Janet Medina, Psy.D.
Associate Professor of Education
McDaniel College
410-884-7088  [email protected]
Please do not use any material without permission
of the author
Jeoung Park is newly arrived from Seoul, Korea. You look at your class
roster and see that he has enrolled in your class. He appears to be a very
polite student, comes every day, sits near the front of the class, and
appears attentive. He does not volunteer responses in class, and once
when you called on him to ask a specific question, he smiled and said,
“Yes.” This was not the response you were expecting, or wanted, so you
quickly moved on to the next student. His homework assignments are neat
and accurate. Your teaching style is what is called, “Chalk & Talk,” and you
have been teaching that way for 30 years. You give copious amounts of
homework because you believe that practice makes perfect. And students
sit in neatly organized rows, one right after another.
After you give the first quiz, you see that Jeoung obtained a score
of 3 out of 10 possible points. His responses suggest that he may know
something about what is going on in class. You ask him to stay after class,
and as you talk to him about the quiz he nods. You ask him if he
understands, and he says, “Yes.” You start getting frustrated because he
isn’t saying anything, just listening and nodding, and without realizing it
your voice volume and inflection starts to change. Jeoung continues to nod
and even smiles.
What can you tell about this student?
 Students come to our classes and other educational
venues with an array of characteristics and needs. Take
a look at the behaviors of this student and see what
conclusions you can come to without knowing any
more than this. What kind of questions would you
want to ask? What useful information could you
possibly glean from this material?
Legal Issues
 Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
 No otherwise qualified individual shall, solely by
reason of ….disability, be excluded from participation
in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
discrimination in …. programs; a disability is a
mental or physical condition that substantially limits
a major life activity, including functional limitations
 Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973
 Postsecondary institutions that accept federal
funding are obligated to provide reasonable
accommodations to students with disabilities who
self-disclose
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Additional Legislation
 Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (AT Act—P.L.105-394)
 The Tech Act focuses on consumer access
 Asserts that technology is a valuable tool that can be
used to improve the lives of Americans with
disabilities; also acknowledges the federal role of
promoting access to assistive technology devices and
services for individuals with disabilities.
 Support states in: sustaining and strengthening their
capacity to address the assistive technology needs of
individuals with disabilities; investment in
technology across federal agencies and departments
that could benefit individuals with disabilities;
micro-loan programs to individuals wishing to
purchase assistive technology devices or services.
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Additional Legislation
 English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement,
and Academic Achievement Act (formerly Bilingual
Education Act, Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act) [Title III of NCLB, PL 107-110]
 To assist state educational agencies (SEAs) and local
educational agencies (LEAs) to build their capacity to
provide high-quality instructional programs designed to
prepare limited English proficient children, including
immigrant children and youth, to enter all-English
instruction settings.
 State Legislation
 MD Senate Bill 467 (House Bill 59) – Explore the
Incorporation of the Principles of Universal Design for
Learning into the Education Systems in Maryland
[http://mlis.state.md.us/2010rs/bills/hb/hb0059t.pdf]
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
PreK-12 Legislation – Indirect Impact on
Postsecondary Education
 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) – 2001
 Four Pillars of NCLB:
 Stronger Accountability
for Results
 More Freedom for States and
Communities
 Proven Education Methods
 More Choices for Parents
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004
(IDEA 2004)
 Summary of Performance (SOP)

To include information on the student's
academic achievement and functional
performance and include recommendations
on how to assist the student in meeting
his/her postsecondary goals
 Change in LD diagnosis: severe discrepancy optional
 Response to Intervention (RTI)
 Highly Qualified Teachers
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
IDE(I)A 2004 (aligned with NCLB)
 Diagnosis of LD - A State must adopt, consistent with 34 CFR 300.309, criteria for
determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in 34 CFR
300.8(c)(10). In addition, the criteria adopted by the State:




Must not require the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement for
determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, as defined in 34 CFR 300.8(c)(10);
Must permit the use of a process based on the child’s response to scientific, research-based
intervention; and
May permit the use of other alternative research-based procedures for determining whether a
child has a specific learning disability, as defined in 34 CFR 300.8(c)(10).
A public agency must use the State criteria adopted pursuant to 34 CFR 300.307(a) in determining
whether a child has a specific learning disability.
[34 CFR 300.307] [20 U.S.C. 1221e-3; 1401(30); 1414(b)(6)]
 Highly Qualified Teachers (HQT)
 Response to Intervention (RTI)
 Summary of Performance -For a child whose eligibility under Part B terminates under
circumstances described above, the LEA shall provide the child with a summary of the
child’s academic achievement and functional performance, which shall include
recommendations on how to assist the child in meeting the child’s postsecondary goals.
[34 CFR 300.305(e)(3)] [20 U.S.C. 1414(c)(5)(B)(ii)]
 Mandates the participation of all students, including students with disabilities, ELLs, and
ELLs with disabilities in standard based instruction and assessment initiatives
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Summary of Performance and Transition
http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/PDF/DEPS/Special/ED635.pdf
http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/adults/docs/SOP_Template.doc
 The Summary of Performance (SOP) is required under the
reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities
Education (Improvement) Act of 2004. The language as
stated in IDEA 2004 regarding the SOP is as follows:
 For a child whose eligibility under special education
terminates due to graduation with a regular diploma, or
due to exceeding the age of eligibility, the local
education agency “shall provide the child with a
summary of the child’s academic achievement and
functional performance, which shall include
recommendations on how to assist the child in meeting
the child’s postsecondary goals” §Sec. 300.305(e)(3).
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Essential Components of RTI
CEC Blog: http://cecblog.typepad.com/rti/2009/01/levels-ofinterventions.html
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Response to Intervention – Three-Tiered Model
 Tier 1: General Education – Research-based core
curriculum
 Tier 2: Early Intervening Services - Increasing the time
and intensity of the child's exposure to the core
curriculum for children who do not appear to be
responding appropriately to Tier 1 instruction.
 Tier 3: Intensive Intervention - Includes many children
who have been found eligible for special education
and related services, and some who have not.
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Percent of Students Receiving Special Education Services by
Race/Ethnicity and Disability Category – Ages 6-21 (http://www.IDEAdata.org, 2004)
Category
American
Indian/Alaskan
Native
Asian/Pacific
Islander
Black (Not
Hispanic)
Hispanic
White (Not
Hispanic)
Learning
Disability
1.74
1.67
20.13
19.74
56.72
Speech or
Language
Impairments
1.31
2.95
15.89
16.12
63.74
Mental
Retardation
1.21
1.98
33.46
12.35
51
Emotional
Disturbances
1.52
1.17
28.42
10.46
58.44
Estimated
Resident
Population
.98
4.1
15
17.6
62.2
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Percent of Students Receiving Special Education Services by
Race/Ethnicity and Disability Category – Ages 6-21 (http://www.IDEAdata.org,
2007)
Category
American
Indian/Alaskan
Native
Asian/Pacific
Islander
Black (Not
Hispanic)
Hispanic
White (Not
Hispanic)
Learning
Disability
1.75
1.74
20.67
22.17
53.67
Speech or
Language
Impairments
1.37
3.27
15.21
19.44
60.71
Mental
Retardation
1.32
2.21
31.92
15.05
49.50
Emotional
Disturbances
1.60
1.17
28.84
11.80
56.59
Estimated
Resident
Population
.95
4.25
14.98
19.39
60.43
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Number and percentage of children ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part
B, by educational environment, race/ethnicity and state: Fall 2010
[https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc12.asp#partbLRE]
Hispanic
or Latino
American
Indian or
Alaska
Native
Asian
Black or
African
American
21.77
1.51
2.11
19.12
0.35
53.11
2.02
> 80%
21.43
1.54
1.98
16.87
0.24
55.86
2.09
40-79%
21.28
1.86
1.80
20.27
0.53
52.29
1.98
<40%
26.12
1.16
3.09
25.43
0.46
41.76
1.98
Total
Native
White Two or
Hawaiian
More
or Other
Races
Pacific
Islander
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Number and percentage of children and students ages 6 through
21 served under IDEA, Part B, and as a percentage of the
population, in the U.S. and outlying areas, by gender and state:
Fall 2010 [https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc12.asp#partbLRE]
Gender
Male
Female
Total
66.90
33.10
Total
3,895,455
1,927,353
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Number and percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part
B, and as a percentage of the population, in the U.S. and outlying areas, by LEP
status and state: Fall 2010 [https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc12.asp#partbCC]
Number of
students with disabilities
served under IDEA, Part B
Percent of students
served under IDEA, Part B
Limited
English
Proficient
Limited
English
Proficient
484,088
English
Proficient
5,337,880
English
Proficient
8.31
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
91.69
Who potentially will attend college?
 The percentage of students with disabilities graduating
from high school with a diploma has risen steadily in recent
years from 51.7% in 1994 to 55.4% in 1998 (NCSPES, 2002).
 Data indicates that many students with disabilities are not
being appropriately identified and served during childhood
and adolescent years (National Council on Disabilities,
2003).
 The number of English Language Learners (ELLs) with
disabilities is estimated at about 357,325 nationwide
(Zehler, Fleischman, Hopstock, Pendzick, & Stephenson,
2003) or 9% of the total population of students with
disabilities (Thurlow, M. L., Anderson, M.E., Minnema,
J.E., & Hall-Lande, J. , 2005) .
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Postsecondary Students with Disabilities
 One in eleven (154,520 or 9%) first-time, full-time freshmen entering





college in 1998 self-reported a disability ranging from hearing, speech,
orthopedic, learning, health-related, partially sighted or blind, or other
conditions (Henderson, 1999).
Among postsecondary students with disabilities, 47% (29%
undergraduate/18% graduate) self-identified as LD in 1998 (Henderson,
1999).
The number of postsecondary students with disabilities has risen from
2.2% in 1978 to 10.5% in 1998 to 17% in 2000 (Gajar, 1998; NCESPES,
2002).
According to the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (2003),
postsecondary enrollment of adolescents and young adults with
disabilities increased 17% between 1987 and 2003; more than the
enrollment of non-disabled peers.
In a recent study, 31% of the participants with Specific Learning
Disabilities (SLD) indicated that their disability was first identified at the
postsecondary level (NCSPES, 2002).
When declaring a primary disability, 44% of the participants with an
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) indicated that their
disability was first identified at the postsecondary level (National Council
on Disabilities, 2003).
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Postsecondary Students with Disabilities –
More recent data
 According to a recent study, approximately 2% to 8% of the
college population reports clinically significant levels of
ADHD symptomatology, and at least 25% of college
students with disabilities are diagnosed with ADHD
(DuPaul, G., Weyandt, L., O’Dell, S., Varejao, M, (2009). College students with ADHD: Current status and future
directions. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13(3), 234-250.)
 According to the 2010 HERI data on Freshmen, 11.9%
reported that they had some sort of disability/condition,
and another 2.7% reported that they had two or more
disabilities conditions, for a total of 14.6% (HERI research brief, Retrieved
from http://www.heri.ucla.edu/PDFs/pubs/briefs/HERI_ResearchBrief_Disabilities_2011_April_25v2.pdf).
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Incoming Students Reporting a Disability/Medical
Condition, by Sex (percentages)
Disability/Medical
Condition
Men
Women
All Students
AD/HD
6.8
3.8
5.0
Psychological
2.6
4.9
3.8
Learning Disability
3.1
2.7
2.9
Physical Disability
2.7
2.7
2.7
Chronic Illness
1.3
2.1
1.8
Other
2.8
3.6
3.3
One reported
11.9
11.9
11.9
Two or more reported
2.5
2.9
2.7
http://www.heri.ucla.edu/PDFs/pubs/briefs/HERI_ResearchBrief_Disabilities_2011_April_25v2.pdf
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
American Multicultural Transitions
 19th century Americanization model (merging all
students into one “American” ideal)
 Melting Pot (1900s) – cultural assimilation or
amalgamation
 Salad Bowl
 Ethnic Stew
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Worldview (based on Ibrahim, 1991)
In its application, two things are necessary:
 The worldviews of both the teacher and the student
must be recognized and understood (including an
awareness of the cultural identities of both parties),
and
 the worldviews “must be placed within a sociopolitical
context, history of migration, acculturation level,
languages spoken, and comfort with mainstream
assumptions and values”
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Scale to Assess World View (SAWV)
(Ibrahim & Kahn, 1994)
 Nature
 “people vs. nature” orientation, including whether we believe people
subjugate and control nature, live in harmony with nature, or accept the
power and control of nature over people
 Time Orientation
 temporal focus, including whether we value and function according to the
past, present, or future
 Activity Orientation
 preferred modality of human activity, including being, being-in-becoming,
and doing
 Human Relationships
 “relational orientation” or how we function in social relationships,
including linear-hierarchical, collateral-mutual, and individualistic
 Human Nature
 view of “humankind,” including good, bad, or immutable (a combination of
good and bad). A person who believes that all human beings have the
potential for good is at the opposite end of the continuum compared to
someone who believes that most people are born with the propensity to do
bad things
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Worldview Model*
 Sue (1981) offers the concept of a Worldview model in order to understand how
one thinks and behaves in making decisions and interpreting events. This is a
useful model to consider when working with families.
 Two psychological orientations:
locus of control (C) and
 focus of responsibility (R); and
 Two directions of force:
 internal (I) and
 external (E).

 IC-IR: These individuals believe that success is the result of one's own
efforts, and they have a strong sense of control over what happens.
 EC-ER: These individuals feel they have no control over what is happening
and feel that such obstacles are not their responsibility either.
 IC-ER: These individuals realize they are able to affect their children's lives
if given a chance, though they realize that outside barriers like prejudice
might hinder their ability to succeed.
 EC-IR: These individuals accept the dominant culture's definition of self
responsibility, yet do not have any control over what is happening around
them.
Alphabet Soup
 ESL
 ESOL
 *ELL
 CLD
 CLDE
 LEP
 PHLOTE
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Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Thumbs-Up, A-OK sign, and Arms
 While in the United States, the thumbs-up is just a friendly sign
for ''All right!'' or ''Good going!'' in Bangladesh, Australia and
other parts of the world, particularly in Islamic countries, that
jaunty gesture is the exact equivalent of an upraised middle
finger.
 The ''A-O.K.'' sign, with the thumb and index finger joined in a
circle, has insulting and scatological connotations in many Latin
American countries
 In Japan, the thumb and forefinger making a circle is used as
symbol for money
 Arms Akimbo – arms out, bent at the elbows, hands on the hips,
thumbs behind – this move signals that you are standing your
ground, expressing authority, or have issues to settle. You can
change even the impression of how tall you are by giving this
display. In Indonesia, people will consider the individual with
his/her arms on the hips and elbows bent outwards, as
demonstrating arrogance. Indonesians label it as a cocky stance.
In maintaining relationships, Indonesians prefer a low profile
person to arrogant persons.
Nonverbal
Facial
Expressions
 Smiles:
Facial expression. 1. A true smile of happiness, gladness, or joy. 2. An
expression in which the corners of the mouth curve upward, and the
outer corners of the eyes crinkle into crow's-feet.
 Smiling: For Americans, a smile is used with frequency to communicate
friendliness and goodwill. Northern Europeans, as a group, smile with
much less frequency, reserving the expression to show felt happiness.
While this may cause Europeans to appear grim or unfriendly to
Americans, Americans often appear childish or flippant to Europeans.
Other cultures, in contrast, smile with greater frequency than
Americans, using the expression to smooth over awkward or
embarrassing situations, which may appear inappropriate to
Americans. "In Korean culture, smiling signals shallowness and
thoughtlessness. The Korean attitude toward smiling is expressed in
the proverb, 'the man who smiles a lot is not a real man'" (Dresser,
1996).
http://www.diversitycouncil.org/toolkit/Resources_TipSheet_NonverbalCrossCulturalCommunication.pdf
Disability in Cross-Cultural Perspective
(Groce, 1999)
 Cultures view disability in three ways:
 By its cause
 By its effect on valued attributes
 By the status of the individual with a disability as an
adult
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Cultural Perspectives
 Collectivism (Asian, African American, Native American, Latino/a) vs.
Individualism (European American)
 In Northern Mexico & Botswana disability is evidence of God's trust in a




parent's ability to care for a child
African American parents may hold broader perceptions of normalcy and have
a broader range of expectations for children's behavioral developmental
milestones than do many educational professionals; may also depend heavily
on spiritual support
Among Hispanics/Latinos, families often serve as a powerful support system
and some conditions are viewed as reflection of individual differences rather
than disability; therefore, they adapt family and work roles to accommodate
those differences. However, severe disability, especially developmental
disability, is considered a stigma for many traditional Hispanic families; some
groups may use folk healing with professional interventions
Asian families sometimes struggle with “loss of face,” feelings of guilt, privacy,
desire to use traditional practitioners along with or in lieu of professionals
Native American families may use belief in the interrelatedness of spirit and
body and seek spiritual help in conjunction with mainstream practices
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Medical Model vs. Cultural Model (Kalynapur & Harry, 1999)
 Medical Model:
 Disability is a physical phenomenon.
 Disability is an individual phenomenon.
 Disability is a chronic illness.
 Disability requires remediation or fixing.
 Cultural Model:
 Disability is a spiritual phenomenon.
 Disability is a group phenomenon (e.g., the
family and society are causal agents).
 Disability is a time-limited phenomenon.
 Disability must be accepted, which affects
whether the family seeks intervention.
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Cultural Reciprocity (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999)
 Step 1: Identify the cultural values in your interpretation of
a student's difficulties or in the recommendation for
service.
 Step 2: Find out whether the family members being served
recognize and value your assumptions, and if not, how
their views differ from yours.
 Step 3: Acknowledge and give explicit respect to any
cultural differences identified, and fully explain the
cultural basis of your assumptions.
 Step 4: Through discussion and collaboration, set about
determining the most effective way of adapting
your professional interpretations or
recommendations to the value system
of this family.
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Understanding Your Cultural Identity
Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm (2009) present twelve cultural characteristics as a basis for self- assessment by examining
their own values and morays as follows:
 Time: Perceptions of both time and timeliness.
 Space: Measure of personal space when interacting with others.
 Dress and Food: Examining whether there are different dress codes for different ages, genders, and
socioeconomic background; acceptable clothing; and characteristic foods.
 Rituals and Ceremonies: General rituals and ceremonies observed by the individual and his or her family;
measures of demonstrating respect.
 Work: Values of employment, including age at which an individual should begin to work and type of work
expected in the home and in the community, and comfort with collaboration.
 Leisure: Opportunities for and ways of playing, relaxing, and enjoyment in the home and the community.
 Gender Roles: An examination of specific tasks performed by males and females and expectations of each
gender’s achievements, with attention given to specific subject areas.
 Status: Examining family influences on one’s place in society, and evaluating the role that schools and
educators play in an individual’s life as opposed to the influence of family on educational choices.
 Goals: Identifying influential and attractive employment goals, the role of education in achieving those goals,
and the educational expectations for the individual.
 Education: Examining how the individual was taught at home, including exploring styles such as stories,
analogies, direct instruction, nonverbal cues, imitation and modeling, corporal punishment, etc.
 Communication: Exploring the significance of verbal and nonverbal communication for learning and
teaching; examining the function of silence, specific questions, rhetorical questions, and mode of discussion;
identifying the language(s) of communication; and exploring the value of and intensity of reading and writing.
 Interaction: Exploring how and whether the individual interacts individually, cooperatively, and
competitively.
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
What do you see?
Please do not use any material without permission of the author
Research by Dr. Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
 One hundred percent of adults guessed this woman's
emotion correctly [fear], but only 50% of teenagers got it
right. Moreover, the teens and adults used different areas
of the brain to process what they were feeling. Teens rely
much more on the amygdala, a small almond-shaped
region in the medial and temporal lobes that processes
memory and emotions, while adults rely more on the
frontal cortex, which governs reason and forethought.
Please do not use any material without
permission of the author
Amazing?
Aoccdrnig to rsaeerch at Cmabrigde
Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht
oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the
olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist
and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae.
The rset can be a ttoal mses and you
can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.
Tihs is bceuase the huamn mnid deos
not raed ervey ltteer by istlef, but the
wrod as a wlohe.
The Kliss Bibble
Many glims ago, about banktom, a small, kliss bibble slibbed
on the frem. He was a very pipim bibble who loved to
peckle on the frem, and often glemped on the hack. One
dimp, the kliss bibble slibbed too far and stecked on the
glep. What a rankum and blickim there was. Every bibble
from pleps around mooped. Now the kliss bibble, who is
also pipim, is very droom and never ever slibs – at least
not when any other bibble can howb.
1. When did the bibble slib on the frem? How many glims
ago?
2. What three words describe the bibble?
3. What did he love to do?
4. What did he often do?
5. What happened when there was a rankum and blickim?
Why can you answer these reading
comprehension questions?
 Because the format follows the same grammar and
syntax structure as English.
 Because the arrangement is the same as English – we
read left to right, top to bottom, and we know that
there are spaces between words
Get The Lead Out So You Can Lead…..
The farmer has to produce apples for her produce stand.
Harry will not object to sharing the object of his affection.
Jenny is loath to desert her dessert in the desert.
Pam may refuse to remove the refuse.
I want to shower you with affection after the morning shower.
The sewer, the sower, and the sewer poured the soup down
the sewer.
Who’s having a row about whose turn it is to row?
There are three birds in their hands when they’re happy.
It is too bad that two of your dogs are begging to go out.
Read the following passage:
 Hint: These are all real words in English, but not used
in the order in which you see most of them.
Udder Nun Cents
One find even a fodder spelt sum flower honest
shews. Hiss shoos whir two beg sew hiss tows
dingled doubt. Den e dried too toes stum bred,
butter bred gut whet. Den e dried to beet sum x,
butter x whir rutting.
“Dishes udder nun cents!,” he screened. “Look it
dismiss!”
Under more all love dish story his: Beak hind two
feud, an dit ill beak hind too ewe.
What happened?
 If you were successful in figuring this out, you
probably discovered that you needed to run some
of the sounds together – maybe even out loud for
some of you. While obviously this would be more
challenging for someone who did not use auditory
input to learn (whether they were Deaf/Hard-ofHearing or just cognitively did not process
information auditorily), using recorded
information or having access to a program that can
read out loud for someone might enhance
comprehension.
Recognize These Words?
Soft
White
Loosened
Footman
Mother
Of
Maiden
The
Holding
Crank
Firmly
Suddenly
Staple
All
Short
Too
Was
Alas
Leg
The Lost Staple
Holding the leg firmly, the maiden
suddenly slipped from the Motherof-All, fell across the footman and
loosened the crank. Alas, the soft,
white cria’s staple was too short.
Saxony Style Spinning Wheel
Read the Colors of the Boxes From Left to Right
As Quickly As You Can:
No material may be used without permission of
author
Now Read the Color of the Letters, not
the Word, As Quickly As You Can:
Green
Red
Yellow
Turquoise
Maroon
Blue
Purple
Cerulean
Khaki
Brown
No material may be used without permission of
author
Magenta
Sepia
Was that easy or hard?
 It was probably a little harder. Your brain had to go
through multiple steps to get there. Your
inclination would probably be to read the word first
– not the color, as was requested.
No material may be used without permission of
author
Visual-spatial tasks
The next series of slides are visual-spatial tasks. In the
assessment process, particularly in psychoeducational
evaluations, diagnosticians often try to evaluate a student’s
skills in viewing and reproducing what they see through a
variety of tasks – in other words, how does the student
“see” the world, how do they “fit” in space, how do they
manipulate the world, etc.? Examples of these skills are as
follows: looking for details, seeing part-to-whole or wholeto-part relationships, determining how much “cueing” a
student might need to see something they might not see
right away, and so on.
No material may be used without permission of
author
Grazing eyes?
Stepping out of the Shadows
What do you see?
Can you trust this person?
Time-Space Puzzle
Earth or Mother?
Black and White
Who’s watching you?
Here is a mirror image for you
Who Do You See?
Which way is she turning? Can you make her go the other
way?
This is like a necker cube – your brain can turn the dancer clockwise or counterclockwise.
What do you see?
[Hint: If this is “moving,” then stare at one leaf to make it “stop.”
Hide and Seek
Where is the man’s face?
Universal Design For Instruction
[Council for Exceptional Children www.cec.sped.org]
“In terms of learning, universal design means the
design of instructional materials and activities
that makes the learning goals achievable by
individuals with wide differences in their
abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write,
understand English, attend, organize, engage,
and remember. Universal design for learning is
achieved by means of flexible curricular
materials and activities that provide alternatives
for students with differing abilities. These
alternatives are built into the instructional
design and operating systems of educational
materials – they are not added on after-the-fact.”
Universal Design for Learning
(Chambersburg, PA K-12; CAST)
 The central premise of Universal Design for Learning is
that a curriculum should include alternatives to make it
accessible and appropriate for individuals with different
backgrounds, learning styles, abilities, and disabilities in
widely varied learning contexts. The "universal" in
universal design does not imply one optimal solution for
everyone. Rather it reflects an awareness of the unique
nature of each learner and the need to accommodate
differences, creating learning experiences that suit the
learner and maximize his or her ability to progress.
Three Essential Processes for Learning:
Linked to Neurological Networks
[adapted from Vygotsky, 1962]
 Recognition of the information to be learned –
Recognition Network
 Application of strategies to process the information
– Strategic Network
 Engagement with the learning process – Affective
Network
Learning is a Complex Neurological Process
[http://fame.oln.org/udl/f2_18_173.html]
•Students with Learning Disabilities, for example, activate
larger and more diverse areas of the brain when they read.
• Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
(ADHD) may be using different pathways to process
information.
•Students with blindness or visual impairments utilize the
visual cortex when they kinesthetically "read" Braille.
“ At the neuronal level, a person who learns to
read in Chinese uses a very particular set of
neuronal connections that differ in significant
ways from the pathways used in reading
English. When Chinese readers first try to
read in English, their brains attempt to use
Chinese-based neuronal pathways. The act of
learning to read Chinese characters has
literally shaped the Chinese reading brain
(Wolf, 2007, p. 5).”
Taken from Proust and The Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain
Please do not use any material without permission
of the author
Universal Design
[adapted from the Center For Universal Design at North
Carolina State University]
“The design of products and environments to be usable
by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without
the need for adaptation or specialized design.”
 Representation
 Engagement
 Expression
Universal Design for Learning calls for ...
[www.cast.org]
 Multiple means of representation, to give learners
various ways of acquiring information and
knowledge,
 Multiple means of expression, to provide learners
alternatives for demonstrating what they know,
 Multiple means of engagement, to tap into
learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges,
and increase motivation.
Who Benefits?
 Students who speak English as a second (or third
or fourth) language
 International students
 Older students
 Students with disabilities
 A faculty member whose teaching style is
inconsistent with a student’s preferred learning
style
 All students
Key Concepts
[adapted from Orkwis 2003 & King-Sears 2001]
 Flexibility is crucial
 Analyze curriculum
 Include and support every
student
 Enhance poorly designed
curricular areas
 Be prepared and organized
 Consider creative means of
access
Applying Universal Design to Instruction:
Principles Of Universal Design
[www.cped.uconn.edu ]
 Principle 1 : Equitable use – Instruction is designed to be
useful to and accessible by people with diverse abilities.
Provide the same means of use for all students; identical
whenever possible, equivalent when not.
 Principle 2 : Flexibility in use – Instruction is designed to
accommodate a wide range of individual abilities. Provide
choice in methods of use.
 Principle 3 : Simple and intuitive – Instruction is designed in
a straightforward and predictable manner, regardless of the
student's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current
concentration level. Eliminate unnecessary complexity.
•Principle 4 : Perceptible information – Instruction is
designed so that necessary information is communicated
effectively to the student, regardless of ambient conditions or
the student's sensory abilities.
•Principle 5 : Tolerance for error – Instruction anticipates
variation in individual student learning pace and prerequisite
skills.
•Principle 6 : Low physical effort – Instruction is designed to
minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow
maximum attention to learning.
Note: This principle does not apply when physical effort is
integral to essential requirements of a course.
 Principle 7 : Size and space for approach and use –
Instruction is designed with consideration for appropriate
size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use
regardless of a student's body size, posture, mobility, and
communication needs.
 Principle 8 : A community of learners – The instructional
environment promotes interaction and communication
among students and between students and faculty.
 Principle 9 : Instructional climate – Instruction is
designed to be welcoming and inclusive. High expectations
are espoused for all students.
Implementation Suggestions

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
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

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
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[Ohio State University]
Put course content on-line
Peer mentoring, group discussions, cooperative learning
Update course materials
Provide comprehensive syllabi
Vary instructional methods, provide examples, handouts,
auditory & visual aids (encourage learning self-awareness)
Clarify feedback or instructions, elicit questions, repeat or give
more examples
Make information relevant
Allow students to tape record lectures and/or get copies of
another student’s notes
Allow a student to demonstrate knowledge of the subject through
alternate means
Use of assistive technology [high tech and low tech]
Develop study guides
Give more frequent and shorter exams
Universal Design in Teaching and Instruction
Recommendations
[adapted from Ghselli, N., n.d., http://www.ldresources.org/?p=1268]
 Leave “Chalk and Talk” behind
 All students’ attention wanes & level of learning decreases
 Appeals primarily to auditory learners
 2/3 of students prefer visual & kinesthetic
 Multimodal teaching recommended
 Auditory



Books on tape/CD/electronically
Songs, music, rhymes
Verbal descriptions of graphic material
 Visual

Mind maps

Powerpoint with visual cues

Films, television, video clips

Interactive WhiteBoards [eg., SmartBoards]
 Kinesthetic

Drawing & doodling

Focus Manipulatlives


Playdoh, stress balls, sandpaper, knitting, coloring
Learning Manipulatives

Algetiles, Cuisenaire rods, and other math manipulatives and activities
Recommendations for Lectures
[adapted from
the University of Guelph]
Instructional materials and activities should:
 Be accessible and fair
 Be straightforward and consistent
 Provide flexibility in use, participation, and
presentation
 Be explicitly presented and readily perceived
 Provide a supportive learning environment
 Minimize unnecessary physical effort or requirements
 Ensure a learning space that accommodates both
students and instructional methods.
Recent Resources
 Thinkfinity [http://www.thinkfinity.org/]
 ThinkPort [http://www.thinkport.org/default.tp]
 Maryland Learning Links
[http://marylandlearninglinks.org/]
 UDL in Maryland [http://udl4maryland.webs.com/]
[http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/Route_
for_Every_%20Learner_Report_NSG_%2032511.pdf ]
What is Assistive Technology?
As defined by IDEA (PL 101-476) the term Assistive
Technology means any item, piece of equipment, or
product system, whether acquired commercially or off
the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to
increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities
of individuals with disabilities.
Daisy Consortium: http://www.daisy.org/
Types of Assistive Technology
 Low Tech
 Pencil grippers
 Colored acetate overlays
 Calculators (large print, talking, standard, graphing)
 Graph paper
 Tape recorders
 Recorded books (Learning Ally)
 Abacus
Additional Assistive Technology
 High Tech
 OCR scanner [Kurzweil 3000/1000]
 Graphic Organizer software [Inspiration]
 Voice-Activated Software [DragonNaturally Speaking]
 Voice-Synthesized Software [textHELP!/Browse Aloud]
 Braille Printer and Braille Translating Software
[Duxbury with Paragon]
 Portable Braille Devices [Pac Mate]
 LiveScribe
Examples of Assistive Technology - Reading
and/or Writing and/or Math
 Students with reading or writing difficulties
 voice activated software
 voice synthesized software
 OCR
 Word Prediction software
 Taped or electronic books
 Notetakers (NCR paper)
 Calculators (including talking calculators)
 Franklin Spell Checkers
 Captioned films
Examples of Assistive Technology - Blind or
Visually Impaired
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Voice activated software
Voice synthesized software (Jaws, WindowEyes)
Vibrating Mouse
CCTV
Braille ‘n Speak/ Pac Mate
Slate and Stylus
Perkins Brailler
Taped lecture/ taped or electronic books
Guide dog
Screen magnification (Dolphin, Zoomtext, Magic)
Examples of Assistive Technology - Hard-ofHearing or Deaf
 Assistive Listening Device
 neck loops
 hearing aids
 Phonic Ear
 C-Print or CART
 Captioned films
 Therapy dog (or other animal)
 Interpreter (oral, ASL, Signed English, cued)
 Visual devices - pagers, videophones, TTY,
alarms, etc.
Examples of Assistive Technology –
Communication Disorders
 Augmentative Communication
 Speech-to-Speech Communication
 Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) for
Autism, Speech Disorders
 Sign Language (ASL, Signed English, cued speech, oral
sign, etc.)
 Communication Boards
Examples of Assistive Technology - Mobility

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
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Word Prediction software
Intellikeys
Notetaker
Taped or electronic books and/or class
Voice-activated software
Augmentative Communication
Writing aids (pens, pen holders, etc.)
Rolling Ball mouse
Therapy animal
Cultural Characteristics and Collaboration with
Families (Orza, J. & Medina,. J. 2011)
 Dealing with feelings of alienation
 Value extended family
 Facilitate positive parent-school relationships
 Maintain high expectations
No material may be used without permission of
author
What Would You Say Now?
Jeoung Park is newly arrived from Seoul, Korea. You look at your class roster
and see that he has enrolled in your class. He appears to be a very polite
student, comes every day, sits near the front of the class, and appears
attentive. He does not volunteer responses in class, and once when you
called on him to ask a specific question, he smiled and said, “Yes.” This was
not the response you were expecting, or wanted, so you quickly moved on to
the next student. His homework assignments are neat and accurate. Your
teaching style is what is called, “Chalk & Talk,” and you have been teaching
that way for 30 years. You give copious amounts of homework because you
believe that practice makes perfect. And students sit in neatly organized
rows, one right after another.
After you give the first quiz, you see that Jeoung obtained a score of 3 out of 10
possible points. His responses suggest that he may know something about
what is going on in class. You ask him to stay after class, and as you talk to
him about the quiz he nods. You ask him if he understands, and he says,
“Yes.” You start getting frustrated because he isn’t saying anything, just
listening and nodding, and without realizing it your voice volume and
inflection starts to change. Jeoung continues to nod and even smiles.
In A Nutshell
[adapted from Bowe, F.]
 Become aware of your own culture’s teachings and
how those affect you as an educator.
 Provide students options for demonstrating
knowledge and skills.
 Encourage use of technology – assistive and other
 Make sure class materials and locations are
accessible for everyone.
Summary and Conclusions
 Best practices for Universal Design for Learning:
http://accessproject.colostate.edu/udl/video/index.cfm
References
Bowe, F.G. (2000). Universal design in education. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Center for Applied Special Technology: www.cast.org
Center for Universal Design: www.design.ncsu.edu/cud
Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability, University of Connecticut.
www.cped.uconn.edu
Council for Exceptional Children: www.cec.sped.org
Englert, C., Raphael, T., & Mariage, T. (1994). Developing a school-based
discourse for literacy learning: A principled search for understanding.
Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 17, 2-32.
The Faculty Room, Do-It. www.washington.edu/doit/faculty
Fletcher, T.V., Bos, C. S., & Johnson, L. M. (1999). Accommodating English
language learners with language and learning disabilities in bilingual
education classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 14(2), 8091.
Fuchs, L. (1996). Models of classroom instruction: Implications for students with
learning disabilities. In: D. Speece & B. Keogh (Eds.). Research on Classroom
Ecologies: Implications for Inclusion of Children with Learning Disabilities.
Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
References continued
Gersten, R. & Baker, S. (2000). What we know about effective instructional
practices for English-Language Learners. Exceptional Children, 66(4), 454-470.
Kauffman, J. M. (1996) The challenge of nihilism. Teacher and Special Education,
19(3), 205-206
Klingner, J. K. & Vaughn, S. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading
comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use
English as a second language. The Elementary School Journal, 96(3), 275-293.
King-Sears, M.E. (2001). Three steps for gaining access to the general education
curriculum for learners with disabilities. Intervention and School Clinic, 37(2),
67-76. Retrieved on July 4, 2004 from
www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/general_info/three_steps.html.
Lopez-Reyna, N. (1996). The importance of meaningful contexts in bilingual
special education: Moving to whole language. Learning Disabilities Research
and Practice, 11, 120-131.
Ohio State University Partnership Grant Universal Design: www.acs.ohiostate.edu/grants/dpg/fastfact/undesign.html.
Orkwis, R. (2003). Universally designed instruction. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E641.
Retrieved July 4, 2004 from ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted
Education from http://ericec.org.
References continued
Reyes, E. I., Duran, G. Z., & Bos, C.S. (1989). Language as a resource for mediating
comprehension. In S. McCormick, J. Zutell, P Scharer, & P. Okeefe (Eds.) Cognitive and social
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National Reading Conference). Chicago: The National Reading Conference, Inc.
Santamaría,L.J., Fletcher, T. V., & Bos, C. S. (2002). Effective pedagogy for English language
learners in inclusive classrooms. In A Artiles & A. A. Ortiz (Eds). English language learners
with special education needs: Identification, assessment, and instruction. McHenry, IL: Delta
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Stanovich, K. E. (1994). Constructivism in reading education. The Journal of Special Education,
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Tikunoff, W. J., Ward, B. A., van Broekhuizen, L. D., Romero, M., Castaneda, L. V., Lucas, T., &
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TRACE Universal Design/Disability Access Program. http://trace.wisc.edu/world/udda/
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Vaughn, S., Schumm, J.S., Jallad, B., Slusher, J., & Saumell, L. (1996). Teachers’ views of Inclusion.
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in high task engagement for exceptional limited English proficient students. Austin, TX: The
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thing? Theory Into Practice, Winter 1996, 26-34).
Inspiration
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Universal Design for Learning and Instruction