Unit Three
Speech, Language,
and Literacy Development
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Chapter 5
Perspectives of
Language Development
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Language Development
• Receptive language
– Understanding what is said
• Expressive language
– Words and meanings that are used
verbally
3
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Critical Periods
• There are certain times that are crucial
for developing skills and abilities
4
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Three
Phases of Critical Periods
• Sensory learning
• Sensorimotor output
• Stabilization
5
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Nature/Nurture
• Most experts agree that both nature and
nurture are involved in language
development
• Interactionism is an approach that looks
at interaction of nature and nurture
6
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Perspectives of
Language Development
• Behavioral perspective
• Psycholinguistic
– Syntactic perspective
• Semantic
– Cognitive perspective
• Social
– Pragmatic perspective
7
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Behavioral Perspective
• B.F. Skinner
• Language is a behavior learned through
“operant conditioning”
8
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Operant Conditioning
• Model for changing behavior
• Behavior is reinforced immediately after
it occurs
9
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Behavioral Perspective
• Language is learned by:
– Imitation
– Reinforcement
– Successive approximations to adult target
10
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Child-Directed Speech
•
•
•
•
•
Higher pitch
Smaller words
Short sentences
Slower rate
Clearer articulation
11
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Limitations
to Behavioral Perspective
• Children learn words they are not
explicitly taught
• They combine words in new ways
12
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Psycholinguistic-Syntactic
Perspective
• Noam Chomsky
– Language is innate, universal, and unique
to humans
13
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Psycholinguistic-Syntactic
Perspective
• Emphasis placed on linguistic
universals
– Rules common to all languages
14
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Limitations to PsycholinguisticSyntactic Perspective
• Semantic knowledge needs to be
considered in addition to syntax
• Cognitive development is not
considered by Chomsky
• Parental input is important
15
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Semantic-Cognitive
Perspective
• Emphasizes relationship between
language learning and cognition
• Focuses on the meaning of a child’s
speech
16
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Limitations of
Semantic-Cognitive Perspective
• Does not explain how children acquire
language
• Does not explain the relationship of
cognition and later language
development
17
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Social-Pragmatic Perspective
• Communication is the basic function of
language
18
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Prerequisites for
Social-Pragmatic Perspective
• Infant must have caregiver in close
proximity
• Caregiver provides infant with basic needs
• Infant develops an attachment to caregiver
• Infant/caregiver attend to same objects
• Infant/caregiver take turns verbally and
nonverbally
19
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Limitations of
Social-Pragmatic Perspective
• Does not explain syntactic and semantic
development
20
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Chapter 6
Speech Development
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Stages of
Speech Development
• Stage I
– Birth to12 months
• Stage II
– 12-24 months
22
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Stages of
Speech Development
• Stage III
– 2-5 years
• Stage IV
– 5 years to adolescence
23
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Stage I
• Foundations of speech, language, and
cognitive development are built in the
first 6 months
24
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Perceptual Skills of Infants
• Discrimination of speech from
nonspeech sounds
• Preference to listen to mother’s voice
• Perception of all consonants and vowels
in the world’s languages
25
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Prelinguistic Productions
• Productions are influenced by the shape
of the vocal tract in infancy
• Birth
– Crying
• 2-4 months
– Back vowels and consonants
26
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Perceptual Skills: 6-8 months
• Perceptual skills now restricted to
sounds in the language in their
environment
• Respond to intonation
• Respond to some words appropriately
– Their name
27
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Prelinguistic
Development: 6-8 Months
• Produce more consonants and vowels
in syllables
28
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Perceptual Skills: 8-12 Months
• Primarily perceive sounds of their native
language
• Follow simple instructions
29
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Speech
Development: 8-12 Months
• Imitate sounds
• Babble to initiate social interaction
• 90 percent of sounds produced are /p,
b, t, d, k, g, m, n, w, j, h, s/
30
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First Words
• Emerge around 12 months
• Simple syllable structure
– CV, VC
• Phonemes used:
– Stops, nasals, glides
31
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Criteria for a “True Word”
• Clear intention/purpose
• Close to adult pronunciation
• Used in various contexts
(Locke, 1993)
32
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Speech Development: 18 months
• Fifty words produced
• Closed syllables emerge
– CVC
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33
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Speech
Development: 18-24 months
• Two word sentences
• More word-final consonants are produced
• 25 to 50 percent intelligible
34
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Multicultural Considerations
• Simultaneous acquisition
– Learning two languages at same time
• Sequential acquisition
– Learn one language before age three
– Second language after three years of age
35
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Stage III: Early Childhood
• Two-year olds:
– 75 percent intelligible
– 2 to 3 word utterances
36
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Stage III: Early Childhood
• Three-year olds:
– Vowel development complete
– Many consonants are established
– 90 percent intelligible
– 3 to 4 word utterances
37
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Stage III: Early Childhood
• Four-year olds:
– 95 percent intelligible
• Five-year olds:
– Most sounds are developed by age five
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38
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Stage IV:
Five Years to Adolescence
• Express feelings
• Show empathy
• Most children 95 to100 percent
intelligible
• Enjoy telling stories, jokes
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39
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Chapter 7
Cognitive-Linguistic
Development
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Elements for
Normal Communication
• Biological structure and function within
normal limits
• Sufficient cognitive processes
• Sufficient social interaction
41
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Stage I:
Cognitive Development
• Five senses are the sources of stimuli
that develop cognition
• Primary sensory systems in the stage
are vision, hearing, taste, smell
42
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Stage I:
Cognitive Development
• Object permanence
• Infants begin to understand that objects
continue to exist even when they are
not in sight
43
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Stage I:
Language Development
• Use facial expressions and body
language for turn-taking
• Gestures emerge
44
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Stage II:
Cognitive Development
• Children learn that actions have results
• Use objects appropriately
• Learn the effects of certain objects
45
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Stage II:
Language Development
• Toddlers can understand more than
they can express
• Common forms of early words:
– Nouns, proper nouns, action words
46
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Stage II:
Language Development
• Two word utterances used
• Grammatical morphemes are produced
– Brown’s 14 grammatical morphemes
in Table 7-1
47
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Mean Length of Utterance
• Average number of morphemes in a
child’s utterance
48
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Multicultural Considerations
• Code-switching
– Developmental stage where bilingual
children may mix up pronunciation,
vocabulary, and/or grammar
49
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Multicultural Considerations
• Cognitive and linguistic advantages for
children raised simultaneously bilingual
50
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Stage III: Cognitive Development
• “Private speech”
– Ability of children to talk to themselves
– Important threshold in cognitive
development
51
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Cognitive
Development: Three Years
• Developing concepts of time,
sequences, spatial concepts, quantity
52
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Language
Development: Three Years
• 1000 word vocabulary by end of third
year
• Parallel talking provides children with
language and concepts
• Function words (the, a) omitted in
sentences
53
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Language
Development: Four Years
• Average sentences are four words long
• Can provide biographical information
• Use different tone of voice and inflection
to adults and children
54
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Language
Development: Four Years
• Decontextualized language emerges:
– Language that relates to times, events,
places that are not immediately present
– Essential skill for academic success
• Conversational skills emerge
55
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Language
Development: Five Years
• Refine and use more adult grammatical
structures
• Asking questions with appropriate
grammar
56
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Language
Development: Middle childhood
• Continued development of more complex
and elaborate forms of language
• Language is a tool for learning
57
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Cognitive
Development: Adolescence
• Divided attention
– Cognitive task using two or more input
modalities to process different information
• Develops study skills
• Further develops higher level thinking
58
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Language
Development: Adolescence
• Form
– Length of utterance increases
• Content
– Vocabulary of 80,000 words
– Figurative language
• Use
– Adapt language to situation and person
59
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Adulthood
• Cognitive and linguistic abilities
continue to develop in adulthood
60
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Chapter 8
Literacy Development
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Literacy
• Literacy development is within scope of
practice for SLPs
• Reading and writing are languagebased activities
62
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Emergent Literacy
• Skills that develop during preschool
years
• Prerequisites for later developing
reading and writing skills
63
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Literacy Socialization
• Literacy artifacts
• Literacy event
• Knowledge derived from literacy
experiences
Van Kleeck & Schuele, 1987
64
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Joint Book Reading
• Parents choose books with rhyming and
redundant words
• Parents will name objects in books
• Children will learn names of letter,
sounds they make
65
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Alphabetic Principle
• Words consist of discrete sounds that
are represented by letter in print
• This is the foundation of reading
66
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Phonological Awareness
• Recognizing and understanding soundletter associations
• Knowing that sounds can be combined
to form words
• Knowing that words can be segmented
into individual sounds
67
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Phonological Awareness
• Single best predictor of reading success
is phonological awareness
68
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Reading and Writing
• Formal instruction in reading and writing
typically begins in first grade
69
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Reading and Writing
• In third grade the emphasis changes
from “learning to read” to “reading to
learn”
70
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