Present Perfect
E.O.I. El Puerto
Cursos de Actualización Lingüística
del Profesorado
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
FORM
• [has/have + past participle]
• Examples:
•
•
•
•
You have seen that movie many times.
Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.
She has been to Tokyo five times.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
USE
• We use the Present Perfect to say
that an action happened at an
unspecified time before now. The
exact time is not important.
• You CANNOT use the Present
Perfect with specific time
expressions such as: yesterday,
one year ago, last week, when I
was a child, when I lived in
Japan, at that moment, that day,
one day, etc.
• We CAN use the Present Perfect
with unspecific expressions such
as: ever, never, once, many
times, several times, before, so
far, already, yet, etc.
• Examples:
• I have seen that movie twenty
times.
• I think I have met him once
before.
• There have been many
earthquakes in California.
• People have travelled to the
Moon.
• People have not travelled to
Mars.
• Have you read the book yet?
• Nobody has ever climbed that
mountain.
• A: Has there ever been a war in
the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in
the United States.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
1. Experience
• You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It
is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use
this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience.
The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
• Examples:
• I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in
France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
• I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
• I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to
France.
• I think I have seen that movie before.
• He has never travelled by train.
• Joan has studied two foreign languages.
• A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
2. Change Over Time
• We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change
that has happened over a period of time.
• Examples:
• You have grown since the last time I saw you.
• The government has become more interested in arts
education.
• Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at
the university since the Asian studies program was
established.
• My English has really improved since I moved to
Australia.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
3. Accomplishments
• We often use the Present Perfect to list the
accomplishments of individuals and humanity.
You cannot mention a specific time.
• Examples:
•
•
•
•
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
4. An Uncompleted Action You Are
Expecting
• We often use the Present Perfect to say that an
action which we expected has not happened.
Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still
waiting for the action to happen.
• Examples:
• James has not finished his homework yet.
• Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can
communicate.
• Bill has still not arrived.
• The rain hasn't stopped.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
5. Multiple Actions at Different Times
• We also use the Present Perfect to talk about
several different actions which have occurred in
the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests
the process is not complete and more actions are
possible.
• Examples:
• The army has attacked that city five times.
• I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this
semester.
• We have had many major problems while working on
this project.
• She has talked to several specialists about her problem,
but nobody knows why she is sick.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
6. Duration From the Past Until Now
(Non-Continuous Verbs)
• With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses
of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show
that something started in the past and has continued up
until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and
"since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used
with the Present Perfect.
• Examples:
•
•
•
•
I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally
limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of
Mixed Verbs, the words “live”, “work”, “teach”, and “study”
are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT
Non-Continuous Verbs.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
ADVERB PLACEMENT
• The examples below show the placement
for grammar adverbs such as: always, only,
never, ever, still, just, etc.
• Examples:
• You have only seen that movie one time.
• Have you only seen that movie one time?
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Pronunciation of the –ed ending
• If the verb ends in the sound /t/ or /d/ we pronounce the ending /id/
• E.g. fade → faded
• If the verb ends in a voiceless consonant other than /t/ we pronounce the
ending /t/
• E.g. laugh → laughed
• If the verb ends in a voiced consonant other than /d/ or vowel sound we
pronounce the ending /d/
• E.g. beg → begged, pray → prayed
• Voiceless consonants: /p/, /s/, /k/, /f/, /t∫/, /∫/, /θ/
• Voiced consonants: /b/, /g/, /v/, /z/, //, //, /d /, /l/, /r/, /m/,
/n/, //
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Irregular verbs: All 3 forms are similar
Base Form
Past Simple Form
Past Participle
Form
Phonetic
Symbols
bet
bet
bet
bet
bid
bid
bid
bd
broadcast
broadcast
broadcast
brdkst
burst
burst
burst
b:st
cost
cost
cost
kst
cut
cut
cut
kt
hit
hit
hit
ht
hurt
hurt
hurt
h:t
let
let
let
let
put
put
put
pt
quit
quit
quit
kwt
set
set
set
set
shut
shut
shut
t
split
split
split
splt
spread
spread
spread
spred
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Past Simple and Past Participle
are the same
Base Form
Past Simple
Form
Past
Participle
Form
bend
bend
bent
bent
bent
bring
br
brought
brought
brt
build
bld
built
built
blt
buy
ba
bought
bought
bt
catch
kt
caught
caught
kt
creep
krip
crept
crept
krept
deal
dl
dealt
dealt
delt
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
dig
dg
dug
dug
dg
feed
fi:d
fed
fed
fed
feel
fi:l
felt
felt
felt
fight
fat
fought
fought
ft
find
fand
found
found
fand
flee
fli:
fled
fled
fled
get
get
got
got (gotten)
gt
hang
h
hung
hung
h
have
hv
had
had
hd
hear
h
heard
heard
hd
hold
hld
held
held
held
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
keep
ki:p
kept
kept
kept
kneel
ni:l
knelt
knelt
nelt
lay
le
laid
laid
led
lead
li:d
led
led
led
leave
li:v
left
left
left
lend
lent
lent
lent
lent
light
lat
lit
lit
lit
lose
lu:z
lost
lost
lst
make
mek
made
made
med
mean
mi:n
meant
meant
ment
meet
mi:t
met
met
met
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
pay
pe
paid
paid
ped
read
ri:d
read
read
red
say
se
said
said
sed
seek
si:k
sought
sought
st
sell
sel
sold
sold
sld
send
send
sent
sent
sent
shine
an
shone
shone
n
shoot
u:n
shot
shot
t
sit
st
sat
sat
st
sleep
sli:p
slept
slept
slept
slide
slad
slid
slid
sld
spend
spend
spent
spent
spent
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
spit
spt
spat
spat
spt
stand
stnd
stood
stood
std
stick
stk
stuck
stuck
stk
sting
st
stung
stung
st
strike
strak struck
struck
strk
sweep
swi:p
swept
swept
swept
swing
sw
swung
swung
sw
teach
ti:t
taught
taught
tt
tell
tel
told
told
tld
think
k
thought
thought
t
understand
ndst
nd
understood
understood
ndst
d
weep
wi:p
wept
wept
wept
win
wn
won
won
wn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Base Form and Past Simple are the same
beat
bi:t
beat
bi:t
beaten
bi:t
n
Base Form and Past Participle are the same
become
bi:k
m
became
bi:k
em
become
bi:k
m
come
km
came
kem
come
km
run
rn
ran
rn
run
rn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
All forms are different
arise
rai
z
arose
r
z
arisen
rz
n
awake
we
k
awoke
w
k
awoken
w 
kn
be
bi:
was/were
wz/w been
:
bi:n
begin
bgn began
bg
n
begun
bg
n
bite
bat
bit
bt
bitten
btn
blow
bl
blew
blu:
blown
bln
break
bre
k
broke
br
k
broken
br
kn
choose
tuz
chose
tz
chosen
tz
n
do
du
did
© Rafael Morenodd
Esteban 2008 done
dn
eat
i:t
ate
et
eaten
i:tn
fall
f
fell
fel
fallen
fl
n
fly
fla
flew
flu:
flown
fln
forbid
fb
d
forbade
fbe
d
forbidden
fb
dn
forget
fge
t
forgot
fg
t
forgotten
fg
tn
forgive
fg
v
forgave
fge
v
forgiven
fg
vn
freeze
fri:
z
froze
fr
z
frozen
fr
zn
give
gv
gave
gev
given
gvn
go
g
went
went
gone
gn
grow
gr
grew
gru:
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
grown
gr
n
know
n
knew
nju:
known
nn
lie
la
lay
le
lain
len
mistake
mste
k
mistook
mst
k
mistaken
mste
kn
ride
rad
rode
rd
ridden
rdn
ring
r
rang
r
rung
r
rise
raz
rose
rz
risen
rzn
see
si:
saw
s
seen
si:n
sew
s
sewed
sd
sewn
sn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
shake
ek
shook
k
shaken
ek
n
show

showed
d
shown
n
shrink
rnk
shrank
rnk
shrunk
rnk
sink
sk
sank
sk
sunk
sk
sing
s
sang
s
sung
s
speak
spi:k
spoke
spk
spoken
spk
n
spring
spr
sprang
spr
sprung
spr
steal
sti:l
stole
stl
stolen
stl
n
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
stink
stk
stank
st
stunk
st
swear
swea
swore
sw
sworn
swn
swim
swm
swam
swm
swum
swm
take
tek
took
tk
taken
tek
n
tear
tea
tore
t
torn
tn
throw
r
threw
ru:
thrown
rn
wake
wek
woke
wk
woken
wk
n
wear
wea
wore
w
worn
wn
write
rat
wrote
rt
written
rtn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Confusing verbs
• Lie – lied – lied (mentir)
• /la/ - /lad/ - /lad/
• lying
• Lie – lay – lain (estar tumbado)
• /la/ - /le/ - /len/
• lying
• Lay – laid – laid (poner la mesa)
• /le / - /led/ - /led/
• laying
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
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