Question 17 Deng Xiaoping’s economic reform: content & consequences (East Asia 566568). Who has done a good job in building economy? Taiwan/Hong Kong/Mainland in perspectives. Taiwan/Hong Kong/Mainland 1949-1976 Both Taiwan (American aid/the seventh fleet) and Hong Kong (British rule till 1997) are way ahead of the mainland in economic development—the living standard is 33 times higher China was very poor due to Mao’s policies and priorities; though he meant well People are not motivated Public ownership vs. Private ownership Planned economy vs. market economy Iron rice bowl/job security Same pay with no bonus Everything was state-run Tight control Most important of all, priority is still on class struggle/ideological campaigns; Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) Deng Xiaoping's greatest contribution to modern China came when this veteran revolutionary was well into his 70s, and the backlash against the Cultural Revolution had propelled him to the top of China's ruling elite. Pauperism Is not Socialism, still Less Communism Ascending to power in 1978, Deng ridiculed the Cultural Revolution slogan that held it was "better to be poor under socialism than rich under capitalism." The blunt, practical Deng offered instead: "Pauperism Is not Socialism, still Less Communism." He encouraged the creation of a market economy and by the early 1990s his reforms had helped lift an estimated 170 million peasants out of extreme poverty. Mao Zedong vs. Deng Xiaoping No private ownership is allowed Class struggle over economic construction; Mass energies were channeled through endless political movements; Private ownership is allowed to stimulate enthusiasm; Free market economy embedded into planned economy Mass energies were rechanneled to developing economics in China Principles of Distribution of Wealth Socialism 各尽所能按劳分配 【gèjìnsuǒnéng‘ ànláofēnpèi】 from each according to his ability, to each according to his work - the socialist principle of distribution. Communism/utopian? 各尽所能按需分配 【gèjìnsuǒnéng‘ ànxūfēnpèi】 from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs - the communist principle of distribution. Deng Xiaoping Theory http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/dengxp/ Architect of the Chinese economic reform 28 June 1981 – 9 November 1989 Normalization of the Sino-US Relationship after 30 years’ isolation Three Communiqués 1. Shanghai Communiqué, 1972—Zhou Enlai/Nison’s visit to China 2. Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1979 3. The third and final communiqué (August 17, 1982), also known as August 17 communiqué, reaffirms the desire of both sides to further strengthen economic, cultural, educational, scientific, and technological ties. Ping Pong Diplomacy, 1971 a little ball moves the big ball Ping pong diplomacy refers to the exchange of ping pong players between the United States and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the 1970s. The event marked a thaw in U.S.–China relations that paved the way to a visit to Beijing by President Richard Nixon. Credit and discredit Economic reform since 1979 that changed millions of people’s lives; 1977, restored the college entrance exams (over 5 million candidates aging from 16 to 43) Diplomatic relationship with US, 1972/1979 Hardliner in handling the Tiananmen Incident June 4th 1989 a person who adheres rigidly to a dogma, theory, or plan. Using economic gains to justify the political purge—fallacious reasoning Deng Xiaoping meeting with Jimmy Carter, Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations 1979/ Deng Xiaoping (center) with Gerald Ford (left), 1975. Epiphany from Deng Xiaoping’s Economic Reform “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost Oppositional approach Capitalism vs. socialism with no compromise Appositional approach Draw strength from each and combine them for more benefits Robert Frost vs. Deng Xiaoping Though Frost recognized the value of the other road, he set up an absolute opposition between the two, making it impossible for reconciliation Deng Xiaoping’s model seems to argue that integration is possible; What is its significance at the philosophical level? Deng Xiaoping theory and Taoism—things, diverse as they are, complement each other Absolute Incompatibility Exclusive Practice vs. Inclusive Practice Jiang Kai-shek Anything to do with Communism is evil Fact: Mao Zedong merged as a leader in unifying a country that was wounded and fragmented. Fighting invaders was what people most wanted. After the Anti-Japanese War, everybody prayed for peace and prosperity; But Jiang started the civil war Mao Zedong Anything to do with capitalism is corrupt Fact: Capitalism seems effective in generating wealth Enterprises motivated by “self interest” could lead to benefiting people involved/employed In Mao Zedong’s program, “class struggle” outweighs “economic construction” There is no room for private ownership Question 18 Is China a socialist country wrapped in a capitalist garment? Appositional vs. oppositional: Take a closer look at capitalism and socialism—strengths and weaknesses from each -ism. While many Chinese are pursuing wealth, are they shifting away from the ancient virtues? Irony The Soong Sisters Kong Xiangxi, finance minister 1933-1944, premier of the Republic of China in 1935 75th generation Descendant of Confucius as he claimed 400 servants Contemporary China Ancient virtues Core Confucian virtues East Asia 32 Review Modern visions Shifted away from ancient virtues while pursing wealth? Corruption at different levels Gaps between the rich and poor Question 19 White Terror and Red Terror 2.28 incident in Taiwan, 1947 Tiananmen Incident June 4th, 1989 A shame culture May 15th, 1989, No red carpet for the Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev Only handshake, no hug Review the Sino-Soviet Split (East Asia 558) Losing Face? “One’s face” or Reputation is the most important issue in China; Mikhail Gorbachev’s visit to Beijing The Soviet leader's visit was almost immediately disrupted The Soviet leader's visit was almost immediately disrupted by China's internal unrest. Officials hastily relocated a welcoming ceremony that had been planned for Tiananmen Square because thousands of student demonstrators and several thousand hunger strikers camped out in the square refused to end their vigil for greater democracy. Mr. Gorbachev was instead met at the airport by President Yang Shangkun and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen. 2.28 Incident in Taiwan (1947): White Terror Tiananmen Incident (1989) Red Terror 2.28 Incident in Taiwan (1947) The 228 Monument located near the Presidential Office in Taipei In 1945, 50 years of Japanese rule ended, and in October the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) handed administrative control of Taiwan as a province to the Kuomintang-administered Republic of China (ROC). But one year (16 months) of KMT administration led to the widespread impression that the party was plagued by nepotism, corruption, and economic failure. Catalyst Tension increased between Taiwanese and the ROC administration. The confrontation came on February 27, in Taipei when a dispute between a female cigarette vendor and an officer of the Office of Monopoly triggered civil disorder and open rebellion that lasted for days. The uprising was violently put down by the military of the Republic of China. June 4th Incident, 1989 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/05/ world/asia/05china.html?emc=eta1 BEIJING — The former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping ordered the military to try to limit injuries when it moved against Tiananmen Square protesters, but told it to be ready to “shed some blood” if necessary, according to an unpublished diary said to document internal decisions that led to the violent crackdown. Parliamentary Democracy for China? In the late 1980s during the rule of Jiang Jingguo (Chiang Kai-shek/Jiang Jieshi’s son), Taiwan succeeded in making the transition from one-party rule to parliamentary democracy. (East Asia 581) Is it possible that one day China will adopt this political system? Does parliamentary democracy fit China? Chinese Democracy? Totalitarianism One-Dimensionality Qin’s Rule Legalism Jiang Kai-shek’s Purge Of Communist Party members A series of Political Movements under Mao Zedong’s rule Question 20 a social contract By demoting self-interest one way or another, it seems that systems of thinking— Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism, including Buddhism—all have woven their theoretical fabric around a social contract in human relationships. Explore the place of individualism in Chinese culture which has often been marked by focusing on the whole society, frequently in the form of Totalitarianism. Half of Man Is Woman Zhang Xianliang A Chinese version of a 40 year old virgin, impotency used as a metaphor; Ironical quote of Mao’s teachings; Encroachment of the five-fold human relationship: motherdaughter relationship 1958 Anti-Rightist movement consisted of a series of campaigns to purge alleged "rightists" within the Communist Party of China (CPC) and abroad. The definition of "rightists" was not always consistent - but in general referred to those intellectuals who appeared to favor capitalism and class divisions and against collectivization. “Icicles” To study English at the finest language school in the entire country was what Lingyun’s father had long wanted for her. To ask his approval was to ask a believer to go to heaven. When she was only 8, her dad accompanied Lingyun to the same school for an interview, but when he put down two words “landlord” in the box for her mother’s family background, the interview was already over. It was the first time Lingyun learned that her mother’s father, the biggest landlord in the northeastern part of the country with hundreds of acres of land and three concubines was executed during the Land Reform in 1948. Though on the written tests, Lingyun made “double hundred” (in verbal and math sections), to her great disappointment, she wasn’t selected. Now the door swung open as if by a stroke of luck. An anti-climactic moment That afternoon, Lingyun flew home with the news. “Ma, I am chosen to study English at the Beijing Foreign Languages School! You’ll let me go, right?” “Go where? Britain? America?” Ma stopped sewing and looked up in a pleasant surprise. “I am going to be an English teacher after graduation,” her voice shaky from excitement. “I am the only one recommended, Ma,” Lingyun added with pride. “A teacher? Why a teacher? That’s no good.” Mother sounded disappointed and resumed her sewing. “What’s wrong? My teacher said I was born to teach. It is my calling.” Mother-daughter Confrontation “Ma prefers you follow some other callings. These days who looks up to those teachers?” “But teaching is a revolutionary art, a sacred task to nurture revolutionary successors for…” “How can you live on art? How can you live on a sacred task? Those who live on art or poetry have to live on the northwest wind.” Mother sounded a little annoyed by all these “back answers.” “Look how much those school teachers make a month,” she said with her nose and eyebrows knitted in contempt. “After graduation, I will be on salary.” “That’s not bad, but that’s all you will make. There will be no other benefits or bonuses.” “Why are you always talking about money?” She really was a landlord’s daughter, Lingyun thought. Look how much it cost me to bring you up?! “You Number One White-Eyed Wolf! What can you do without money? Look how much it cost me to bring you up?!” “White-Eyed Wolf” was her mother’s invention to call her three kids, the nuanced meanings ranging from affection to outrage, depending on her mood. It was her mother’s constant reminder: how much it cost her to raise Lingyun. Whenever mother mentioned this, her tone implied Lingyun was in debt to her and that Lingyun must some day pay her back—though there was never a word about what her younger brother and sister cost, as if they were cost-free babies. “But if I go to this school, you don’t have to pay my room and board anymore. Plus, the school covers my medical…” Revolutionary democracy vs. revolutionary discipline “Ha!” Mother sneered in a grotesque manner. “Now you think you are full-fledged. You want to fly away. How ungrateful you are! How heartless you are!” “What are you talking about? Who is ungrateful? Who is heartless? Why do you always put these words in my mouth?” “You White-Eyed Wolf! How dare you talk back to me like that. Shut up or I will beat you.” “I won’t shut up. Chairman Mao said beating is not allowed. I should strive for some revolutionary democracy in this house.” “To hell with your revolutionary democracy! This house needs some revolutionary discipline, as Chairman Mao said. I am the lady in this house. Period.” “What a stubborn representative of feudalistic matriarchy you are!” Lingyun remembered all the things she had learned in school and pointed at her mother right in the face with her index finger. the thread snapped Pa! Pa! Mother slapped her across the face with the front of her hand, then the back. “I sent you to school and now you show me what you’ve learned.” Though her cheek stung, Lingyun felt so excited. She thought the whole scene was revolutionary and romantic, like a scene in a novel or a film. Head high, she raised her voice, chanting with cadence: “We revolutionaries have hard bones. We grow up in revolutionary storms…” “You little rebel!” Mother stepped back and the pants she was sewing dropped onto the floor, the thread snapped. the Cultural Revolution had run half its course Father came back from work just in time to rescue both mother and daughter from the impending mayhem. He said they would discuss the matter and talk to Lingyun the next day. In the morning, dad told her she had her parents’ consent to go to the language school, but she should apologize to her mother. She did. Mother murmured, “She is full-fledged like a bird.” Her eyes were red from weeping. But Lingyun, though silent, was not sorry at all. Together with 20 other youngsters from the school district, Lingyun marched triumphantly in the snow to the language school. It was January 1971, and the Cultural Revolution had run half its course.