Question 17
Deng Xiaoping’s economic reform:
content & consequences (East Asia 566568). Who has done a good job in
building economy? Taiwan/Hong
Kong/Mainland in perspectives.
Taiwan/Hong Kong/Mainland
Both Taiwan (American aid/the seventh
fleet) and Hong Kong (British rule till
1997) are way ahead of the mainland in
economic development—the living
standard is 33 times higher
China was very poor due to Mao’s
policies and priorities; though he meant
People are not motivated
Public ownership vs. Private ownership
Planned economy vs. market economy
Iron rice bowl/job security
Same pay with no bonus
Everything was state-run
Tight control
Most important of all, priority is still on
class struggle/ideological campaigns;
Deng Xiaoping
(22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997)
Deng Xiaoping's greatest
contribution to modern
China came when this
veteran revolutionary
was well into his 70s,
and the backlash against
the Cultural Revolution
had propelled him to the
top of China's ruling
Pauperism Is not Socialism,
still Less Communism
Ascending to power in 1978, Deng ridiculed
the Cultural Revolution slogan that held it
was "better to be poor under socialism than
rich under capitalism." The blunt, practical
Deng offered instead: "Pauperism Is not
Socialism, still Less Communism." He
encouraged the creation of a market
economy and by the early 1990s his reforms
had helped lift an estimated 170 million
peasants out of extreme poverty.
Mao Zedong vs. Deng Xiaoping
No private ownership is
Class struggle over
economic construction;
Mass energies were
channeled through
endless political
Private ownership is
allowed to stimulate
Free market economy
embedded into planned
Mass energies were
rechanneled to
developing economics in
Principles of Distribution of Wealth
ànláofēnpèi】 from each
according to his ability,
to each according to his
work - the socialist
principle of distribution.
ànxūfēnpèi】 from each
according to his ability,
to each according to his
needs - the communist
principle of distribution.
Deng Xiaoping Theory
Architect of the
Chinese economic
28 June 1981 –
9 November 1989
Normalization of the Sino-US
Relationship after 30 years’ isolation
Three Communiqués
1. Shanghai Communiqué,
1972—Zhou Enlai/Nison’s
visit to China
2. Joint Communiqué on the
Establishment of Diplomatic
Relations, 1979
3. The third and final
communiqué (August 17,
1982), also known as
August 17 communiqué,
reaffirms the desire of both
sides to further strengthen
economic, cultural,
educational, scientific, and
technological ties.
Ping Pong Diplomacy, 1971
a little ball moves the big ball
Ping pong diplomacy
refers to the exchange
of ping pong players
between the United
States and People's
Republic of China
(PRC) in the 1970s.
The event marked a
thaw in U.S.–China
relations that paved the
way to a visit to Beijing
by President Richard
Credit and discredit
Economic reform since
1979 that changed
millions of people’s
1977, restored the
college entrance exams
(over 5 million
candidates aging from
16 to 43)
Diplomatic relationship
with US, 1972/1979
Hardliner in handling
the Tiananmen Incident
June 4th 1989
a person who adheres
rigidly to a dogma,
theory, or plan.
Using economic gains
to justify the political
Deng Xiaoping meeting with Jimmy Carter, Joint
Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic
Relations 1979/
Deng Xiaoping (center) with Gerald Ford (left), 1975.
Epiphany from Deng Xiaoping’s
Economic Reform
“The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost
Capitalism vs.
socialism with no
Draw strength from
each and combine
them for more
Robert Frost vs. Deng Xiaoping
Though Frost recognized
the value of the other
road, he set up an
absolute opposition
between the two, making
it impossible for
Deng Xiaoping’s model
seems to argue that
integration is possible;
What is its significance
at the philosophical
Deng Xiaoping theory
and Taoism—things,
diverse as they are,
complement each other
Absolute Incompatibility
Exclusive Practice vs. Inclusive Practice
Jiang Kai-shek
Anything to do with
Communism is evil
Fact: Mao Zedong merged as a
leader in unifying a country
that was wounded and
Fighting invaders was what
people most wanted.
After the Anti-Japanese War,
everybody prayed for peace
and prosperity;
But Jiang started the civil war
Mao Zedong
Anything to do with capitalism
is corrupt
Fact: Capitalism seems
effective in generating wealth
Enterprises motivated by “self
interest” could lead to
benefiting people
In Mao Zedong’s program,
“class struggle” outweighs
“economic construction”
There is no room for private
Question 18
Is China a socialist country wrapped in a
capitalist garment? Appositional vs.
oppositional: Take a closer look at
capitalism and socialism—strengths and
weaknesses from each -ism. While
many Chinese are pursuing wealth, are
they shifting away from the ancient
The Soong Sisters
Kong Xiangxi, finance
minister 1933-1944,
premier of the Republic
of China in 1935
75th generation
Descendant of
Confucius as he
400 servants
Contemporary China
Ancient virtues
Core Confucian
East Asia 32
Modern visions
Shifted away from
ancient virtues while
pursing wealth?
Corruption at
different levels
Gaps between the
rich and poor
Question 19
White Terror and Red Terror
2.28 incident in
Taiwan, 1947
Tiananmen Incident
June 4th, 1989
A shame culture
May 15th, 1989, No red
carpet for the Russian
leader Mikhail
Only handshake, no
Review the Sino-Soviet
Split (East Asia 558)
Losing Face?
“One’s face” or
Reputation is the
most important issue
in China;
Mikhail Gorbachev’s
visit to Beijing
The Soviet leader's visit was
almost immediately disrupted
The Soviet leader's visit was almost
immediately disrupted by China's internal
unrest. Officials hastily relocated a welcoming
ceremony that had been planned for
Tiananmen Square because thousands of
student demonstrators and several thousand
hunger strikers camped out in the square
refused to end their vigil for greater
democracy. Mr. Gorbachev was instead met at
the airport by President Yang Shangkun and
Foreign Minister Qian Qichen.
2.28 Incident in Taiwan (1947): White Terror
Tiananmen Incident (1989) Red Terror
2.28 Incident in Taiwan (1947)
The 228 Monument located near the
Presidential Office in Taipei
In 1945, 50 years of Japanese rule ended, and
in October the United Nations Relief and
Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) handed
administrative control of Taiwan as a province
to the Kuomintang-administered Republic of
China (ROC). But one year (16 months) of
KMT administration led to the widespread
impression that the party was plagued by
nepotism, corruption, and economic failure.
Tension increased between Taiwanese and
the ROC administration. The confrontation
came on February 27, in Taipei when a dispute
between a female cigarette vendor and an
officer of the Office of Monopoly triggered civil
disorder and open rebellion that lasted for
days. The uprising was violently put down by
the military of the Republic of China.
June 4th Incident, 1989
BEIJING — The former Chinese leader
Deng Xiaoping ordered the military to try
to limit injuries when it moved against
Tiananmen Square protesters, but told it
to be ready to “shed some blood” if
necessary, according to an unpublished
diary said to document internal decisions
that led to the violent crackdown.
Parliamentary Democracy
for China?
In the late 1980s during the rule of Jiang
Jingguo (Chiang Kai-shek/Jiang Jieshi’s
son), Taiwan succeeded in making the
transition from one-party rule to
parliamentary democracy. (East Asia
581) Is it possible that one day China
will adopt this political system? Does
parliamentary democracy fit China?
Chinese Democracy?
Qin’s Rule
Jiang Kai-shek’s Purge
Of Communist Party
A series of Political
Movements under
Mao Zedong’s rule
Question 20
a social contract
By demoting self-interest one way or another,
it seems that systems of thinking—
Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism, including
Buddhism—all have woven their theoretical
fabric around a social contract in human
relationships. Explore the place of
individualism in Chinese culture which has
often been marked by focusing on the whole
society, frequently in the form of
Half of Man Is Woman
Zhang Xianliang
A Chinese version of a
40 year old virgin,
impotency used as a
Ironical quote of Mao’s
Encroachment of the
five-fold human
relationship: motherdaughter relationship
1958 Anti-Rightist movement
consisted of a series of campaigns to
purge alleged "rightists" within the
Communist Party of China (CPC) and
abroad. The definition of "rightists" was
not always consistent - but in general
referred to those intellectuals who
appeared to favor capitalism and class
divisions and against collectivization.
To study English at the finest language school in the entire
country was what Lingyun’s father had long wanted for her. To
ask his approval was to ask a believer to go to heaven. When
she was only 8, her dad accompanied Lingyun to the same
school for an interview, but when he put down two words
“landlord” in the box for her mother’s family background, the
interview was already over. It was the first time Lingyun
learned that her mother’s father, the biggest landlord in the
northeastern part of the country with hundreds of acres of land
and three concubines was executed during the Land Reform in
1948. Though on the written tests, Lingyun made “double
hundred” (in verbal and math sections), to her great
disappointment, she wasn’t selected. Now the door swung
open as if by a stroke of luck.
An anti-climactic moment
That afternoon, Lingyun flew home with the news.
“Ma, I am chosen to study English at the Beijing Foreign
Languages School! You’ll let me go, right?”
“Go where? Britain? America?” Ma stopped sewing and
looked up in a pleasant surprise.
“I am going to be an English teacher after graduation,” her
voice shaky from excitement. “I am the only one
recommended, Ma,” Lingyun added with pride.
“A teacher? Why a teacher? That’s no good.” Mother
sounded disappointed and resumed her sewing.
“What’s wrong? My teacher said I was born to teach. It is my
Mother-daughter Confrontation
“Ma prefers you follow some other callings. These days who looks up
to those teachers?”
“But teaching is a revolutionary art, a sacred task to nurture
revolutionary successors for…”
“How can you live on art? How can you live on a sacred task? Those
who live on art or poetry have to live on the northwest wind.” Mother
sounded a little annoyed by all these “back answers.” “Look how
much those school teachers make a month,” she said with her nose
and eyebrows knitted in contempt.
“After graduation, I will be on salary.”
“That’s not bad, but that’s all you will make. There will be no other
benefits or bonuses.”
“Why are you always talking about money?” She really was a
landlord’s daughter, Lingyun thought.
Look how much it cost me
to bring you up?!
“You Number One White-Eyed Wolf! What can you do without
money? Look how much it cost me to bring you up?!”
“White-Eyed Wolf” was her mother’s invention to call her three
kids, the nuanced meanings ranging from affection to outrage,
depending on her mood. It was her mother’s constant
reminder: how much it cost her to raise Lingyun. Whenever
mother mentioned this, her tone implied Lingyun was in debt to
her and that Lingyun must some day pay her back—though
there was never a word about what her younger brother and
sister cost, as if they were cost-free babies.
“But if I go to this school, you don’t have to pay my room and
board anymore. Plus, the school covers my medical…”
Revolutionary democracy vs.
revolutionary discipline
“Ha!” Mother sneered in a grotesque manner. “Now you think you are
full-fledged. You want to fly away. How ungrateful you are! How
heartless you are!”
“What are you talking about? Who is ungrateful? Who is heartless?
Why do you always put these words in my mouth?”
“You White-Eyed Wolf! How dare you talk back to me like that. Shut
up or I will beat you.”
“I won’t shut up. Chairman Mao said beating is not allowed. I should
strive for some revolutionary democracy in this house.”
“To hell with your revolutionary democracy! This house needs some
revolutionary discipline, as Chairman Mao said. I am the lady in this
house. Period.”
“What a stubborn representative of feudalistic matriarchy you are!”
Lingyun remembered all the things she had learned in school and
pointed at her mother right in the face with her index finger.
the thread snapped
Pa! Pa! Mother slapped her across the face with the
front of her hand, then the back. “I sent you to
school and now you show me what you’ve learned.”
Though her cheek stung, Lingyun felt so excited.
She thought the whole scene was revolutionary and
romantic, like a scene in a novel or a film. Head
high, she raised her voice, chanting with cadence:
“We revolutionaries have hard bones. We grow up
in revolutionary storms…”
“You little rebel!” Mother stepped back and the pants
she was sewing dropped onto the floor, the thread
the Cultural Revolution
had run half its course
Father came back from work just in time to rescue both mother
and daughter from the impending mayhem. He said they would
discuss the matter and talk to Lingyun the next day.
In the morning, dad told her she had her parents’ consent to go
to the language school, but she should apologize to her mother.
She did. Mother murmured, “She is full-fledged like a bird.”
Her eyes were red from weeping. But Lingyun, though silent,
was not sorry at all.
Together with 20 other youngsters from the school district,
Lingyun marched triumphantly in the snow to the language
school. It was January 1971, and the Cultural Revolution had
run half its course.

Slide 1