CHAPTER-6
MANAGING HARDWARE &
SOFTWARE ASSETS
HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF A
COMPUTER SYSTEM
1. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
2. PRIMARY STORAGE
3. INPUT DEVICES
4. OUTPUT DEVICES
5. SECONDARY STORAGE
6.
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES
DATA REPRESENTATION IN THE
COMPUTER SYSTEM
BIT – THE “ON-OFF” STATES OF
TRANSISTORS ARE USED TO ESTABLISH A
BINARY 1 OR 0 FOR STORING ONE BINARY
DIGIT
BYTE – A SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF BITS,
USUALLY EIGHT, TO REPRESENT SPECIFIC
CHARACTERS (LETTERS, NUMBERS AND
SPECIAL SYMBOLS)
DATA REPRESENTATION IN THE
COMPUTER SYSTEM
TWO COMMON CODING SCHEMES:

EXTENDED BINARY CODED DECIMAL
INTERCHANGE CODE (EBCDIC)

AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR
INFORMATION INTERCHANGE (ASCII)
PRIMARY STORAGE OR
MAIN MEMORY
STORES DATA AND PROGRAMS FOR THE
CPU TEMPORARILY
BASIC PURPOSES OF PRIMARY STORAGE
ARE:
 TO STORE DATA THAT HAVE BEEN INPUT
UNTIL THEY ARE TRANSFERRED TO THE
CPU FOR PROCESSING
BASIC PURPOSES OF PRIMARY STORAGE
ARE:
 TO STORE DATA AND RESULTS DURING
INTERMEDIATE STAGES OF PROCESSING
 TO HOLD DATA AFTER PROCESSING UNTIL
THEY ARE TRANSFERRED TO AN OUTPUT
DEVICE
 TO HOLD PROGRAM STATEMENTS OR
INSTRUCTIONS RECEIVED FROM INPUT
DEVICES AND FROM SECONDARY STORAGE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY USED IN
PRIMARY STORAGE
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM):
 STORES DATA AND PROGRAMS TEMPORARILY
 VERY FAST IN STORING AND RETRIEVING ANY
TYPE OF DATA
 RELATIVELY EXPENSIVE
 VOLATILE I.E. ALL DATA AND PROGRAMS
STORED IN RAM ARE LOST WHEN THE POWER
IS TURNED OFF
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY USED IN
PRIMARY STORAGE
READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) :
 CANNOT BE CHANGED OR ERASED
 STORES IMPORTANT OR FREQUENTLY USED
PROGRAMS PERMANENTLY
 NONVOLATILE I.E. PROGRAM INSTRUCTIONS ARE
CONTINUALLY RETAINED WITHIN ROM, WHETHER
POWER IS SUPPLIED TO THE COMPUTER OR NOT
 LESS EXPENSIVE THAN RAM
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY USED IN
PRIMARY STORAGE
PROGRAMMABLE READ-ONLY MEMORY (PROM)
 SUBCLASS OF ROM
 CAN BE CHANGED ONE TIME ONLY. THE CHANGE
CAN BE DONE BY THE CUSTOMER TO FULFILL
THEIR SPECIAL NEEDS
ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ-ONLY
MEMORY (EPROM):
 SUBCLASS OF ROM
 CAN BE ERASED AND REPROGRAMMED
THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
(CPU)
ARITHMETIC-LOGIC UNIT:
PERFORMS THE FOUR BASIC ARITHMETIC
OPERATIONS AS WELL AS THE COMPARISON
BETWEEN TWO PIECES OF DATA.
THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
(CPU)
CONTROL UNIT:
 REGULATES THE COMPUTER OPERATIONS
MUCH AS A “TRAFFIC COP” WOULD
 IT CONTROLS THE INPUT AND OUTPUT
DEVICES AND DATA-TRANSFER PROCESSES
FROM AND TO MEMORY
THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
(CPU)
CONTROL UNIT:
 IT DOES NOT CREATE OR CHANGE DATA; IT
ONLY DIRECTS THE DATA FLOW WITHIN THE
CPU
 THE CONTROL UNIT CAN EXECUTE ONLY ONE
INSTRUCTION AT A TIME, BUT IT CAN EXECUTE
INSTRUCTIONS SO QUICKLY THAT IT CAN
APPEAR TO DO MANY DIFFERENT THINGS
SIMULTANEOUSLY
SECONDARY STORAGE
 CAN STORE LARGE QUANTITIES OF DATA
AND PROGRAMS FOR LONG PERIODS
 NONVOLATILE
 LESS EXPENSIVE THAN PRIMARY STORAGE
 SLOWER THAN PRIMARY STORAGE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
1. MAGNETIC DISK OR HARD DISK

THIN STEEL PLATTERS WHICH ARE DIVIDED
INTO ADDRESSABLE CONCENTRIC RINGS—
KNOWN AS TRACKS—WITH EACH TRACK
DIVIDED INTO ADDRESSABLE SECTORS

MAGNETIC READ-WRITE HEADS ATTACHED TO
ARMS MOVE OVER THE RAPIDLY SPINNING
PLATTERS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
1. MAGNETIC DISK OR HARD DISK

TO LOCATE AN ADDRESS FOR STORING OR
RETRIEVING DATA, THE HEAD MOVES TO THE
CORRECT TRACK , THEN WAITS FOR THE
RIGHT SECTOR TO FLY BY UNDERNEATH

DATA CAN BE ACCESSED DIRECTLY AND WITH
HIGH SPEED

MORE EXPENSIVE THAN TAPES
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
1. MAGNETIC DISK OR HARD DISK
 HEAD CRASHES CAN OCCUR DUE TO
ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCES
 REDUNDANT ARRAY OF INEXPENSIVE DISKS
(RAID) ARE A LARGE NUMBER OF SMALL DISK
DRIVES. BECAUSE DATA IS STORED ACROSS
MANY DRIVES, THE OVERALL IMPACT ON THE
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IS LESSENED WHEN ONE
DRIVE MALFUNCTIONS. ALSO MULTIPLE DRIVES
PROVIDE MULTIPLE DATA PATHS AND THEREFORE
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
2. MAGNETIC DISKETTE OR FLOPPY DISK

USED IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS

SLOWER THAN HARD DISKS BUT LESS
EXPENSIVE THAN HARD DISKS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
3. OPTICAL DISKS
 HIGH STORAGE DENSITY
 LESS SUSCEPTIBLE TO CONTAMINATION OR
DETERIORATION
 ARE AVAILABLE FOR BOTH PC AND LARGE
COMPUTERS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
3. OPTICAL DISKS
 HIGH CAPACITY AND LOW COST
 UNLIKE MAGNETIC DISK THE DATA CANNOT BE
EASILY ERASED AND WRITTEN OVER
 ACCESS TIME IS SLOWER COMPARED TO
MAGNETIC DISK
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
3. OPTICAL DISKS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF OPTICAL DISKS:
 COMPACT DISK READ-ONLY MEMORY (CD-ROM)
 WRITE ONCE/READ MANY (WORM)
 DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD)
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
4. MAGNETIC TAPE
 USED IN MAINFRAME BATCH PROCESSING
AND FOR ARCHIVING DATA
 INEXPENSIVE
 CAN STORE LARGE AMOUNT OF DATA
 STORES DATA SEQUENTIALLY
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECONDARY
STORAGE
5. ALTERNATIVE STORAGE
INFRASTRUCTURES
 STORAGE AREA NETWORK
A HIGH SPEED NETWORK THAT CONNECTS
STORAGE DEVICES
 STORAGE SERVICE PROVIDERS
THIRD PARTY PROVIDER THAT RENTS
STORAGE SPACE TO SUBSCRIBER COMPANIES
INPUT DEVICES
 KEYBOARDING
 COMPUTER MOUSE
 TOUCH SCREEN
INPUT DEVICES
 SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
A. MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER
RECOGNITION (MICR)
B. OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION
(OCR)--- BAR CODE
C. PEN-BASED INPUT
D. DIGITAL SCANNERS
E.
SENSORS
F.
VOICE INPUT DEVICES
OUTPUT DEVICES
 CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
 PRINTERS
 PLOTTERS
 VOICE OUTPUT DEVICES
MICROPROCESSOR
COMPUTER ON A CHIP I.E. INTEGRATION OF
COMPUTER’S MEMORY, LOGIC AND CONTROL
ON A SINGLE CHIP
EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR CHIPS
WORD LENGTH—THE NUMBER OF BITS
PROCESSED AT ONE TIME BY A COMPUTER
MICROPROCESSOR
EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR CHIPS
CYCLE SPEED—MEASURED BY MEGAHERTZ
I.E., MILLIONS OF CYCLES PER SECOND. THE
COMPONENT THAT PROVIDES THE TIMING IS
THE CLOCK LOCATED IN THE CONTROL UNIT. IT
PROVIDES ONLY A STEADY BEAT. THE BEAT
FREQUENCY OF THE CLOCK DETERMINES HOW
MANY TIMES PER SECOND THE PROCESSOR
PERFORMS OPERATIONS.
MICROPROCESSOR
EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR CHIPS
DATA BUS WIDTH—DATA BUS IS LIKE A
MULTILANE HIGHWAY THROUGH WHICH DATA
AND INSTRUCTIONS ARE CARRIED TO AND
FROM CPU. DATA BUSES ARE USUALLY
IDENTIFIED BY THE NUMBER OF BITS THEY
CARRY AT ONE TIME.
PARALLEL PROCESSING :
USE OF MULTIPLE EXPENSIVE PROCESSORS
SIMULTANEOUSLY TO EXECUTE A PROGRAM,
WHICH SPEEDS UP THE PROCESSING TIME.
MASSIVELY PARALLEL PROCESSING :
USE OF THOUSANDS OF INEXPENSIVE
PROCESSORS SIMULTANEOUSLY TO EXECUTE A
PROGRAM.
DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENTS OF
COMPUTER PROCESSING
1.
DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING IS A FORM OF
INFORMATION PROCESSING MADE POSSIBLE
THROUGH CONNECTION OF SEVERAL
COMPUTERS VIA A NETWORK
IT IS A TYPE OF DECENTRALIZED PROCESSING
WHERE PROCESSING IS DISTRIBUTED AMONG
SEVERAL PERSONAL COMPUTERS,
MINICOMPUTERS, AND MAINFRAMES LINKED
TOGETHER.
DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENTS OF
COMPUTER PROCESSING
2. CENTRALIZED PROCESSING IS WHEN
ONE CENTRAL COMPUTER, USUALLY A
MAINFRAME, IS USED FOR ALL
PROCESSING
CLIENT/SERVER COMPUTING
 PROCESSING IS DIVIDED BETWEEN A
“CLIENT” AND A “SERVER” MACHINE WHERE
EACH PERFORMS DIFFERENT TASKS
DEPENDING ON ITS CAPABILITIES
 CLIENT IS THE USER POINT-OF-ENTRY.
USERS USE THE CLIENT FOR DATA ENTRY
AND DATA RETRIEVAL
CLIENT/SERVER COMPUTING
 SERVERS FUNCTION IS TO STORE AND PROCESS
THE DATA AND PROVIDE BACK-END SERVICES
SUCH AS MANAGING THE NETWORK ACTIVITIES
 IN SOME CLIENT/SERVER NETWORKS PERSONAL
COMPUTERS HAVE REPLACED LARGER
COMPUTERS. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED
“DOWNSIZING”. DOWNSIZING RESULTS IN
LOWER COSTS FOR THE ORGANIZATION
NETWORK COMPUTERS
 NETWORK COMPUTERS ARE PARED-DOWN
PERSONAL COMPUTERS WITH NO STORAGE AND
PROCESSING CAPABILITIES
 NETWORK COMPUTERS OBTAIN THEIR DATA AND
SOFTWARE FROM A CENTRAL COMPUTER THROUGH
A NETWORK
 NETWORK COMPUTERS ALLOW ORGANIZATION
HAVE CENTRAL CONTROL OVER THEIR COMPUTING
 ONE DRAWBACK OF NETWORK COMPUTERS IS
THAT IF A NETWORK FAILURE OCCURS NO
COMPUTER WILL WORK.
PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING
 IS ONE TYPE OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
 ONE COMPUTING RESOURCE SHARES
PROCESSING WITH OTHER COMPUTING
RESOURCES
 AS PEERS, THEY SHARE DEICES AND DATA
 PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING BECAME MORE
COMMON WITH PROLIFERATION OF PCs INTO
OFFICES
CRITICAL ISSUES FOR MANAGING
HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY ASSETS
 EXPANSION IN E-BUSINESS AND E-COMMERCE
HAS CREATED A NEED FOR TECHNOLOGIES THAT
CAN STORE LARGE QUANTITIES OF DATA AND
MAKE THEM AVAILABLE ON-LINE
 EMPHASIS ON HARDWARE CAPACITY AND
SCALABILITY TO ENSURE CURRENT AND FUTURE
COMPUTER POWER
 DETERMINING THE TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP
OF TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES
 COMPREHENSION OF TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
FUTURE TRENDS IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
 INFORMATION APPLIANCES
 SOCIAL INTERFACES
COMPUTER SOFTWARE OR
SOFTWARE PROGRAMS ARE
INSTRUCTIONS THAT ENABLE
THE COMPUTER HARDWARE
TO PERFORM ONE OR SEVERAL
ACTIONS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SOFTWARE
APPLICATION SOFTWARE—IS A SET
OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS, WHICH
PROVIDE FUNCTIONALITY TO THE USERS
EX. RETAILER PAYROLL SYSTEM
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SOFTWARE
SYSTEM SOFTWARE— IS USED AS AN
INTERMEDIARY BETWEEN COMPUTER
HARDWARE AND APPLICATION PROGRAMS.
IT MANAGES AND COORDINATES THE
VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COMPUTER
SYSTEM
EX. MANAGING SECONDARY STORAGE
DEVICES
DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
 OPERATING SYSTEM
 TRANSLATORS
 UTILITY PROGRAMS
OPERATING SYSTEM:
SUPERVISES THE OVERALL
OPERATION OF THE COMPUTER
FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM:
 SCHEDULING PROGRAMS FOR
EXECUTION
 ALLOCATING MEMORY TO DIFFERENT
PROGRAMS
 ASSIGNING INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES
FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM:
 MANAGES THE DATA AND PROGRAM FILES
STORED IN SECONDARY STORAGE
 MAINTAINS FILE DIRECTORIES AND
PROVIDES ACCESS TO THE DATA FILES
 MONITORS THE ACTIVITIES OF THE
COMPUTER SYSTEM SUCH AS; WHO IS
USING THE SYSTEM, WHAT PROGRAMS HAVE
BEEN RUN AND UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS
TO ACCESS THE SYSTEM
 INTERACTING WITH THE USERS
CAPABILITIES OF AN OPERATING
SYSTEM
MULTIPROGRAMMING— TWO OR MORE
APPLICATION PROGRAMS ARE PLACED INTO
MAIN MEMORY AT THE SAME TIME. THE FIRST
PROGRAM IS EXECUTED UNTIL AN INTERRUPT
(A REQUEST FOR INPUT OR OUTPUT) OCCURS.
WHILE THE INPUT/OUTPUT REQUEST IS
BEING HANDLED, THE SECOND PROGRAM IS
BEING EXECUTED. THE CYCLE CONTINUES
THIS WAY.
CAPABILITIES OF AN OPERATING
SYSTEM
VIRTUAL STORAGE— AN EFFICIENT WAY OF
EXECUTING PROGRAMS. THE PROGRAMS ARE
DIVIDED INTO SMALL FIXED LENGTH (PAGE) OR
VARIABLE LENGTH (SEGMENT) PORTIONS.
ONLY ONE PORTION OF A PROGRAM IS LOADED
INTO MEMORY AT ANY TIME AND THE OTHER
PORTIONS ARE STORED ON SECONDARY
DEVICES. VIRTUAL STORAGE ENABLES SMALL
COMPUTERS TO EXECUTE PROGRAMS OF ANY
SIZE.
CAPABILITIES OF AN OPERATING
SYSTEM
TIME SHARING— IS AN EXTENSION OF
MULTIPROGRAMMING. TIME SHARING ALLOWS
A NUMBER OF USERS TO OPERATE ON-LINE
WITH THE SAME CPU. AN APPLICATION
PROGRAM OF A USER IS PLACED INTO A
SECTION OF PRIMARY STORAGE. EXECUTION IS
CARRIED ON FOR A GIVEN TIME PERIOD AND
THE NEXT USERS’ PROGRAM IS EXECUTED FOR
THE SAME AMOUNT OF TIME.
CAPABILITIES OF AN OPERATING
SYSTEM
MULTIPROCESSING— REFERS TO TWO OR
MORE PROCESSORS WORKING
SIMULTANEOUSLY IN A COMPUTER SYSTEM.
DIFFERENT PROGRAMS OR DIFFERENT
PORTIONS OF A PROGRAM CAN BE ASSIGNED
TO DIFFERENT PROCESSORS AT THE SAME
TIME.
TRANSLATORS: SPECIAL LANGUAGE
TRANSLATORS SUCH AS COMPILERS TRANSLATE
THE COMPUTER PROGRAMS (I.E., SOURCE
CODE) INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE (I.E., OBJECT
CODE)
INTERPRETERS ARE ALSO USED TO
TRANSLATE PROGRAMS STATEMENT BY
STATEMENT INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE
UTILITY PROGRAMS: ACCOMPLISH COMMON
TASKS SUCH AS SORTING RECORDS, COPYING
FILES
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
(GUI)
USERS INTERACT WITH AN OPERATING
SYSTEM THROUGH THE USER INTERFACE.
GUI USE GRAPHIC ICONS AND THE
COMPUTER MOUSE TO ALLOW THE USERS
ISSUE COMMANDS AND MAKE
SELECTIONS.
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
 FIRST GENERATION LANGUAGES
MACHINE LANGUAGE
 SECOND GENERATION LANGUAGES
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
 THIRD GENERATION LANGUAGES
COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC
 FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES
LOTUS 1-2-3, SQL
POPULAR PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGES
 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE— SIMILAR TO
MACHINE LANGUAGE BUT USES MNEMONICS
FOR NUMERIC CODE
 FORTRAN— USED FOR SCIENTIFIC AND
MATHEMATICAL APPLICATIONS
 COBOL— USED IN BUSINESS APPLICATIONS,
HANDLES ALPHANUMERIC DATA
 BASIC— GENERAL PURPOSE PROGRAMMING,
USED WITH PERSONAL COMPUTERS
POPULAR PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGES
 PASCAL— USED IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
COURSES, NOT EASY TO LEARN, WEAK AT
FILE HANDLING AND INPUT/OUTPUT
PROCESSING
 C AND C++— IS PORTABLE ACROSS
DIFFERENT MACHINES, USED PRIMARILY
WITH PERSONAL COMPUTERS, HAS TIGHT
CONTROL AND EFFICIENT USE OF COMPUTER
RESOURCES
FOURTH-GENERATION LANGUAGES
 QUERY LANGUAGES—ARE USED ON-LINE
FOR RETRIEVING DATA FROM DATABASES.
NATURAL LANGUAGE, WHICH IS CLOSE TO
HUMAN LANGUAGE IS USED IN MANY QUERY
LANGUAGES TO MAKE THEM EASIER.
 REPORT GENERATORS—ENABLES THE
END USER TO PRODUCE A REPORT WITHOUT
DETAILING ALL THE NECESSARY STEPS, SUCH
AS FORMATTING ETC.
FOURTH-GENERATION LANGUAGES
 GRAPHICS LANGUAGES—OBTAIN DATA
FROM DATABASES AND PRESENTS THEM IN
GRAPHIC FORMAT. SOME LANGUAGES CAN
PERFORM ARITHMETIC CALCULATIONS ON
THE DATA.
FOURTH-GENERATION LANGUAGES
 APPLICATION GENERATORS—MAKE IT
POSSIBLE TO SPECIFY AN ENTIRE
APPLICATION, CONSISTING OF SEVERAL
PROGRAMS, WITHOUT MUCH DETAILED
CODING. THE USER SPECIFIES WHAT NEEDS
TO BE DONE AND THE APPLICATION
GENERATOR PROVIDES THE APPROPRIATE
PROGRAM CODE.
FOURTH-GENERATION LANGUAGES
 VERY-HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGES—GENERATE CODES WITH
FEWER INSTRUCTIONS THAN CONVENTIONAL
LANGUAGES. SHORTENS THE PROGRAMMING
TIME. USED AS A PRODUCTIVITY TOOL FOR
PROGRAMMERS
 APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES—
PREWRITTEN SOFTWARE WRITTEN FOR A
SPECIFIC FUNCTION
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS
 WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE—
ALLOWS THE USER TO MANIPULATE TEXT
RATHER THAN NUMBERS. ELIMINATES
RETYPING THE DOCUMENT. SOME FEATURES
ARE: SPELL CHECKS, GRAMMAR CHECKS,
FORMATTING PROGRAM, AND MAILING LIST
PROGRAM.
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS
 SPREADSHEETS—TRANSFORM COMPUTER
SCREEN INTO A GRID OF COLUMNS AND
ROWS. USERS CAN ENTER DATA INTO EACH
GRID LOCATION CALLED CELL AND PERFORM
MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS ON INDIVIDUAL
CELLS. WHEN ONE VALUE CHANGES THE
OTHER RELATED VALUES WILL BE
AUTOMATICALLY RECALCULATED.
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS
 DATA MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE—ARE
USED FOR CREATING AND MANIPULATING
LISTS, CREATING FILES AND DATABASES,
AND COMBINING INFORMATION FOR
REPORTS.
 PRESENTATION GRAPHICS— CREATE
PROFESSIONAL-QUALITY GRAPHICS
PRESENTATIONS THAT CAN INCORPORATE
CHARTS, ANIMATION, PHOTOS, AND SOUND.
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS
 INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PACKAGES—
COMBINE THE FUNCTIONS OF TWO OR MORE
PC SOFTWARE PACKAGES, SUCH AS WORD
PROCESSING AND SPREADSHEETS. THIS
INTEGRATION PROVIDES EASY TRANSFER OF
DATA BETWEEN THE SOFTWARE PACKAGES.
 SOFTWARE SUITES—ARE COLLECTIONS
OF SEVERAL SOFTWARE PACKAGES SOLD AS
A UNIT.
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS
 ELECTRONIC MAIL—USED FOR SENDING
OR RECEIVING MESSAGES FROM DIFFERENT
COMPUTERS. ARE CAPABLE OF SENDING
MESSAGES TO DIFFERENT RECIPIENTS,
FORWARD MESSAGES, ATTACH TEXT
DOCUMENTS OR MULTIMEDIA TO MESSAGES.
 WEB BROWSERS—EASY-TO-USE
SOFTWARE TOOL FOR ACCESSING THE WEB
AND INTERNET.
PC SOFTWARE TOOLS
 GROUPWARE—ENABLES GROUPS OF USERS
WORKING TOGETHER ON PROJECTS TO SEE
EACH OTHER’S SCREENS, SHARE DATA, AND
EXCHANGE IDEAS IN AN INTERACTIVE MODE.
THESE CAPABILITIES INCREASE THE
PRODUCTIVITY OF WORK GROUPS.
SOFTWARE USED FOR ENTERPRISE
INTEGRATION
ENTERPRISE SOFTWARE: SET OF MODULES
USED TO INTEGRATE DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS
IN THE ORGANIZATIONS.
MIDDLEWARE: SOFTWARE THAT MAKES A
CONNECTION OR BRIDGE BETWEEN TWO
DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS
ENTERPRISE APPLICATION INTEGRATION
SOFTWARE: SOFTWARE THAT CONNECTS
SEVERAL APPLICATIONS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE
ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION
NEW APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE
DEVELOPMENT
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
COMBINES DATA AND PROCEDURES INTO ONE
OBJECT, WHICH CAN ACT AS AN INDEPENDENT
SOFTWARE BUILDING BLOCK. OBJECTS CAN BE
REUSED IN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS WITHOUT
CHANGING THE CODE
NEW APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE
DEVELOPMENT
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
JAVA IS AN OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGE THAT OPERATES ON INTERNET. IT
CAN PERFORM THE SPECIFIC TASK THROUGH A
SMALL APPLET THAT IS DOWNLOADED FROM A
NETWORK. JAVA CAN RUN ON ANY COMPUTER
AND OPERATING SYSTEM.
NEW APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE
DEVELOPMENT
HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML)
PAGE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE FOR CREATING
WEB PAGES
EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE (XML)
IS A LANGUAGE FOR CREATING STRUCTURED
DOCUMENTS IN WHICH DATA CAN BE
MANIPULATED
IMPORTANT ISSUES IN THE
MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL
SOFTWARE NEEDS
 RENT OR BUILD DECISIONS—
COMPARE THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF
DEVELOPING IN HOUSE WITH RENTING
SOFTWARE FROM AN APPLICATION
SOFTWARE PROVIDER.
IMPORTANT ISSUES IN THE
MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL
SOFTWARE NEEDS
 SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE—
ACCOUNTS FOR 50% OF INFORMATION
SYSTEM COSTS AND HIGHER IN RECENT
YEARS DUE TO Y2K PROBLEMS
IMPORTANT ISSUES IN THE
MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL
SOFTWARE NEEDS
 SOFTWARE SELECTION CRITERIA—
SEVERAL CRITERIA SHOULD BE
FOLLOWED: APPROPRIATENESS,
EFFICIENCY, COMPATIBILITY, AND SUPPORT
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