Chapter 21
Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,
1815 - 1850
The Conservative Order, 1815-1830
The Peace Settlement
Congress of Vienna, September 1814
Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria (17731859)
• Restore legitimate monarchs to preserve
• Monarch share a common interest in stability
• Dominated the Congress of Vienna
Restoration of the Bourbons in France and Spain
Principle of Legitimacy
Balance of political and military power through
Containment of France
Quadruple Alliance
• UK, Austria, Prussia and Russia…France
ultimately joins
• Louis XVIII restored to French throne
Outcome keeps Europe peaceful for almost 100
Eugene Delacroix
Greece Expiring on the
Ruins of Missolonghi
Europe after the Congress of Vienna
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The Ideology of Conservatism
Dominate political philosophy after the fall of
Edmund Burke (1729-1797), Reflections on the
Revolution in France
• Emphasized the dangers of radical change
• Society is a contract that should strive to
preserve tradition
• Common good is more important than
Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821)
• Monarchy divinely sanctioned, guarantees
Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
Four congresses, 1818-1822
• Outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy
• Intervention
The Revolt of Latin America
 Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)
 José de San Martín (1778-1850)
 Monroe Doctrine, 1823
British use their navy to keep the revolutions
Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
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The Greek Revolt (1821-1832)
• European intervention
• Role of Romanticism
• Treaty of Adrianople, 1829
Conservative Domination: The European
Great Britain: Rule of the Tories
• Britain governed by the aristocratic
landowning classes
 Pockets and rotten boroughs
 Large, new industrial cities not
• Whigs starting to get support from the
industrial middle class
• Peterloo Massacre, 1819
 Protest over high bread prices
• Minor reforms
Restoration of France
• Moderation of Louis XVIII, 1814-1824
• Charles X, 1824-1830
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by 1830
Intervention in the Italian States and Spain
• Nine states created in Italy by the Congress of Vienna
• Fredinand VII in Spain, 1814-33
Repression in Central Europe
• 38 sovereign states
• Liberal and national movements in the German states
 King Frederick William III of Prussia(1797-1840)
• Burschenschaften movement, student societies, 1817-1819
Karlsbad Decrees 1819
• Disband the Burschenshaften
• Censorship of the German Press
• Government supervision of most German universities
• Monitored and restricted university activities
• Austrian stagnation
Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars
Alexander I, 1801-1825
• Speransky reforms
Nicholas I, 1825-1855
• Decembrist Revolt, 1825
• Police state created
 Fear of internal and external revolts
Ideologies of Change- Liberalism
Economic liberalism (classical economics)
Reverend Thomas Malthus (1766-1834),
• Essay on the Principles of Population
 Population growth at a geometric rate while food
increases at a slower arithmetic rate
 Population must be kept in check for progress to
be made
David Ricardo (1772-1823),
• Principles of Political Economy
 Iron law of wages
 Increase in population means more workers
which causes wages to fall below subsistence
Emphasis on individual freedom
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, On the Subjection of Women
• Liberty of the individual
 Men and women do not have different natures
• Women’s rights
Embraced by industrial middle class
• Student societies of Germany
Radical encouragement to shift loyalty away from
existing states and rulers
Part of a community with common institutions,
traditions, language, and customs
Allied with liberalism
Profound effect on revolutions of Belgium, Poland
and Italy
Early Socialism
Charles Fourier (1772-1838)
• Utopian socialist
• Model communities, phalansteries
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
• New Lanark, Scotland
• New Harmony, Indiana
Louis Blanc (1813-1882)
• Social problems require government assistance
• National Workshops
 Unemployment compensation through
public works projects
The Distribution of Language in Nineteenth-Century Europe
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Women attracted to socialism
Zoé Gatti de Gamond
Flora Tristan (1803-1844)
• Utopian synthesis of socialism and
Revolution and Reform, 1830-1850
Another French Revolution
Charles X issues July Ordinances, July 26, 1830
• Censorship of the press
• Dissolves the legislative assembly
• Reduced electorate
July Revolution 1830
• Louis-Philippe succeeds Charles X
Louis-Philippe, 1830-1848
• Sided with the Party of Resistance
• Cooperated with Francois Guizot
• Favors the upper bourgeoisie
• Party of Movement
• Party of Resistance
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy
Nationalism fuels the outburst
Belgians revolt, 1830
• Independence recognized
• Considered the most successful nationalist revolution of the era
Austrian troops crush revolt in northern Italian states
Russians put down revolt in Poland, 1831
Reform in Great Britain
Thomas Macaulay
• Reform would prevent radical outbursts
Reform Bill of 1832
• Upper middle-class benefit
Poor Law of 1834
• Making state welfare a position of misery would encourage the poor to find
profitable jobs
Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
Revolutions of 1848
Yet Another French Revolution
• Louis-Philippe fails to initiate reform
 Abdication, February 24, 1848
• Provisional government
 National workshops
 “June days”
• Second Republic, November 4, 1848
 Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
 Napoleon III
Revolution in Central Europe
• Agricultural depression
• Revolt of handicraft workers
• Frederick William IV, 1840-1860
• Frankfurt Assembly 1848
 Failed to create a united Germany
• Austrian Empire 1848
 Metternich flees the country and is
ultimately exiled
 Louis Kossuth, Hungary
 Francis Joseph I, 1848-1916
The Revolutions of 1848-1849
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Revolts in the Italian States
• Divided into states controlled by other European powers
• Risorgimento (Resurgence)
 Failed due to opposition from France, Austria and the Pope Pius IX
• Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
 Young Italy
 Nationalist organization
Failures of 1848
• Divisions among the revolutionaries
 Failure to extend universal suffrage
• Divisions supporting self-government
Growth of the United States
Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), Federalist
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Republican
John Marshall (1755-1835)
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), democracy
• Mass white male democracy
The Emergence of an Ordered Society
Development of New Police Forces
Parisian serjeants 1829
• First professional civilian police
Robert Peel, London “bobbies”
• Politician who introduced
legislation establishing London’s
professional police force
Berlin’s Schutzmannschaft
Poverty as a source of crime
• Institutes
Prison Reform
Create a more disciplined and lawabiding society
Auburn Prison
Walnut Street model
Culture in an Age of Reaction and Revolution: The Mood of Romanticism
The Characteristics of Romanticism
Pantheistic worship of nature
Sentiment, suffering and self-sacrifice
Reverence for history that inspired nationalism
Reaction to the excesses of Industrialization
Reaction against the Enlightenment’s
preoccupation with reason
The Writers
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832),
• The Sorrows of the Young Werther
• The literary model for the early Romantics
Historical consciousness
• Grimm brothers
• Walter Scott
Gothic literature
• Edgar Allen Poe The Fall of The House of
• Mary Shelley Frankenstein
Drug Experimentation
Romantic Poets
Poetry served as the most important
form of expression for Romantic
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
Lord Byron (1788-1824)
William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
• Mechanistic materialism
Romanticism in Art and Music
Landscapes, God and nature
Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851)
• Moods of nature
• “airy visions, painted with tinted
Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863)
• Passion for color
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
• Bridged gap between Classicism and
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
• Program music
Revival of Religion in the Age of Romanticism
François-René de Chateaubriand
• Father of French Romanticism (1768-1848)
• Genius of Christianity, 1802
Protestant evangelicalism and personal
Catholicism grows, especially in Germany
Gothic architecture
Cologne Cathedral

Chapter 21