BUSINESS PLUG-IN
B3
Hardware and
Software
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Describe the six major categories of
hardware and provide an example of
each
2. Identify the different computer categories
and explain their potential business uses
3. Explain the difference between primary
and secondary storage
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LEARNING OUTCOMES
4. List the common input, output, storage,
and communication devices
5. Describe the eight categories of
computers by size
6. Define the relationship between
operating system software and utility
software
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INTRODUCTION
• Information technology (IT) - any
computer-based tool that people use to work
with information and support the information
and information-processing needs of an
organization
– Hardware - consists of the physical devices
associated with a computer system
– Software - the set of instructions that the
hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
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Hardware Basics
• Computer - an electronic device operating under
the control of instructions stored in its own memory
that can accept, manipulate, and store data
• Hardware components
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Central processing unit (CPU)
Primary storage
Secondary storage
Input device
Output device
Communication device
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Hardware Basics
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Central Processing Unit
• Central processing unit (CPU) (or
microprocessor) - the actual hardware that
interprets and executes the program (software)
instructions and coordinates how all the other
hardware devices work together
• Control unit - interprets software instructions and
literally tells the other hardware devices what to do,
based on the software instructions
• Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic
operations (for example, addition and subtraction)
and all logic operations (such as sorting and
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comparing numbers)
Central Processing Unit
• The number of CPU cycles per second
determines the speed of a CPU
– Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of
CPU cycles per second
– Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU
cycles per second
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Central Processing Unit
• CPU speed factors
–
–
–
–
Clock speed
Word length
Bus width
Chip line width
• Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of information
that a computer can process
• Byte - a group of eight bits representing one
natural language character
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ADVANCES IN CPU DESIGN
• Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or
more instructions, enough to carry out most
computations directly
• Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip limit the number of instructions the CPU can
execute to increase processing speed
• Virtualization - a protected memory space created
by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual
machines
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Primary Storage
• Primary storage - the computer’s main
memory, which consists of the random
access memory (RAM), cache memory, and
the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly
accessible to the CPU
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RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
• Random access memory (RAM) - the
computer’s primary working memory, in which
program instructions and data are stored so
that they can be accessed directly by the CPU
via the processor’s high-speed external data
bus
– Volatility
– Cache memory
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RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
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READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
• Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of
a computer’s primary storage that does not
lose its contents when one switches off the
power
– Flash memory
– Memory card
– Memory stick
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Secondary Storage
• Secondary storage - consists of equipment
designed to store large volumes of data for
long-term storage
– Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million
bytes
– Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes
– Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes
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Secondary Storage
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Magnetic Medium
• Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium
that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve
data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically
sensitive materials
• Magnetic tape - an older secondary storage
medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with
a magnetically sensitive recording medium
• Hard drive - a secondary storage medium that uses
several rigid disks coated with a magnetically
sensitive material and housed together with the
recording heads in a hermetically sealed
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mechanism
Optical Medium
• Optical medium types include:
– Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM)
– Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive
– Digital video disk (DVD)
– DVD-ROM drive
– Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW)
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INPUT DEVICES
• Input device - equipment used to capture
information and commands
– Manual input device
• Joystick
• Keyboard
• Microphone
– Automated input device
• Bar code scanner
• Digital camera
• Magnetic ink character reader
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OUTPUT DEVICE
• Output device - equipment used to see,
hear, or otherwise accept the results of
information processing requests
– Cathode-ray tube (CRT)
– Liquid crystal display (LCD)
– Laser printer
– Ink-jet printer
– Plotter
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Communication Device
• Communication device - equipment used
to send information and receive it from one
location to another
– Dial-up access
– Cable
– Digital subscriber line
– Wireless
– Satellite
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Computer Categories
• For the past 20 years, federally funded
supercomputing research has given birth
to some of the computer industry’s most
significant technology breakthroughs
including:
– Clustering
– Parallel processing
– Mosaic browser
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Computer Categories
• Computer categories include:
– Personal digital assistant (PDA)
– Laptop
– Tablet
– Desktop
– Workstation
– Minicomputer
– Mainframe computer
– Supercomputer
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Software Basics
• System software - controls how the various
technology tools work together along with the
application software
– Operating system software
– Utility software
– Application software
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Utility Software
• Types of utility software
– Crash-proof
– Disk image
– Disk optimization
– Encrypt data
– File and data recovery
– Text protect
– Preventative security
– Spyware
– Uninstaller
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Application Software
• Types of application software
– Bowser
– Communication
– Data management
– Desktop publishing
– Email
– Groupware
– Presentation graphics
– Programming
– Spreadsheet
– Word processing
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CLOSING CASE ONE
Changing Circuits at Circuit City
• Circuit City was doing so well in the 1990s
that business consultant Jim Collins, in his
best seller Good to Great, wrote: “From 1982
to 1999, Circuit City generated cumulative
stock returns 22 times better than the market,
handily beating Intel, Wal-Mart, GE, HewlettPackard and Coca-Cola”
• Today, Circuit City is in a markedly different
position
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CLOSING CASE ONE QUESTIONS
1. How would anticipating Best Buy’s growth
have helped Circuit City remain as an industry
leader?
2. Why is keeping up with technology critical to a
global company such as Circuit City?
3. Highlight some of the potential risks facing
Circuit City’s new business model
4. Why is Circuit City benefiting from
implementing strategic product placement
techniques?
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CLOSING CASE TWO
Electronic Breaking Points
•
What happens when someone accidentally spills
a cup of hot coffee on a laptop, puts a USB
memory key in a washing machine, or drops an
iPod in the sand?
•
How much abuse can electronic products take
and keep on working?
•
PC World tested several products to determine
their breaking points
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CLOSING CASE TWO QUESTIONS
1. Identify six hardware categories and place each
product listed in the case in its appropriate
category
2. Describe the CPU and identify which products
would use a CPU
3. Describe the relationship between memory
sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one
to help protect information loss from the other?
4. Identify the different types of software each of
the products listed in the case might use
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