Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction
Unit 10:
Nativist-realist Stories of Fate:
The Cases of Huang Chun-ming and Wang Chen-ho.
Lecturer:
Richard Rong-bin Chen,
PhD of Comparative Literature.
Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) 1
The Problem of Fate
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Definition
Fate in fiction
“1,230 Spots”
“Gold Carp’s Pleated Skirt”
“Death in a Cornfield”
“State Funeral”
Fate and Characters
Fate and Plot: a problem-solving approach
2
Naturalism and “Fate”
• A late 19th-century and early 20th century
international literary movement originated in
France, and became popular in Britain and
the States.
• Representative Figures
• France: Gustave Flaubert and Emile Zola
• “Le roman expérimental” (1880)
• Britain: George Moore and Thomas Hardy
• America: Henry James, Theodore Dreiser, and
Stephen Crane
3
The Fate of Women in Fiction
•
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Madame Bovary
Nana
Esther Waters and Tess of the d’Urbervilles
Daisy Miller
Nana
Maggie
4
The Harper Handbook to Literature
(by Northrop Frye et al., 1985)
• “Naturalism came largely from scientific
determinism. Darwinism was especially
important, as the naturalists perceived a
person’s fate as the product of blind external or
biological forces, chiefly heredity and
environment, but in the typical naturalistic
novel chance played a large part as well,
suggesting a formula something like H + E + C
= F . . . ” (p. 307)
Source: Northrop Frye, Sheridan Baker, George Perkins. (1985).
The Harper handbook to literature.
New York : Harper & Row
5
• For example: Pai-mai’s original family
accounts for her heredity, the foster
family for her environment, and her
encounter with Ying-ying on the train
for chance.
• We can also see Wan-fa as an individual
trapped in various adversities induced
by his environment and chance.
6
Nativist-realism
• The lives of ill-fated ordinary people
• Nativism (vs. Modernism)
• Realism (not just details)
• social and political criticism
7
“Awaiting Your Return”
(1977, by Wang Tuo)
• Set in Keelung.
• Two boats disappeared during a
typhoon, and the boat company did not
send rescue teams, trying to use some
death pension to comfort the families.
• Led by a employee of the Fishermen’s
Association, the fishermen’s families
tried to fight for their own rights.
8
“Our Chinese Manager”
(1978, by Yang Ch’ing-ch’u)
• Set in the 1970s when Taiwan’s exportation
economy prospered.
• Mrs. Liao was almost killed in a factory
accident of explosion.
• She was fired by the manager of Wilson
Electronics Corporation.
• Compensation was finally paid to Mrs. Liao
after the political involvement of a
provincial assemblyman.
9
“Sulan’s Getting Married”
(1980, by Wang Zhenhe)
• Set in Hua-lien, two parents with four
children.
• Sulan’s insanity.
• In only three years, in order to bring her
back to health, the family spent all their
savings.
• ”The British Social Welfare System.”
10
“A Flower in the Rainy Night” (1967)
• Originally published in Literary
Quarterly [文學季刊]
• The original Chinese title is “Days for
Watching the Sea” [看海的日子]
• The film adaptation was made in 1983
with a screenplay written by the author
himself
• Social Criticisms
11
The Setting: Nan-fang-ao
The population of the village, normally only
four or five thousand, swells to over twenty
thousand. Most of the increase is seamen--those
who wear billed hats and speak in loud voices,
those are all seamen. Venders of all sorts come
to the harbor also at this time, and there are
prostitutes, and red-headed, golden flies-all
come with the arrival of the fish. This is the
busiest time of the year for the fishing village, a
time of madness. (p.195)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
12
1st Section: The Fish Are Schooling
• Realism: described by a native of I-lan.
• The fishermen and the poor village children.
• Ah-niang saw the boats entering the harbor
with excitement.
• The title: “Look! The bonito are schooling!”
• “Ah-hsüeh, you’d better hurry up and eat; in
a little while you won’t even have time to
sit up!”
13
2nd Section: A Flower in the Rainy Night
• Social oppressions
• Sold by the foster father, whose first
anniversary of death was Pai-mai’s
reason to leave the fishing village.
• Her ex-client on the train
• The Reunion: the function of this
episode?
14
Pai-mai’s own perspective and the judgment
made on her
Even herself thought that she wasn’t entitled
to slap the man abused her verbally just
because she was not an “ordinary woman”
Under those circumstances she did not mind such
insinuation, no matter how undisguised, how
abusive, how obscene they were. But why couldn’t
these people treat her like anyone else when she
was out-side? She looked at the fat, greasy face of
the man sitting next to her and quickly turned
away, paying him no further attention. (p.198)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970. New York : Columbia University Press
15
Ying-ying’s Marriage
• Major Lu
• “A big, kind-faced man in his fifties.”
(p.199)
• His identity?
• Cf: Old Man Young and His Woman
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970,
New York : Columbia University Press
16
Is it possible to change one’s fate?
If possible, how?
A look of childlike radiance had appeared on Yingying’s face, but in a moment it had faded as she said
sadly, “ I know, in eight more years I’ll be just the
same as now. You’ve said that fate’s a tyrant, and
it’s no use for woman like us to try to change it.”
“No…” Pai-mei had not been able to find any
words of consolation to say to Ying-ying, and as she
was trying to think of a way to deny what she had
said once, her thoughts had been interupted by the
stern sound of the madam’s . . . (p.198)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
17
5th Section: Lu Yen
The Decision
But except for her foster mother there was
not a single person in the whole Ch’en family
that Pai-mei could forgive. Suddenly she was
struck by the thought that she needed a child, a
child like Lu Yen. Only a child of her own
would give her something in this world to call
hers. Only a child of her own would give her
someone to pin her hopes on. (p.209)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
18
5th Section: K’eng-ti
• Atmosphere of Warmth and Familiarity
• The little village hadn’t changed in more
than twenty years
• The way Pai-mai was greeted by Uncle
Lucky
• She could tell who the children’s parents
were just by looking at their faces
19
Pai-mei’s Character as a Helper
• Both an oppressed woman and a helper
[Ying-ying, her foster family, and the
original family.]
• The family’s situation – brother’s leg
amputated
• The villagers’ situation – the forestry
bureau land would be taken back by the
government
• Cf: “An Oxcart for Dowry”
20
Pai-mei’s Suggestions
• She helped her brother’s amputation.
• She encouraged her brother to use
his hands to make a living
• She suggested the villagers how to
raise the price of their sweet potatoes
21
Her Return to K’eng-ti Symbolizes a
Return to the Society
“Mei-tzu,” she said happily, ”you didn’t bring good
luck only to our own family--you brought it to the
whole village!” Her spirits brightened.
Soon everybody in K’eng-ti considered Mei-tzu’s
return a good omen, that the government’s giving
the slopeland over to them was a result of the good
luck which she brought. That, plus her devotion to
her family and her warmth toward the other
villagers, earned her much respect in K’eng-ti.
(p.228)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
22
• Unexpectedly, she found her suggestion
accepted by the villagers.
• Her being pregnant without getting married
was not despised, and they even carried the
sedan chair to get her into the town.
• Many of the village houses were damaged,
and they made mud bricks together. The
scene brings a sense of community and a
great contrast to the social hostility Pai-mei
had encountered in the past.
23
The Villagers’ Reactions
“Aunt Sung“ asked Uncle Woody, “Mei-tzu’s so
big now, when will we get to drink some sesame
oil wine?
Others too voiced their enthusiastic oncern:”Yes!
When?”
“Pretty soon now.”
Mei-tzu’s mother was overjoyed by this show of
concern by the villagers, and the anxiety she had
felt less the girl should suffer their ridicule
vanished. (p.232)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
24
“It’ll be with us in January,” she said.
“Oh? So soon!”
“Such a good girl, she should be given
a son,”said one of the older bystanders.
“Yes, she’s the only good girl these eyes
of mine have ever seen.”(p.232)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
25
The Train Scene in the 7th Section, Days
for Watching the Sea
Pai-mei felt that she was able to be a part
of the world again.
Taking her baby, she bought a ticket and
squeezed on a train going toward the port. Not
a single seat on the car was empty, but she
didn’t mind; she was happy enough just to be
on the train going in that direction. Before she
could find a spot to stand comfortably, two
men in front of her stood up at the same
time and offered her their seats (p.240)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970. New York : Columbia University Press
26
she was so surprised and moved by this ordinary
event that she stood dumbfounded until a woman
came over and led her to her own empty seat. She
looked into the woman’s face and was met by a
warm and friendly smile. She looked at the people
beside her and then searched the eyes of everybody
she could see; in them she found without exception a
warmth that she had never experienced before. Her
eyes blurred. The barrier that had always constrained
her and kept her separated from the crowd no longer
existed, and the world that she saw now was
obscured no longer by the suffocating bars of her
prison. She had become a part of that world. (p.240)
Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970. New York : Columbia University Press
27
What’s in the title?
• ”An Oxcart for Dowry” (1967)
• Like “A Flower in the Rainy Night,”
it was first published in Literary
Quarterly.
• ”Oxcart”
• ”Dowry”
28
It is all for the oxcart’s sake.
Each time Wan-fa got angry and rushed out
of the house, he would generally go to the
cemetery and unfasten from his belt a long
purse from which he would take all the coins
and bills to count. He counted them forwards
and backwards. Ah! Still not enough to buy
an oxcart. Still a long way to go. Then he
would say to himself: It’s not right to be so
hard on Chien. After all, he is my god of
wealth and it would be stupid to send this god
away.(p.95)
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
29
What’s in the quotation?
“There are moments in our life when even
Schubert has nothing to say to us…” (p.75)
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970. New York : Columbia University Press
Quotation from The Portrait of a Lady by
Henry James
30
• Published in 1881.
• Mainly about Isabel Archer, her
manipulative husband Gilbert
Osmond and his adulterous
relationship with Madame Merle.
31
• Isabel heard the piece of Schubert’s
piano composition played by Merle, and
said that the music could comfort her
seriously ailing uncle.
• Merle retorted Isabel with the quoted
words, showing she herself understood
life better. Ironically, toward the end
of the novel, we were informed that it
was actually Merle who gave Isabel
some “speechless moments.”
32
About Wang Chen-ho
• A native of Hua-lien, he was born in 1940. He
entered the Department of Foreign Languages
and Literatures, NTU in 1959; after graduated
from NTU in 1963 and served two years in the
military, he went back to Hua-lien to work as a
high school English teacher.
• Later on, he also worked for an airline company
and a TV station.
• In 1961, he published his first short story,
“Ghost, Northwind, Man,” in Modern Literature
(Hsien-tai wen-hsueh).
33
About Wang Chen-ho
• In 1972, he was invited to join the International
Writing Program in Iowa University.
• In 1980, he was diagnosed with cancer, which
never made him stop writing, and, like Huang
Chun-ming, many of his works have been
made into movies, including his most famous
book-length novel, Rose, Rose, I Love You
[《玫瑰玫瑰我愛你》] (1984), and “An
Oxcart for Dowry” [〈嫁妝一牛車〉] (1969).
• He passed away in September, 1990.
34
• Wang’s writing is a combination of
Modernism and Nativist-realism. He
was an enthusiastic practitioner of the
Modernist experiments in language
innovation through his deliberate
mixture of Mandarin, English,
Taiwanese dialect, and even Japanese in
his writing with the effects of
vernacular expression and sarcasm.
35
Examples of language innovation:
what’s in their names?
• Wan-fa [萬發]
• Ten thousand times prosperous or lucky.
• Extremely unlucky, so his name
becomes sarcastic.
• Pronounced like “turtle” [王八],
another name for cuckold in Chinese.
36
• Ah-hao [阿好]: hao literally means
“good.”
• Is she a good woman?
• Chien [簡]
• In Taiwanese dialect, it is pronounced
like kan, the same with a profanity in the
dialect, which A-hao said all the time in
the story.
• In Mandarin, the pronunciation is similar
to “adultery” [姦].
37
• Another writer who always enjoyed
playing with names is Charles Dickens.
• The fraud in David Copperfield: Mr.
Murdstone.
• Merde in French.
38
• From the themes, settings, and plots of
his novels and stories, however, we also
can see that his works show a great and
sympathetic concern about those
impoverished and miserable “nobodies”
in the countryside. Of course, “An
Oxcart for Dowry” is one of the most
representative and sarcastic works in
this type.
39
How poverty is described?
Wan-fa took his undershirt down from a
bamboo pole and covered his bare chest with
it. It was his only undershirt. At night he took
it off for washing; by noon next day it was
dry enough to wear outdoors. Once, he had
owned another undershirt, for rotation. But
his oldest son had “borrowed” it when he had
gone to town to look for a job. “ To be hard
up on the road is worse than hard up at home.”
So Wan-fa, like any father, sacrificed
something for his son’s sake.(p.78)
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970. New York : Columbia University Press
40
Almost all of his major works have
been translated into English:
• 1961: “Ghost, Northwind, Man” (collected in
Winter Plum).
• 1967: “Auntie Lai-chun’s Autumn Sorrows”
(in Chinese PEN).
• 1969: “An Oxcart for Dowry” (collected in
Chinese Stories from Taiwan: 1960-1970).
• 1975: “The Story of Three Springs”
(collected in Unbroken Chain).
41
• 1976: “Sulan’s Getting Married”
(collected in Oxcart: Nativist Stories
from Taiwan).
• 1979: “Shangri-la” (collected in Worlds
of Modern Chinese Fiction).
• 1984: Rose, Rose, I Love You (published
by Columbia University Press in 1998).
42
• This story is about the everlasting
conflict of “either honor or hunger,” a
choice we are forced to make from time
to time. If you want to keep your face,
sometimes the “bread and butter”
problem will hunt you down, and vice
versa. In the story, we see the miserable
life of Wan-fa, a man who had never been
lucky until he got his “oxcart for dowry.”
43
• He was eighty percent deaf due to a bombing
during the war, and the plants on his land were
washed away by a flood. Also, he could not
afford a means to his family’s livelihood, so he
was only a hired oxcart driver whose payment
could hardly provide for his wife and youngest
son. The reason why he finally did not have
to worry about his family’s livelihood was
that he gave up his dignity completely and
allowed the adulterers to have their way.
The character of Wan-fa epitomizes a great
part of the rural life.
44
• Also, after he threw Chien out of his
house, he lost all his savings on Laowu’s illness, the mountain slope he used
to plant sweet potatoes was gone, and,
though he was able to go back to the
trade of a oxcart driver, the ox went mad,
struck down and killed a child, which
made him end up in the prison. Seeing
this story, one might ask: is it possible
for men to resist their destinies?
45
• Wan-fa, once thought “a poor man is not
poor at all in self-respect” (92), went into
the prison and could do nothing about the
adultery between his wife and Chien. Then,
one day in the prison, “for no reason at all,
he suddenly regretted having driving
Chien away” (97), so, after being released,
he completely gave in to the manipulation of
his destiny. He accepted pleasantly the
oxcart Chien bought for him as a “dowry,”
though he also felt disgusted with himself for
being pleased (98).
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970.
New York : Columbia University Press
46
Wan-fa’s response to Chien’s return.
No, Wan-fa warned himself, I must not
let her know I am pleased to see Chien
back. And I can’t let Chien feel he is
doing us a favor, either. He was
surprised to find himself so calculating
all of a sudden. But, after all, he told
himself, a poor man is not poor at all in
self-respect.(p.92)
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970,
New York : Columbia University Press
47
A statement in the beginning of the story.
All the villagers laughed at him, and
teased him unmercifully. And it was
worse that his two nearly deaf ears were
not quite able to ward off the villagers’
scorn completely. Had he been generous
enough to let his ears fail completely, he
might have felt less uneasy among the
villagers. He might also feel much better
now. (p.75)
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970,
New York : Columbia University Press
48
Accepting the oxcart is the same with
accepting his fate as being a cuckold.
Ah-hao came in and joined them. “Mr. Chien
has bought you an oxcart, from tomorrow on
you can earn more with your own oxcart.”
“He has bought me an oxcart?” Wan-fa was
quite astonished. He had dreamed of owning an
oxcart all his life, and now the dream had come
true. For a moment he was pleased and
delighted. Then he felt disgusted with himself.
What a disgrace! I exchange my wife for an
oxcart. What a disgrace! (p.98)
Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976).
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, 49
New York : Columbia University Press
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5
“Naturalism came
largely …suggesting a
formula something like
H+E+C=F...”
Northrop Frye,Sheridan Baker, George Perkins. (1985). The Harper handbook
to literature, (p.307) New York : Harper & Row.
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
12
The population of the
village, normally only
four …fishing village, a
time of madness.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.195) New York : Columbia
University Press.
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
15
Under those
circumstances she did
not mind …no further
attention.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.198) New York : Columbia
University Press.
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
16
A big, kind-faced man in
his fifties.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.199) New York : Columbia
University Press.
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
17
A look of childlike
radiance had appeared
on …by the stern sound
of the madam’s . . .
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.198) New York : Columbia
University Press.
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
But except for her foster
mother… someone to pin
her hopes on.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.209) New York : Columbia
University Press.
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
50
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
18
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22
“Mei-tzu,” she
said …earned her much
respect in K’eng-ti.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.228) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
24
“Aunt Sung“ asked
Uncle Woody, “Meitzu’s …should suffer
their ridicule vanished.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.232) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
25
“It’ll be with us in
January,” …eyes of mine
have ever seen.”
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.232) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
26
Taking her baby, she
bought a … same time
and offered her their
seats
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.240) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
27
she was so surprised
and moved by …prison.
She had become a part of
that world.
Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau
(Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.240) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
29
Each time Wan-fa got
angry and …of wealth
and it would be stupid to
send this god away.
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.95) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
51
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
Copyright Declaration
Licensing
Author/Source
Page
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30
“There are moments in
our life when even
Schubert has nothing to
say to us…”
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.75) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
40
Wan-fa took his
undershirt …sacrificed
something for his son’s
sake.
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.78) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
46
a poor man is not poor
at all in self-respect
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.92) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
46
for no reason at all, he
suddenly regretted
having driving Chien
away
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.97) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
46
after being released, he
completely …with
himself for being
pleased
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.98) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
47
No, Wan-fa warned
himself, … himself, a
poor man is not poor at
all in self-respect.
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970, (p.92) New York : Columbia
University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
52
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
Copyright Declaration
Page
48
49
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Licensing
Author/Source
All the villagers laughed
at him, and …villagers.
He might also feel much
better now.
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970,
(p.75) New York : Columbia University Press
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
Ah-hao came in and
joined them. “Mr.
Chien …my wife for an
oxcart. What a disgrace!
Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry
Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.).
Chinese stories from Taiwan, 1960-1970,
(p.98) New York : Columbia University Press
It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
•Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
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Chinese Stories from Taiwan: 1960-1970