Disability Perspectives:
Models, Language,
and Identity
Katherine Deibel
University of Washington
Opening comments
• This is not a replacement for a
disability studies/ training course
• There will always be exceptions
• I have biases
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
2
Why “handicap” is a bad word
Handicapping in Horse-Racing
Weights are added to the
saddles to compensate for
differences among the jockeys
Literal Definitions:
• Handicap = Restriction on performance
• Disabilty = Absence of an ability
Lack of an ability ≠ Restricted performance
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
3
Definitions
• Disability:
a human condition that differs from the
norm with regard to a particular human
ability
• Handicap:
occurs when a disability interferes with the
ability to perform a task
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
4
So what is accessibility?
Brian J. Rosmaita
Department of Computer Science
Hamilton College
Clinton, NY
“Accessibility is the practice of
arranging things within some context
so that a disability is not a handicap.”
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
5
Interactions
Language Choice
Model of Disability
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
6
What is a model?
• In the STEM fields, a model:
• Represents a real-world system
• Is abstract or mathematical
• Is predictive
• In Critical Theory, a model:
• Is a specific viewpoint or philosophy
• Incorporates social, political, and
economic factors
• Attempts to explain behaviour and
phenomena
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
7
Moral Model of Disability
• Disability:
• is a punishment for wickedness / sin
• is a burden to the individual and others
• Associated with:
•
•
•
•
Institutionalization
Self-loathing
Guilt
Blame
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
8
Medical Model of Disability
• Disability:
• Is a flaw in the individual
• Requires medical treatment / fixing
• Limits a person’s livelihood
• Associated with:
• Medical innovation
• Legal definitions
• Fixation on normality / Ableism
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
9
Rehabilitation Model of Disabilty
• Disability:
• Is a deficiency that needs addressing
• Implies a person is in need of help
• Requires renormalization into society
• Associated with:
• WWII Veterans
• Vocational Rehabilitation
• Offshoot of the medical model
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
10
Social Model of Disability
• Disability:
• Is a part of life
• Has both positive and negative aspects
• Is problematic only in relation to certain
social and environmental factors
• Associated with:
• Recognizing discrimination
• Disability Rights Movement
• Inclusion / Universal Design
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
11
So which model is best?
• Bad question:
• These models are viewpoints, not predictors
• No evaluation function
• My opinion:
• Moral model is bad
• Social model and Medical model are both useful:
• Medical diagnoses and procedures are informative
• However, treatment should be optional
• Changes to external factors might be more effective
than medical treatment
• Disability is part of diversity
• Disability can be positive and negative
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
12
Interactions Redux
Language Choice
Model of Disability
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
13
Models and Language
Model
Language
Moral
cleansed, purified, burden,
punishment
Medical
cure, treat, correct, suffers,
confined, defect
reskilled, rehabilitated,
Rehabilitation
trained, in need
Social
accommodation, integrate,
inclusive, context
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
14
Unhandicapping the Language
• Goal:
Choosing words that maintain the
integrity of individuals as human beings
• Approaches:
• APA Style Guidelines
• People-First Language
• Not about political correctness
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
15
Rule 1: Focus on the Person
• Put the person first:
- a person with dyslexia
- individuals who are blind
- a dyslexic person
- blind individuals
• Do not turn an adjective into a noun:
- the blind
- dyslexics
- the deaf****
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
16
Realities of Rule 1
• “Individuals with _____” is unwieldy:
• takes up a lot of space
• breaks up the writing flow
• Kate’s Rule of Thumb:
“Individuals with dyslexia”
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
“dyslexic individuals”
17
Rule 2: Avoid “weighted” words
• Avoid slurs:
• Cripple
• Retard / Imbecile
• Spaz / “Joey”
• Schitzo / Psycho
• Avoid euphemisms:
• Special
• Challenged
• Exceptional
• Visually-challenged
• Avoid words with value judgments:
• Confined
• Struggle
• Defect
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
• Challenged
• Overcome
• Heroic
18
Rule 2 applies to pictures too
• They Shall Walk –
A foundation to help disabled persons
walk again
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
19
Realities of Rule 2
• Context is always a factor:
• Retardation, spastic are medical terms
• Deficit is a common term in education
• Your model of disability is another:
“Unfortunately, there is no treatment
or intervention strategy that cures
autism…. the attention deficit in
children with autism results in an
incorrect output, which we wish to
correct using a controller.”
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
20
However… there are special cases
• Deaf or deaf
• deaf = limited or absent sense of hearing
• Deaf = describes a culture
• In culture discussions, saying “the Deaf” is
as okay as saying “the Amish”
• Autism Rights:
• Beginnings of claims of “Autist culture”
• Argues for replacing “normal” with
“neurotypical”
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
21
Practicality: Call for Study Participants
• Scout out or talk with people in the
population first
• When in doubt, ask for how they describe
their disability
• Two example calls of mine:
“Do you have a learning disability or difficulty with
reading?”
“Do you have a physical, mobility, psychiatric, or
mental disability OR are you Deaf or hard of
hearing?”
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
22
Why do language and models matter?
• One word:
Identity
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
23
Many Facets of Identity
• Internal Identity
• Known by the person
• Visible Identity
• Intentionally revealed by the person
• Social Identity
• Imposed by the social-environmental
context
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
24
Disability is a part of identity
• Disability is an aspect of daily life
• Its presence is both positive and
negative
• Its importance is shaped by context
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
25
Implications of Disability Identity
• Aversions to “cures”
• Deaf culture and cochlear implants
• The Autism Rights movement
• Hahn & Belt Paper
• Social implications of being “out”
• Learning disabilities and stigma
• Invisible disabilities and the hesitancy to
seek out help
• “Acquisition of a child by a learning
disability”
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
26
Conclusions
• It’s complicated
• What is “It”?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disability
People
Language
Identity
Puppies
Etc.
CSE 590 W - Computers and Disabilities
27
Descargar

Disability Perspectives: Models, Language, and Identity