Unit 7 Human Growth and
Development
7:1 Life Stages
 Growth and development begins at birth
and ends at death
 During an entire lifetime, individuals have
needs that must be met
 Health care workers need to be aware of
the various stages and needs of the
individual to provide quality health care
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Life Stages
(continued)
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Infancy: birth to 1 year
Early childhood: 1-6 years
Late childhood: 6-12 years
Adolescence: 12-20 years
Early adulthood: 20-40 years
Middle adulthood: 40-65 years
Late adulthood: 65 years and up
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Growth and Development
Types
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Physical: body growth
Mental: mind development
Emotional: feelings
Social: interactions and relationships
with others
 All four types above occur in each stage
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Erikson’s Stages of
Psychosocial Development
 Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst
 A basic conflict or need must be met in
each stage
 See Table 7-1 in text
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Infancy
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Age: birth to 1 year old
Dramatic and rapid changes
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Infants are dependent on others for all
needs
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Early Childhood
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Age: 1-6 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Needs
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Late Childhood or
Preadolescence
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Age: 6-12 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Needs
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Adolescence
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Age: 12-20 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Needs
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Eating Disorders
 Often develop from an excessive concern
for appearance
 Anorexia nervosa
 Bulimia
 More common in females
 Usually, psychological or psychiatric help
is needed to treat these conditions
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10
Chemical Abuse
 Use of alcohol or drugs with the
development of a physical and/or mental
dependence on the chemical
 Can occur at any life stage, but frequently
begins in adolescence
 Can lead to physical and mental disorders
and diseases
 Treatment towards total rehabilitation
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Reasons Chemicals Used
 Trying to relieve stress or anxiety
 Peer pressure
 Escape from emotional or psychological
problems
 Experimentation
 Seeking “instant gratification”
 Hereditary traits or cultural influences
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Suicide
 One of the leading causes of death
in adolescents
 Permanent solution to temporary problem
 Impulsive nature of adolescents
 Most give warning signs
 Call for attention
 Prevention of suicide
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Reasons for Suicide
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Depression
Grief over a loss or love affair
Failure in school
Inability to meet expectations
Influence of suicidal friends or parents
Lack of self-esteem
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Increased Risk of Suicide
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Family history of suicide
A major loss or disappointment
Previous suicide attempts
Recent suicide of friends, family, or role
models (heroes or idols)
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Early Adulthood
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Age: 20-40 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
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Middle Adulthood
(Middle Age)
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Age: 40-65 years of age
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
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Late Adulthood
 Age: 65 years of age and up
 Also called “elderly”, “senior citizen”,
“golden ager”, and “retired citizen”
 Physical development
 Mental development
 Emotional development
 Social development
 Needs
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7:2 Death and Dying
 Death is “the final stage of growth”
 Experienced by everyone and
no one escapes
 Young people tend to ignore its existence
 Usually it is the elderly, who have lost
others, who begin to think about their
own death
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Terminal Illness
 Disease that cannot be cured and will
result in death
 People react in different ways
 Some patients view death as a final peace
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Research
 Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross was the leading
expert in the field of death and dying
 Results of her research
– Most medical personnel now believe patient
should be informed of approaching death
– Patient should be left with some hope and
know they will not be left alone
– Staff need to know extent of information
known by patient
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Research
(continued)
 Dr. Kübler-Ross identified 5 stages of
grieving
– Dying patients and their families/friends may
experience these stages
– Stages may not occur in order
– Some patients may not progress through
them all, others may experience several
stages at once
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Stages of Death and Dying
 Denial – refuses to believe
 Anger – when no longer able to deny
 Bargaining – accepts death, but wants
more time
 Depression – realizes death will
come soon
 Acceptance – understands and accepts
the fact they are going to die
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Caring for the Dying Patient
 Very challenging, but rewarding work
 Supportive care
 Health care worker must have
self-awareness
 Common to want to avoid feelings by
avoiding dying patient
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Hospice Care
 Palliative care only
 Often in patient’s home
 Philosophy: allow patient to die with dignity
and comfort
 Personal care
 Volunteers
 After death contact and services
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Right to Die
 Health care workers must understand
this issue
 Ethical issues must be addressed
 Allowing patients to die can cause conflict
 Specific actions to end life cannot be taken
 Laws allowing “right to die”
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Summary
 Death is a part of life
 Health care workers will deal with death
and dying patients
 Must understand death and dying process
and think about needs of dying patients
 Then health care workers will be able
to provide the special care these
individuals need
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7:3 Human Needs
 Needs: lack of something that is required
or desired
 Needs exist from birth to death
 Needs influence our behavior
 Needs have a priority status
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
(See Figure 7-14 in text)
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Altered Physiological
Needs
 Health care workers need to be aware
of how illness interferes with meeting
physiological needs
 Surgery or laboratory testing
 Anxiety
 Medications
 Loss of vision or hearing
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Altered Physiological
Needs (continued)
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Decreased sense of smell and taste
Deterioration of muscles and joints
Change in person’s behavior
What the health care worker can do to
assist the patient with altered needs
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Meeting Needs
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Motivation to act when needs felt
Sense of satisfaction when needs met
Sense of frustration when needs not met
Several needs can be felt at the same time
Different needs can have different levels
of intensity
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Methods for Satisfying
Needs
 Direct methods
– Hard work
– Set realistic goals
– Evaluate situation
– Cooperate with others
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Methods for Satisfying
Needs (continued)
 Indirect methods
– Defense mechanisms
– Rationalization
– Projection
– Displacement
– Compensation
– Daydreaming
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Methods for Satisfying
Needs (continued)
 Indirect methods (continued)
– Repression
– Suppression
– Denial
– Withdrawal
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Summary
 Be aware of own needs and
patient’s needs
 More efficient and quality care can
be provided when know needs and
understand motivations
 Better understanding of our behavior
and that of others
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7:4 Effective Communications
 Health care workers must be able to relate
to patients, family, coworkers, and others
 Understanding communication skills
assists in this process
 Communication: exchange of information,
thoughts, ideas, and feelings
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Effective Communications
(continued)
 Verbal: spoken words
 Written
 Nonverbal: facial expressions, body
language, and touch
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Effective Communications
(continued)
 Essential elements
– Sender
– Message
– Receiver
– Feedback
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Effective Communications
(continued)
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Message must be clear
How sender delivers message
How receiver hears message
How receiver understands message
Avoid interruptions and distractions
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Listening
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Essential to communications
Attempt to hear what other is really saying
Need constant practice
Good listening skills techniques
Observe speaker closely
Reflect statements back to speaker
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Nonverbal Communications
 Facial expressions, body language,
gestures, eye contact, and touch
 Can conflict with verbal message
 Be aware of own and other’s nonverbals
 Don’t always need verbals to
communicate effectively
 When verbal and nonverbal agree,
message more likely understood
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Barriers to Communication
 Something that gets in the way of clear
communications
 Common barriers
– Physical disabilities
– Psychological attitudes and prejudice
– Cultural diversity
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Recording and Reporting
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Observe and record observations
Use all senses in the process
Report promptly and accurately
Criteria for recording observations on a
patient’s health care record
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Summary
 Good communication skills
allow development of
good interpersonal relationships
 Health care worker also relates
more effectively with coworkers and
other individuals
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Unit 7 - Human Growth and Development