The End of the Neolithic Era
During the end of the Neolithic Era, humans had
learned how to farm, domesticate animals, build
city-states, and develop cultures. But something
was about to push them even further than the
Neolithic Revolution; the dawn of civilization. The
first civilization, the Sumerians were in
Mesopotamia, or the Middle East. This place was
called the fertile crescent because its fertility. Its
richness was due to the water from the Tigress and
Euphrates river. Also the soil there was naturally
well made for agriculture. This helped them
advance. Some of the effects the Sumerians made
were: their effect on writing, laws, math,
transportation, and trade.
Table of Contents
Effect in
Effect in
Effect in Laws
Effect in
Effect in
Sumerian’s effect on Writing
The first official writing was created by the Sumerians. The
writing was called cuneiform and resembled symbols
much similar to the hieroglyphics from the Egyptians.
Cuneiform actually means wedge-shaped and was
written on tablets of clay tablets. “Pencils” were made
from blunt reeds currently called a stylus. People who
used this language wrote from right to left like Hebrew.
Sumerian tablets could be fired up in kilns to make
permanent. This writing was shared by the differed
languages: Akkadian, Elamite, Hittite, Assyrian, and the
Luwian. This language was used in Mesopotamia;
Babylonia, Sumerians, and Jordans for about
3,000 years!
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Sumerian's effect in mathematics
One of the things that helped shape the
modern world was the effect Sumerians
had in mathematics. They first used
math to keep records on goods and
trading on clay tablets. Gradually, a
system took root, and they created sixty
different symbols and then made the
first “metric system”. Ten cones equaled
one small circle; six small circles equaled
one big cone, ten big cones equaled was
a big cone with a circle inside it, six of
those was a large circle and ten large
circles was given by a large circle with a
small circle inside. They also began to
make fractions up to one-sixtieth.
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Sumerian’s effect in
transportation and
The Sumerian were at the base
of the Mesopotamian
mountains which had lots of
ice. When the ice melted,
water came flooding down.
During the rest of the year,
the base was a arid desert.
Early Sumerians decided they
need a way to control the
water. A solution was they
would build dams to catch the
falling water. Then they would
build irrigation canals to
transfer the water back to the
crops. If the crops overflooded, the other canals
would bring it back to the
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Since the Sumerians were surrounded by
two waters and some of the villages were
far apart, sometimes it was hard to contact
and trade among each other. So, Sumerian
architects devised a plan. They used wood
planks and tied them together with flexible
wood. After that, they built some shelter
on the raft and presto! They could travel
down the river to interact with each other.
Another way people got around was on
land. They would sit on horses, mules, or
donkeys and ride them. Saddles, were
usually built with four outward pertaining
hangers. Sumerians would place there
belongings and bring them with them.
Sumerian’s effect in homes
Sumerian’s homes were much similar to that of the humans
during the Neolithic Revolution. The Sumerians built
their houses out of mud and clay. They reinforced their
houses out of wood poles. After that, they would build
opening in the top to prevent animals from getting into
their homes. Inside the homes, the basement was
usually as a shrine to the gods and goddesses and a
burial for the dead. There would also be basins to store
food and also to keep important articles. For horticulture
and agriculture, they would build wood or hardened mud
posts or walls for agriculture. With these walls, the
animals couldn’t escape. All the houses were connected
enabling more people to live in these “condos”.
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Sumerian’s effect in laws
Though Sumerians didn’t have
nearly the advancement of laws
of the Babylonians, the
Sumerians had the law
fundamentals. Similar to that of
the presidents and vice
presidents of today, the
Sumerians had a king and lower
representatives. They would
make decisions and lead
sacrifices. Another thing kings
would do is construct temples in
honor of them or solve
problems. Also, they would live
in spacious temples and would
keep power through priests.
They were the first to wear
jewelry such as crown.
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Sumerian Armies Structure
Some kings wanted to dominate
other lands for wealth, power,
and popularity. In order to do
that, Sumerians had to form
an army. However, the
Sumerians form a merciless
and aggressive army. Each
soldier was protected with
bronze Sumerian helmets and
armor and were armed with
Bronze spears and solid
shields. One of their
strongest and most powerful
invention was the offensive
chariots which were pulled by
horses and rode them into
battle. The riders probably
were armed with spears and
shields like the rest of the
warriors in the army. They
invaded and conquered most
of current day Iran and the
northern part of the Middle
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California practice hall book: Ancient

Sumerians - Poway Unified School District