Readings for November 2,4 One reading made optional! Topic: Alternatives to top-down reform School-based reform options in Chicago, Milwaukee, and Sao Paulo Today Thursday, October 28 Lecture Write 3 • 1. E-RESERVES, MICHIE, G. “Another Path Is Possible” pages 27-32. Rethinking Schools, 24, 1 Autumn 2009 • 2. E-RESERVES PETERSON, B. “Big City Superintendents: Dictatorship or Democracy? Lessons from Paulo Freire” 7 pages Rethinking Schools, 24, 1 Autumn 2009 • *****OPTIONAL 3. E-RESERVES DARDER, A. “John Dewey and Paulo Freire: Comrades or Foes?” in Insights • 4. TOZER, SENESE, VIOLAS Chapter 13 Primary Source Reading “The Essential Supports for School Improvement” pages 440-442. McGraw-Hill Foundations of Education Reader, Tozer, Senese, Violas (2009) For 5 points extra credit on Exam 2, be able to summarize in one paragraph the key ideas behind the centrist neo-conservative view and the school policies that emerged during the 1980s and 1990s.(Berliner and Biddle, 137-138, Lecture Notes). What were the problems with schools? Why were these solutions supported? A Nation at Risk inspired Federal support by all administrations since President Reagan for: • Higher standards • Holding schools accountable • Proof based on test scores • Competition among schools • http://learningmatters.tv/blog/on-the-newshour/race-to-the-top-making-history-an-introduction/3410 / Race to the Top From the Blueprint Full bill yet to pass Secretary Arne Duncan Plans to “soften sanctions” • Provide rewards • Raise bar—everyone ready for college • Link merit pay for teachers to test scores • Give teachers more autonomy • Drastic measures for bottom 1% of schools Race to the Top • Rigorous and fair accountability for all levels. All students will be included in an accountability system that builds on college- and career-ready standards, rewards progress and success, and requires rigorous interventions in the lowest-performing schools. • We will celebrate the Reward states, districts, and schools that do the most to improve outcomes for their students and to close achievement gaps, as well as those who are on the path to have all students graduating or on track to graduate ready for college and a career by 2020. • All schools will be aiming to do their part to help us reach that ambitious goal, and for most schools, leaders at the state, district, and school level will enjoy broad flexibility to determine how to get there. • http://vimeo.com/7905225 Arne Duncan Incentives 2:28 seconds No Child Left Behind States must set standards. States must test all students in reading and math grades 3-8 and once in high school. For the first time FEDERAL RULES MANDATES SPECIFIC PROGRESS GOALS Within Content Areas: Reading and Math Scores-School & District must Meet Adequate Yearly Progress Combines 3 Elements 1. Student Performance— Meet a set pass rate and All SUBGROUPS must pass 2. Student Participation in testing. 95% 3. School Progress over time to 100% pass rate of all students in grades 3-8 by 2014 100% Pass Rate by 2014 PROGRESS TO 100% IN ILLINOIS TO PASS AYP All subgroups must meet the standard pass rate. • Grades 3-8, and once in High School Subgroups SIZE DIFFERS state-to state: Three years ago Illinois increased subgroups from 40 to 45, groups are: Race/Ethnicity Economic Background English Proficiency Disability (now 3% Alternative Tests) DIVERSITY PENALTY AYP is determined by making it over all 18 hurdles (9 hurdles for reading and 9 for math) by disaggregation of data. Reading Composite American Indian Asian Black White Hispanic Students with Low Disabilities Income LEP Composite American Indian Asian Black White Hispanic Students with Low Disabilities Income LEP Math Diversity Penalty (Darling Hammond, 12) Diversity Penalty—the more subgroups, the more ways to fail. New York set subgroups at 30 students in the school to be a valid subgroup, Illinois set subgroups at 45. MANY URBAN SCHOOLS ARE CHALLENGED BY GREATER DIVERSITY IN THEIR STUDENT POPULATION FEDERAL REGULATIONS CONTAIN STRICT SANCTIONS When schools fail to meet AYP this timeline begins…. When scores are computed, and schools’ (subgroups) are below standard, then the School Improvement Timeline takes effect Miss AYP Miss AYP Miss AYP School Improvement Yr 1(CHOICE) Miss AYP School Improvement Yr 2 (TUTOR) (supplemental educational services) Miss AYP Corrective Action Miss AYP Restructure (planning year) Restructure (implement plan) RESULTS OF STATE TESTS Composite (Group) scores on state tests don’t tell the whole story either (Darling-Hammond, 19) 2003 • • • • • Laura James Felipe Kisha Raul 100 90 80 70 20 2004 90 80 70 65 transfers out “The Collision of New Standards and Old Inequalities” Professor Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford University School of Education • Some of the unintended consequences – Teach to the test – Limited English Proficiency (LEP) groups will never reach 100% (proficient students move out of the group) – Students with disabilities are not on grade level but have IEP that reflect “instructional” level – Teachers leave “needs improvement” and “failing” schools – The more diverse a school, the more likely to have a subgroup fail to meet the standard “diversity penalty” – Loss of funds to struggling schools $$$ – CHOICE Transfer programs need non-failing schools with open slots – States will consider lowering standards – Pressures on students will increase the dropout rate No Child Left Behind Testing for Students with Disabilities • 2001 No Child Left Behind requires testing of all students with disabilities as a targeted group for Adequate Yearly Progress. • Alternative Tests--Began with allowing 1% of students identified as having a disability to take alternative tests, later increased to 3% alternative tests (Spring,185) . • The remaining students with disabilities must take grade level tests. • Follows Inclusion Philosophy- Full access to curriculum and higher teacher expectations, students will receive more attention because their tests results count for AYP. No Child Left Behind Testing for LEP Students • 2001 No Child Left Behind requires testing of all students with Limited English Proficiency as a targeted group for Adequate Yearly Progress. • Permitted tests in their native language in math and reading for the first three years they attend school in the United States (Spring,185) . • Problems for some states in the availability of tests in Spanish and other languages, plus the costs of LEP tests. Based on history and current results, a test based system assures a high failure rate. 40% of the nations’ schools have been labeled as failing AYP over the past five years Will high-stakes testing encourage lower standards? How can assessments be used to improve achievement according to Darling-Hammond? • Value Added Assessments – Give achievement tests on read and math levels at the beginning of the year. – Test at the end of the year. – Assess advancement in grade levels. • Diagnostic tests that match to curriculum to target interventions for students. – Assess specific skills – Re-teach skills as needed. Darling-Hammond recommends that we evaluate schools based on school organization, resources, and improving teachers’ skills. And support schools that need to improve: • Qualified teachers • Strong curriculum • Opportunities to learn Race to the Top Qualified Teachers • Teachers are the single most important resource to a child’s learning. President Obama will ensure that teachers are supported as professionals in the classroom, while also holding them more accountable. • He will invest in innovative strategies to help teachers to improve student outcomes, and use rewards and incentives to keep talented teachers in the schools that need them the most. President Obama will invest in a national effort to prepare and reward outstanding teachers, while recruiting the best and brightest to the field of teaching. • And he will challenge State and school districts to remove ineffective teachers from the classroom. Race to the Top Includes changing reward structures for teachers. Pay for Performance of Teachers has many different options: 1.Assess Teachers’ instructional skills 2. Test Results (Could include: bringing % of students to grade level, or % students with value added improvements during the year based on where students scored at the beginning of the year). • Bonus systems-extra pay for test results Recently Chicago Teachers’ Union agreed to a bonus system, see Chicago Tribune Article by Keilman, John. "School districts retooling how they evaluate teachers." Chicago Tribune . (2009 Nov. 9): 1 of 3. OR • Salary increases and job termination based on test scores • http://learningmatters.tv/blog/on-the-newshour/race-to-the-top-teacher-unions-friend-or-foe-pt-3/4329/ However, A CALL FOR HIGHER ACCOUNTABILITYSHOULD MEAN “two way” accountability Professor Darling Hammond, Stanford University • In exchange for being held accountable states should provide: – for upgrading facilities – new textbooks – higher teachers’ salaries – more resources – creating more opportunities to learn – incentives to attract more qualified teachers Study of Outcomes of NCLB 2007 http://www.pbs.org/merrow/tv/newshour/teachers_take_on_nclb.html# (Bailey Elementary, Virginia) “Teachers Say NCLB Has Changed Classroom Practice” Education Week, June 15, 2007. Since 2002: Students scores on state tests have improved. Greater focus on testing taking. More multiple choice tests. Lower teacher morale. Teachers complain that state tests don’t align with standards. In the 1990s, most states respond to the Federal Government call for HIGHER STANDARDS. By 1997, Illinois set 2 goals and articulated state standards of learning in all subjects. 1) Higher Student Achievement--all students to meet the Illinois Learning Standards by performance on TESTS Outcome: States developed tests to correspond with standards--Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT), Prairie State Test (11 GRADE, now includes ACT) 2) Higher graduation rates Are you concerned by the amount of high stakes testing in our schools?