Hardware, Network, and
Software
Computer Organization
Kilobyte 1,000 bytes (actually 1,024)
Megabyte 1,000 kilobytes 106 bytes
Gigabyte 109 bytes
Terabyte 1012 bytes
Petabyte 1015 bytes
Exabyte 1018 bytes
Types of Computers
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Supercomputers
Mainframes
Minicomputers
Servers
Workstations
Microcomputers
Types of Computers (cont’d)
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Desktops
Laptops
Notebooks
Thin-clients
Network Computers
WINDOWS-BASED TERMINALS
(WBTs)
Types of Computers (cont’d)
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Dumb terminals
smart card
Memory buttons
Embedded computers
personal digital assistants
(PDAs)
Global positioning systems
Tablet PC
Wearable computers
Secondary Storage
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Magnetic tape
Magnetic disks, or hard disks
redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID)
magnetic diskette
Zip disks
Optical storage devices
• Compact disk read-only memory(CDROM) disks
• Compact disk, rewritable (CD-RW)
• DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD).
• FLUORESCENT MULTILAYER DISK
(FMD-ROM).
• Tailor-made application software
• off-the-shelf application software
• general-purpose application programs
General-purpose application
programs
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SPREADSHEETS
DATA MANAGEMENT
WORD PROCESSING
DESKTOP PUBLISHING
GRAPHICS (Presentation, Analysis,
Engineering)
• MULTIMEDIA( Presentation,
Interactive)
SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
• controls and supports the computer
hardware and its information processing
activities.
• facilitates the programming, testing, and
debugging of computer programs.
• Control, Support, and Development
programs
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System control programs-Operating
System
job, resource,
Monitoring
performance and data management
Formatting diskettes
Correcting errors
Controlling the computer monitor
Providing and maintaining the user interface
Sending jobs to the printer
Starting (“booting”) the computer
Maintaining security and limiting access
Reading programs into memory
Locating files
Managing memory allocation to those programs
Detecting viruses
Placing files and programs in secondary storage
Compressing data
Creating and maintaining directories
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
• Machine language
• Assembly language
• Procedural languages, Compilers,
Interpreters.
• Nonprocedural or fourth-generation
language (4GL),
• Natural language programming
languages (NLPs)
• Object-Oriented Languages
• VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.
• Web Programming Languages
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