stress
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Heart palpitations
Panic attacks
High blood pressure
Tension and
migraine headaches
Chronic fatigue
Anorexia
Insomnia
Nightmares
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•
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Gastrointestinal
problems
Muscle tension
Dizziness
Restlessness
Reduced immune
system
Peptic ulcers
Eating disorders
including
malnutrition.
Source: Namie and Namie (2000)
30
IMPACT ON THE TARGET
The Workplace Bullying and Trauma
Institute (WBTI), founded in 1998 by
Namie and Namie, Breakdowns on
Startling Statistics Regarding the Top
Consequences for Bullied Targets:
• Severe anxiety (94%)
• Sleep disturbance (84%)
• Loss of concentration (82%)
31
IMPACT ON THE TARGET
(continued)
•
•
•
•
Severe anxiety (94%)
Sleep disturbance (84%)
Loss of concentration (82%)
Feeling edgy, easily startled, PTSD
(80%)
• Obsession about the bullies
motives and tactics (78%)
• Stress headaches (64%)
32
IMPACT ON THE TARGET
(continued)
• Avoidance of feelings or places (49%)
• Shame or embarrassment that changed
lifestyle routines (49%)
• Heart palpatations (48%)
• Recurrent intrusive thoughts and
memories (48%)
• Body aches and muscles and/or joints
(43%)
• Clinical depression (41%)
33
GENDER & CULTURAL ISSUES IN
COMMUNICATION
Many commentators believe that gender
communication, bias, prejudice and
stereotypes work at a subconscious
level.
34
GENDER & CULTURAL ISSUES IN
COMMUNICATION
For example, studies show that from an
early age, we are sent messages that
boys and girls are different in ways that
tend to reinforce stereotypes. Studies
also show that girl babies are coddled
much more than boy babies who tend to
be wrestled around more.
35
GENDER & CULTURAL ISSUES IN
COMMUNICATION
In our culture, there does seem to be a
tendency of women to act consistently
with female stereotypes and vice-versa
for men.
The popular book by John Gray suggests
looking at gender differences as if we
come from different cultures.
Source: Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus
36
GENDER & CULTURAL ISSUES IN
COMMUNICATION
Questions of cross-culture communication , bias,
prejudice and stereotypes is even more apparent
when we consider racial intimidation, humiliation, or
exclusion when crossing cultural lines.
In his book, Outliers, Malcom Gladwell discusses ways
in which cultures differ from one another. Some of
the references in the book include:
- Individualism/collectivism
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Value and weight of authority structures
37
GENDER & CULTURAL ISSUES IN
COMMUNICATION
One study notes that a person is
more likely to be biased against
another person who is different
culturally and/or if the person is
perceived to have lower selfesteem.
38
IF YOU ARE A TARGET
If you find yourself dealing with
uncivil behavior, you have options:
1. Identify the problem
There is a difference between not
liking an individual and being the
victim of bullying or harassment.
Identifying the type of behavior will
help you decide how to properly
handle it.
39
HOW TO HANDLE UNCIVIL AND
DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR
2. Document the problem
If you are the victim of uncivil behavior, YOU
ARE NOT THE PROBLEM, the other person is.
Do not start to believe what he or she is
saying about you. You should document the
incidents so that you can later present your
case should you desire to do so. In your
documentation of uncivil behavior, be sure to
include how the incident made you feel
physically and emotionally.
40
HOW TO HANDLE UNCIVIL AND
DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR
3.
Know Your Options
Consider whether to discuss the issue with
the other person. Because the person may
not realize that they are behaving in a
disruptive manner, an open conversation
could solve the problem.
Use your judgment: If you fear the
confrontation will make matters worse or you
know the person doesn’t care, then report
the problem to someone who can intervene.
41
HOW TO HANDLE UNCIVIL AND
DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR
4. Reporting the Problem at Pittsburg
State
You may refer the problem to a RA, an
instructor, university official or report
the matter directly to the Office of
Equal Opportunity and Affirmative
Action.
42
WHERE TO REPORT A PROBLEM
You may refer the problem directly to:
Office of Equal Opportunity
Affirmative Action
218 Russ Hall
Pittsburg State University
43
IF YOU ARE A WITNESS
The best way to determine if a friend
or colleague needs assistance is simply
to ask him or her in a supportive,
nonjudgmental manner: “Can I help?”
• Encourage the victim to talk about
what is happening and how he or
she feels about it.
• Encourage the victim to start
documenting his or her
experiences.
44
IF YOU ARE A WITNESS
(continued)
• Suggest that the victim seek support
from professionals such as a physician,
therapist or a school official.
• Make it clear to the victim that he or
she has the support of her friends and
colleagues.
• Gently remind the victim that uncivil
behaviors is only the fault of the other
person.
• Provide positive encouragement: “I
know you can do this.”
45
RESOURCES
The U.S. Department of Education
Office for Civil Rights offers technical
assistance to develop creative
approaches to preventing and
addressing bullying as it relates to
discrimination.
http://wdcrobcolp01.ed.gov/CFAPPS/
OCR/contactus.cfm
46
RESOURCES
The U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services has launched a
campaign with TIPS on how to identify
and prevent bullying. Its web site
features animated stories geared
towards children to help them
recognize bullying behavior.
www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov.
47
RESOURCES
The Gay Lesbian and Straight
Education Network offers support for
schools that want to implement antibullying programs.
www.glsen.org/bullying
48
RESOURCES
The non-profit Anti-Defamation
League offers tips for parents and has
resources for teachers.
www.adl.org/combatbullying.
The non-profit WiredSafety provides
tips for teens on how to navigate the
internet safely and for parents on how
to keep track of their kids’ web-based
activities.
www.wiredsafety.org.
49
RESOURCES
Pacer’s National Center on Bullying
Prevention focuses on children with
disabilities, offers anti-bullying
materials.
www.pacer.org/bullying
50
ADDITIONAL ONLINE RESOURCES
Prevention
http://olweus.org/public/index.page
Kansas Department of Education
http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid
=3878
Information http://bullying.com/ and
http://www.bullying.com.au/
Statistics
http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/
Bullying in the Workplace
http://www.workplacebullying.org/
51
PUBLICATIONS
The Complete Guide to Understanding,
Controlling and Stopping Bullies and
Bullying: A Complete Guide for Teachers
and Parents.
Margaret R. Kohut, MSW, Understanding,
Controlling and Stopping Bullies and
Bullying at Work, Atlantic Publishing Group,
Inc. (2008)
Gary Namie, PhD and Ruth Namie, PhD, The
Bully at Work, Source Books, Inc., (2009).
52
Promoting Continued
Civility and
Collegiality at
Pittsburg State
Larry Rute & Michelle Minor
University
Associates in Dispute Resolution LLC
Hosted by: Pittsburg State University
Pittsburg, Kansas
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