Global 10 Thematic Essays Topics Belief Systems Change Human and Physical Geography Human Rights Citizenship Conflict Culture and Intellectual Life Decision Making Diversity Economic Systems Environment and Society Factors of Production Political Systems Power Scarcity Imperialism Interdependence Science and Technology Justice Urbanization Movement of People and Goods Nationalism Nation States Needs and Wants Thematic Essay Topics European Feudalism Mao Zedong French Revolution Hinduism Silk Road Israel Bantu Migration Crusades Mikhail Gorbachev Russian Revolution Printing Press Enlightenment Age of Exploration Neolithic Revolution Fall of the Roman Empire Seed Drill Stalin’s Russia Renaissance Protestant Reformation World War I Golden Age of Democracy (Greece) Louis XIV Queen Elizabeth I Treaty of Versailles River Valley Civilizations Industrial Revolution BACK TO fall of roman empire European Feudalism and Manorialism After the fall of the Roman Empire, Western Europe would soon fall into a feudal period with lords and kings controlling pieces of land and fighting with other lords for control. Feudal societies were tightly closed institutions with the church carrying most of the power. Peasants and serfs were the lowest on the social ladder, but they generally accepted their fate as the will of God. Although they varied in size, the manors were self-sufficient. Each manor had a manor house, a village church which was the center of manor activity, the peasants cottages, fields owned by the lords and fields owned by the peasants, a mill, a common pasture, and a woodland. Of the lord’s fields, one would remain unplanted each year. This was known as the fallow field. Economic IMPACT During the Middle Ages, the manor system (manorialism) was the basic economic arrangement. 1) Based on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs 2) The lord provided the serf with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits 3) In return, serfs tended the lord’s lands, cared for their animals and performed other tasks to maintain the estate 4) Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from their own manor 5) Manors were self sufficient, everything they needed was produced on the manor (crops, milk, cheese, fuel, cloth, leather goods, and lumber) 6) Peasants (serfs) paid taxes on grain and marriage, as well as a tax which was 1/10th of their income Political The feudal system governed Western European society. There was a strict social system in place where everyone had a role. 1) The structure of the feudal society was like a pyramid with the king on top nobles and bishops next, knights below them and peasants last IMPACT 2) People were classified into three groups: those who fought (knights), those who prayed (people of the church) and those who worked (peasants). You were born into a social class 3) Serfs (peasants) could not lawfully leave the land. This would eventually lead to peasants leaving for the Crusades HOME 4) The feudal system was based on rights and obligations. In exchange for military service a lord or landowner, granted land called a fief. The person receiving the fief was called a vassal. Knights pledged to protect the vassal’s land and peasants worked the land. BACK TO Enlightenment French Revolution There was a great unrest in France, caused by bad harvests, high taxes, and unfair treatment of the Third Estate Cause of the French Revolution: IMPACT 1) Enlightenment Ideas: Members of the Third Estate were inspired by the American Revolution and enlightened ideas about equality, liberty, and democracy. 2) Economic Troubles: The heavy burden of taxes on the Third Estate was becoming too much to bear. While the First Estate (aristocrats) paid none, and the Second Estate (clergy) paid little, the Third Estate had to pay all of France’s taxes. When France got into trouble economically due to the spending of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette as well as the cost of supporting the American Revolution, IMPACT the Third Estate was forced to pay even more in taxes. 3) A weak leader – Louis XVI: Louis did nothing to fix France’s economic problems. Instead, he ignored his advisors and listened to bad advice from his wife. He ignored the money problems until it was too late, and then HOME when he suggested the nobility pay taxes, he was turned away. Reign of Terror After the Third Estate was victorious, they set out to establish a society based on equality. Their Declaration of the Rights of Man was similar to the Declaration of Independence. It would not last as a terrorist group known as the Jacobins, and led by Maximillien Robespierre, took power and a reign of terror soon began. 1) The church’s land was taken away and sold. The church became part of the state. This turned many peasants against the rulers 2) The former aristocracy was imprisoned or beheaded with the guillotine being the weapon of choice. As many as 40,000 were executed, with 85% of them being peasants. The reign of terror went after anyone considered an enemy of the state 3) King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were beheaded after the role of the monarchy was weakened and finally dissolved. 4) After Robespierre’s execution, the French turned to a new leader Napoleon gains power BACK TO World War I Russian Revolution As a result of a strict autocratic czarist rule, troops firing on protesting citizens (Bloody Sunday), the failures of Russia during the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I, the Russian people finally had had enough. Vladimir Lenin took a train out of Germany where he was exiled IMPACT and helped Russia overthrow the provisional government that replaced Czar Nicholas’ rule. Lenin was able to gain the support of the peasants by offering them three things that they lacked…”Land, Peace, Bread”. After the provisional government replaced the Czar, there was hope that Russia would withdraw from World War I. When this didn’t happen, Russia was ripe for a civil war. Vladimir Lenin saw this as his opportunity and he and his Bolsheviks overthrew the new provisional government and replaced it with a type of government based on the writings of Freidrich Engels and Karl Marx known as Communism. Communist Government Lenin’s first act as a Communist leader was to restore order in Russia. He initially put aside his plans for a state-controlled economy. Instead he installed a small-scale version of capitalism called the New Economic Plan (NEP). 1) The NEP allowed peasants to sell their surplus crops instead of turning them over to the government. 2) Some aspects of Communism were evident however as the new government did control major industries, banks, and communication. 3) Small factories, businesses, and farms were allowed to operate under private ownership. Industry would soon reach pre WWI production 4) The government also encouraged foreign investment 5) Russia was changed to the USSR in 1922 and the Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communist Party. Lenin had established a dictatorship of the Communist Party, not a dictatorship of the proletariat as Marx had promised Rule of Josef Stalin IMPACT Hyperlink to Josef Stalin HOME Printing Press Invented by Johann Gutenberg, the printing press made it easier, cheaper, and faster to print books. With books readily available, people slowly began to read. The first book to be published was the Gutenberg Bible. Once this was published, no longer was reading and interpreting the Bible restricted to church officials, priests, and monks. Now ordinary people were able to read and interpret the Bible. Once they began to interpret the Bible, they began to question the powerful church. Once they questioned the church, the church began to lose power. The first to question the church was Martin Luther. His questioning of the church led to the Protestant Reformation. Another impact of the Gutenberg printing press was the Age of Exploration. With people reading about far away places, their imagination took over. They no longer were content with merely reading, now they wanted to explore. A questioning and adventurous spirit arose. This would turn into the Age of Exploration. Sailors would head off to far away unknown places to see what was really out there. The Age of Exploration would soon lead to European imperialism in the Americas as well as global trade Age of Exploration IMPACT hyperlink to Age of Exploration Reformation IMPACT hyperlink to Reformation HOME Enlightenment The period between 1300 and 1600 was a time of great change in Europe. The Renaissance, a rebirth of learning and the arts, inspired a spirit of curiosity in many fields. Scholars began to question ideas that had been accepted for hundreds of years. Meanwhile, the religious movement known as the Reformation prompted followers to challenge accepted ways of thinking about God. While the Reformation was taking place, another revolution in European thought had begun, one that would permanently changed how people viewed the physical world. Astronomers such as Galileo began to question the church’s view of the world. A new scientific method took place, with scholars testing out ideas and drawing conclusions based on observation. Enlightenment ideas would soon spread from views of science to views on government. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, and Jean Jacques Rousseau would soon present ideas that would change the face of government the world over. Scientific Method The basis for the Scientific Revolution was the Scientific IMPACT Method. The scientific method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on the workings of the universe. This process removed blind adherence to tradition from science, and allowed scientists to logically find answers through the use of reason. This method of research is the basis for modern science. Copernicus: Nicolaus Copernicus developed the heliocentric model of the universe. This states that the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it. Despite his calculations, many scholars disagree with his theories and continue to believe in the geocentric model proposed by the ancient Greek Ptolemy 1500 years earlier. Galileo: Galileo continues Copernicus' work by observing the skies with a homemade telescope. Although he was able to prove Copernicus correct, his work was rejected by the Church and he was forced to recant (take back) or face execution. Newton: Isaac Newton built upon the earlier work of Copernicus and Galileo and used mathematics to describe gravity as the force that keeps planets revolving around the sun. He also explained that this same force is what causes objects to fall to earth. Effects The Scientific Revolution had far reaching effects. Besides changing the way people thought about the universe, the use of the Scientific Method resulted in discoveries in medicine, physics, and biology. The American and French Revolution: IMPACT The Enlightened thinkers such as Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau encouraged the Americans to challenge the British for independence. The belief that all men are created equal and that government should be made by the people and for the people inspired the Americans into the Revolutionary War. After seeing the Americans success against the British, the French Third Estate were encouraged to overthrow the repressive French Monarchy. hyperlink to French Revolution HOME BACK TO European Renaissance BACK TO printing press Age of Exploration By the early 1400s, Europeans were ready to venture beyond their borders. The Renaissance encouraged, among other things, a new spirit of adventure and curiosity. This spirit of adventure, along with several other important reasons, prompted Europeans to explore the world around them. The desire for new wealth was the main reason for European exploration. The Muslims had controlled the Mediterranean trade route and only allowed the Italians access to trade. A shorter trade route was needed to get to India and the rest of Asia from Europe. Leaders of Spain and Portugal wanted to gain power through trade, and access to India was vital. Columbus convinced Ferdinand and Isabella to sponsor a voyage westward to India. Instead of sailing to India, Columbus discovered a new land, the Americas. Changes would soon take place as the Spanish would colonize the Americas. European countries would soon become world powers and a new economic system known as mercantilism would result. Colonies would be used to supply materials and markets to the mother country. European Imperialism in the Americas Italian IMPACT explorer Christopher Columbus convinces Spain to be the benefactor of sailing to the west to reach the East Indies. Columbus ends up in the Americas and Spain begins colonization (Gold, God, and Glory). Spanish Conquistadors soon begin their conquest of the Americas. Hernando Cortes conquers the Aztecs of Mexico in search of gold and silver. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incans in the Andes mountains. As Spain colonizes the Americas, the encomienda system is put in place, guaranteeing Spain a source of labor. The native people of the Americas were put in lower classes and mistreated while other slaves in the Caribbean were even less fortunate and put into slavery. Diseases and forced labor soon take their toll as Native populations dwindle to almost nothing. Portugal also gets into the Americas by claiming Brazil. Global Trade and Mercantilism After the native IMPACT HOME American population was wiped out, the Spanish began exporting slaves from Africa to work the land. Some 9.6 million Africans were imported to the Americas. England would soon become the major importer of slaves into the Americas. The Triangular Trade route would soon come into existence as manufactured goods were sent to Africa, African slaves were sent to the Americas, and sugar, coffee, and tobacco were shipped to Europe. The slaves had a hard life in the Americas, however they would strain to keep their African culture. The Columbian Exchange would also play a big role in European trade as the transfer of food, plants, and animals would take place between the Americas and Europe. The entire world would get caught up in trade and capitalism in what is today called global trade. Fall of the Roman Empire In the third century A.D., Rome faced many problems. They came from both within the empire and from the outside. 1) Weakened economy: Hostile tribes from outside the empire and pirates on the Mediterranean Sea disrupted trade. IMPACT With new sources of gold and silver lacking, the government raised taxes. Rome minted coins with less gold and silver, thereby bringing down the value. Overworked soil had lost it’s ability to produce crops, and harvests became meager. Wars had also disrupted lots of farmland. Soon, food shortages and disease spread, and population fell. 2) Military and political turmoil: Rome began to recruit outside sources for their military as Roman soldiers became less loyal to Rome and more loyal to their commanders. Citizens also became more indifferent to the IMPACT empire’s fate. People felt serving in government was now a burden instead of a privilege. 3) Threat from the north: As with China, nomadic warriors threatened the empire. Germanic tribes such as the Huns, Vandals, Visigoths, and Ostrogoths would soon bring down the HOME empire. Feudalism hyperlink to Feudalism Byzantine Empire The Empire of Byzantium was the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, which was divided in 395 A.D. Its capital of Constantinople, located on a peninsula, was naturally secure from invasion on three sides, and its fourth side was fortified with a network of three walls that withstood direct attack for over a thousand years. Its stable economy provided a strong military and, together with an abundant food supply and advanced civil engineering, a high standard of living. Christianity was firmly entrenched in Byzantium, and literacy was more widespread there than in any other nation in the middle ages. Nevertheless, Byzantium remained the most stable nation of the middle ages. Its central location between western Europe and Asia not only enriched its economy and its culture but allowed it to serve as a barrier against aggressive barbarians from both areas. Its rich tradition (strongly influenced by the church) preserved ancient knowledge upon which splendid art, architecture, literature and technological achievements were built. It is not an altogether unfounded assumption that the Renaissance could not have flourished were it not for the groundwork laid in Byzantium. BACK TO RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Stalin’s Russia (873-879) After Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922, Stalin made the move to gain the top position in the Communist Party. Stalin was cold, hard, and impersonal. During his early days in the Bolsheviks, he changed his name to Stalin, which means IMPACT “Man of Steel”. By 1928, Stalin was in total control of the Communist Party, wrestling power away from Leon Trotsky, who Stalin would later order killed. Stalin would become a totalitarian ruler, taking control of every aspect of public and private life. Stalin would build a totalitarian state in Russia, using secret police and controlling all of the media. Anyone threatening his power would be eliminated. Stalin would have total control of the USSR economically, politically, and socially. IMPACT HOME Economic Control As Stalin gained control of society, he was setting plans in motion to overhaul the economy. He announced “We are a good fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years”. 1) In 1928 Stalin called for a command economy, a system in which the government makes all economic decisions. 2) An industrial revolution. Stalin outlined the first of several Five-Year plans for the development of the Soviet Union economy. Impossibly high quotas were set for the production of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these goals, consumer goods were limited. As a result, consumers faced shortages of housing, food, and clothing. 3) Agricultural Revolution. In 1928, the government seized over 25 million privately owned farms and combined them into large collective farms. When the Ukrainian Kulaks resisted, Stalin ordered peasants onto the farms or forced a famine. Between 5-10 million would die. Stalin’s totalitarian rule revolutionized Soviet society. The change in people’s lives came at great cost as people lost their freedoms, dissent was prohibited, and goods were scarce. 1) Men and Women were declared equals. Under Stalin, women had no choice but to join the labor force. The state provided care for their children, which the state used as a means to educate the children. By 1950, women made up 75% of Soviet doctors. They were also scientists, electricians, and construction workers. 2) Government controlled all education and were taught the virtues of the Communist Party. Anyone who questioned the Communist Party risked losing their jobs or faced imprisonment. 3) Religious teachings were replaced with the ideals of communism. Propaganda was used to attack religion. The Russian Orthodox Church was the main target of persecution. The police destroyed churches and many religious leaders were killed or sent to prison. Social Control European Renaissance The movement that started in Italy caused an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately 1300-1600. Historians call this period the Renaissance, which means rebirth. A revival in art and learning as well as a desire to bring back Greek and Roman culture led to a new age. The Crusades showed the Christian world the wealth of Asian goods and Italy, being on the Mediterranean, was the first to take advantage. A competition between the European countries would soon take place in an attempt to gain wealth. Countries such as Spain and Portugal followed by France and England would explore the unknown with the same sense of adventure found during the Renaissance. The questioning spirit of the renaissance would also lead to the Protestant Reformation as people would begin to question the Catholic Church and their practices. Age of Exploration IMPACT hyperlink to Age of Exploration Protestant Reformation IMPACT hyperlink to Reformation HOME Golden Age of Greece (Democracy) The Greeks were the first to use democracy as a form of government. Under Pericles, male citizens in Athens participated in the daily running of government. This form of direct democracy excluded all non-citizens such as slaves and women. These achievements were mainly confined to the city-state of Athens, where a strong economy and good government created the conditions necessary for such advancements. Political To strengthen democracy, Pericles increased the number of IMPACT Democracy was developed between 461 and 429 B.C. public officials who were paid salaries. Earlier in Athens, most positions in public office were unpaid. Thus, only the wealthier Athenian citizens could afford to hold public office. Now even the poorest citizen could serve if elected or chosen by lot. Consequently, Athens had more citizens engaged in self-government than any other city-state in Greece. This reform made Athens one of the most democratic governments in history. The introduction of direct democracy, a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through elected representatives, was an important legacy in Periclean Athens. Few other city-states practiced this type of government. In Athens, male citizens who serve din the assembly established all of the important government policies that affected the polis (city-state). Many countries today still enjoy a form of democracy, most notably the United States. While Draco, King Solon, and Cleisthenes introduced forms of democracy, Greece would reach its Golden Age under the rule of Pericles. Pericles had three goals: 1) to strengthen Athenian Democracy 2) to hold and strengthen the empire 3) to glorify Athens Social The Golden Age of Greece was also a time of great art and IMPACT HOME architecture. Pericles’ goal was to have the greatest Greek artists and architects create magnificent sculptures and buildings to glorify Athens. At the center of his plan was one of architecture’s noblest works – the Parthenon. A masterpiece of design and craftsmanship was based on architecture that had been used to create Greek temples 200 years earlier. Phidias sculpted most of the work in the parthenon, including a 30 foot statue of the Greek goddess Athena. Phidias and other sculptors during this golden age aimed to create figures that were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. Their values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard of what is known as classical art. The Greeks also invented drama and built the first theaters in the west. Theater productions were both an expression of civic pride and a tribute to the gods. Tragedy and comedy were the best known types of dramas. Plays based on wars and poking fun at politicians showed the freedom and openness that existed in Athens. Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth inherited a tattered realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors, Mary's loss of Calais left England with no continental possessions for the first time since the arrival of the Normans in 1066 and many (mainly Catholics) doubted Elizabeth's claim to the throne. Continental affairs added to the problems - France had a strong foothold in Scotland, and Spain, the strongest western nation at the time, posed a threat to the security of the realm. Elizabeth proved most calm and calculating (even though she had a horrendous temper) in her political acumen, employing capable and distinguished men to carrying out her royal wishes. Political: Her first order of business was to eliminate religious unrest. IMPACT Elizabeth lacked the fanaticism of her siblings, Edward VI favored Protestant radicalism, Mary I, conservative Catholicism, which enabled her to devise a compromise where she would be tolerant of religions. She was, however, compelled to take a stronger Protestant stance for two reasons: the workings of Mary Queen of Scots and persecution of continental Protestants by the two strongholds of Orthodox Catholicism, Spain and France. The situation with Mary Queen of Scots was most vexing to Elizabeth. Mary, in Elizabeth's custody beginning in 1568 (for her own protection from radical Protestants and disgruntled Scots), gained the loyalty of Catholic factions and instituted severalfailed assassination/overthrow plots against her cousin, Elizabeth. After irrefutable evidence of Mary's involvement in such plots came to light, Elizabeth sadly succumbed to the pressure from her advisors and had the Scottish princess executed in 1587. Social: Elizabeth's reign was during one of the more constructive periods in IMPACT HOME English history. Literature bloomed through the works of Spenser, Marlowe and Shakespeare. Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh were instrumental in expanding English influence in the New World. Elizabeth's religious compromise laid many fears to rest. Fashion and education came to the fore because of Elizabeth's penchant for knowledge, courtly behavior and extravagant dress. Good Queen Bess, as she came to called, maintained a regal air until the day she died; a quote, from a letter by Paul Hentzen, reveals the aging queen's regal nature: "Next came the Queen in the sixty-fifth year of her age, as we were told, very majestic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes small yet black and pleasant; her nose a little hooked; her lips narrow... she had in her ear two pearls, with very rich drops... her air was stately; her manner of speaking mild and obliging." This regal figure surely had her faults, but the last Tudor excelled at rising to challenges and emerging victorious. River Valley Civilizations After the Neolithic Revolution, man began to settle. The fertile soil from the rivers supplied them with a place to grow crops. The rivers could also be used to transport goods. Early civilizations would begin in the river valleys of China, Mesopotamia, Indus, and Egypt. IMPACT Once man began to settle and civilizations began to develop, laws and religion was needed to keep society in order. Social - The early river people depended greatly on the annual rainfall and the fertile soil of the rivers to sustain life. A poor rain season would result in crop failures. Too much rain would result in disastrous flooding. Man turned to appeasing the gods to guarantee them a good harvest. The Sumerians of Mesopotamia believed that many gods controlled the various forces of nature. Enlil, the god of storms and air was the most powerful god. Sumerians feared him as “the raging flood that has no rival.” Humans were nothing but servants to the gods and at any time, the mighty anger of the gods might strike, sending a fire, a flood, or an enemy to destroy the city. To keep the gods happy, the Sumerians built impressive ziggurats for them and offered rich sacrifices of animals, food, and wine. Sumerians were also credited with inventing the wheel, the sail, and the plow. They were also the first to use bronze. They also invented a number system still in use today using the number 60 (60 seconds, 360 degrees etc.). With this knowledge, they were able to design arches, pyramids, and columns. They also invented cuneiform (writing) Government – In order to distribute and keep control over food supply in times of crisis, governments were formed. The most famous of these was the Code of Hammurabi which gave consistent laws throughout the Babylonian empire. IMPACT hyperlink to Code of Hammurabi HOME Mao Zedong Mao Zedong, was in direct opposition to the democratic principles of Jiang Jieshi and the Kuomintang. Mao was a Marxist who followed the principles of communism, as opposed to capitalism. Mao won the favor of the Chinese people during the Communist Revolution against Jieshi. Mao's Long March was an event in which 100,000 communists walked nearly 6,000 miles while under constant fire from the Kuomintang. It became Mao's symbol of perseverance and helped him rise to power after the Japanese invasion of China during the Second World War was finally halted. After defeating Jieshi, Mao assumed power in 1949 as the communist leader of the People's Republic of China. Social IMPACT Mao Zedong, upon establishing the communist People's Republic of China, set out to transform his country into a modern state. Politics and economics were state controlled in what is referred to as the Great Leap Forward. Mao also attempted to control the very minds of the people. Beginning with the education of school children, communist thinking was indoctrinated. Mao's Little Red Book was required reading and any former members of the intelligentsia, the educated class, were forced into schools that re-trained their minds to fit Mao's vision. Confucianism and Taoism, the traditional religions of China, were banned. However, women did receive more equality as traditional Chinese culture was suppressed. Any opposition to Mao's authority was quickly and harshly put down. In the late 1950's into the 60's, Mao's opponents, despite the consequences, began demanding changes in Mao's policies. Mao responded by unleashing the Red Guard, a mob of students who attacked and brutalized any who spoke out against Mao. This period was known as the Cultural Revolution. The ensuing chaos brought China to a grinding halt in terms of industrial production. Finally, a harsh military-enforced crack-down ended the Cultural Revolution by the late 1960's. Economic Agrarian Reform law IMPACT Five Year Plans Great Leap Forward HOME Hinduism (caste system) Background Hinduism is a polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices. Basics Established-Elements of the Hindu religion can be traced back to the ancient Indus River Valley civilization (approximately 3000 BCE) in modernday Pakistan. Founder-It has been theorized that Hinduism is a result of cultural diffusion that occurred between Aryan invaders and the native peoples of India sometime around 1500 BCE. Geographic Origin-Developed on the Indian subcontinent. Currently Practiced-Most common in India. Significant Writings-Vedas, Upanishads, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita. Significant Religious People-Hindu priests carry out traditional religious practices in temples Caste System: A strict social structure where caste members cannot move between castes. Those removed from the caste are referred to as untouchables. The only way to move to a higher caste is to live a good life and be reincarnated into a higher caste. Social: Hindu ideas about karma and reincarnation strengthened the IMPACT caste system. If a person was born as an upper-caste male – a Brahmin, warrior, or merchant – his good fortune was said to have some from good karma earned in a previous life. However a person born as a female, a laborer, or an untouchable might be getting the results of bad deeds from a former life. Together, the beliefs of Hinduism and the caste structure dominated every aspect of a person’s life. These beliefs determined what one could eat and the way in which one ate it, personal cleanliness, the people one could associate with, how one dressed, and so on. Today, even in the most ordinary activities of daily life, Hindus turn to their religion for guidance. Political: Hinduism has also led to political turmoil in India, most IMPACT HOME notably with the Muslim population. After Mohandas Gandhi led India to independence from the British, religious problems surfaced. The Muslim population, not wanting to be under Hindu rule, demanded a separate homeland. After British independence, India was partitioned into East Pakistan, West Pakistan, and India. Muslims attempting to reach the “correct” nation and Hindus attempting to get to India from Pakistan crossed paths causing great violence. Over 1,00,000 were killed as a result of the fighting that took place between the Hindus and Muslims as they attempted to reach their lands. Even today, relations are somewhat tenuous between India and Pakistan as both sides have established nuclear weapons and have threatened to use them. The area of Kashmir, in Northern India is still in conflict as the majority of the population is Muslim while the land itself resides within India’s borders. Israel The Zionist movement, started in the late 1800s by Theodor Herzl, became a reality in 1948 as the Jewish state was born. After the Holocaust, The United Nations partitioned Palestine, giving half of Palestine for a Jewish state called Israel. The day that Israel declared itself a state, trouble arose with all of Israel’s neighbors, led by Egypt, attacking the newfound nation. Diaspora: global dispersal of Jews Zionists: people who favor a Jewish homeland Constant fighting takes place in this area as Israel is surrounded by Arab neighbors Main export is diamonds along with fruits, vegetables, and high-tech equipment Israel is 80.1% Jewish; 14.6% Muslim; and 2.1% Christian The official language is Hebrew. English and Arabic are spoken as well Israel’s government is a Parliamentary Democracy Past Prime Ministers include David Ben Gurion; Golda Meir; and Menachem Begin Social – Migration: The land called Palestine now consists of Israel, IMPACT the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. To Jews, their claim to the land goes back 3,000 years, when Jewish kings ruled the land from Jerusalem. To Palestinians, the land has belonged to them since the Jews were driven out around 135 A.D. After being forced out, the Jewish people were not able to establish a Jewish state and were forced to live throughout the countries of the world. The global dispersal of Jewish people is known as the Diaspora. In 1917, with Britain in control of the region after the defeat of the Ottoman Turks, Alfred Balfour recommended that Palestine be given to the Jews for a homeland. The Jewish presence would grow larger in this region. At the end of World War II, in the wake of the war and the holocaust, the UN decided that a Jewish state should exist and Israel was born. Since 1945 over 5 million Jews have migrated to Israel. The main migration occurred immediately after WWII and after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989. The Jewish people move out of countries where they face discrimination. Political – conflict: As soon as Israel declared independence, it was IMPACT HOME attacked by six Arab neighbors (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria). The first of many Arab-Israel wars, this one ended in six months with Israel victorious. The Suez Crisis in 1956 occurred in 1956. Egypt attempted to nationalize the Suez canal, against the will of the British. England would get Israel’s support in attacking Egypt, and Egypt would emerge victorious. The US would step in and demand the withdrawal of British, French, and Israel troops. In 1967, the Six-Day war would occur, causing Israel to lose 800 troops to the Arabs 15,000. Israel conquers Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. 600,000 Palestinians become refugees. The Arab attacked again on the holiest of Jewish holidays, Yom Kippur. Peace would be declared with no territorial changes. In 1978, peace would finally occur between Egypt and Israel as Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin sign the Camp David Accord. Egypt recognized Israel and Israel returns land to Egypt. Later attempts at peace in the Middle East would prove elusive. During the Middle Ages, Europeans had only one significant unifying aspect of life. The Catholic Church permeated every aspect of society. Waging war with another feudal lord was often viewed as an economic venture where loyalties were easily broken if the price was right. Battling for the Church was an entirely different thing, animosities and rivalries were forgotten if the Church needed defending. For about 200 years, Western Europe under the sway of the Catholic Church, attempted to retake the Holy Land away from the Muslims. The largest target was the holy city of Jerusalem, however, other areas were fought over, such as the city of Constantinople. Jerusalem remains a religiously significant and contested site today with Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all having a vested interest. The Christians were never able to effectively take, and then maintain control, however, many changes occurred as a result of the Crusades. The majority of feudal lords were killed, which allowed the few remaining to gain more power, eventually resulting in the rise of nation-states and absolute monarchs. Also, cultural diffusion occurred between the Arab and European worlds. New ideas and trade goods flowed between the two areas which eventually brought Europe to the forefront of world affairs. Crusades The power structure would change in Western Europe as a result of the Crusades. During the Middle Ages, lords and the church, specifically the Pope held all the power. Kings had no control over the decentralized governments that resulted from the fall of the Roman Empire. IMPACT The power of the Pope and the Catholic Church was greatly diminished. The people of Western Europe were upset that the Pope sent them on the Crusades. It was originally thought that the Crusades wee being done for the benefit of God. Instead, they were being done to increase the power of the Pope who would rule over the East and West if the Crusades were a success. The lords also lost their power, their fortunes, and their lives. The lords spent their fortunes on the Crusade, and would return void of their wealth. Many also lost their lives. With no lords to control the manors and with the peasants having experienced and outside world, feudalism and Manorialism would end up falling, bringing and end to the Dark Ages. IMPACT HOME “The Most Successful Failure in History” A major result of the Crusades, was an increase in trade. European interest in goods from the east was stimulated by returning Crusaders who brought back many things. As the Crusades ended, ships that were once used to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried trade goods. Merchants from rich Italian city states, such as Venice and Florence, dominated this trade. Goods from the Middle East would arrive in Venice, before following newly established trade routes to the rest of Europe. Along these new trade routes, trade fairs were established in towns with larger populations, or at major crossroads. Over time, merchants and craftsman settled in these towns, and some grew to be cities of several thousand people. This fundamentally altered the way people lived in Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal obligations with cash instead of service. The Renaissance would now emerge in Europe, starting in Italy. Hyperlink to the Renaissance BACK TO European Renaissance BACK TO printing press Protestant Reformation By the tenth century, the Roman Catholic Church had come to dominate life in Northern and Eastern Europe. It had not, however, won universal approval. People began to criticize the policies of the church and felt church leaders were too interested IMPACT in worldly possessions and pursuits. The Renaissance led to an emphasis on the secular and the individual to challenge church authority. Rulers also began to challenge the church’s political power and merchants resented paying church taxes. Finally, in 1517, Martin Luther, a German monk posted his 95 theses or formal statements attacking the church. These protests were posted on a church door at Wittenberg Germany, and would usher in the Protestant Reformation. IMPACT HOME Religious / Social Despite religious wars and persecutions, Protestant churches flourished and new denominations developed. Both Catholics and Protestants gave more emphasis to the role of education in promoting their beliefs. This led to the founding of parish schools and new colleges and universities throughout Europe. Some women reformers hoped to see the status of women in the church and society improve but it still remained much the same. Women were limited to the concerns of home and the family. The split between Catholicism and Protestantism also led to effected countries such as England. After Henry VIII was not given permission by the Pope to divorce Catherine of Aragon, who could not provide him with a male heir to the throne, he removed the Catholic Church from England and replaced it with the Anglican religion. Religious rivalries would go on in England for the next century. Political As the Catholic Church’s moral and political authority declined, individual monarchs and states gained power. This led to the development of the modern nation states. In the 1600s, rulers of nation-states would seek more power for themselves and their countries through warfare, exploration, and expansion. The Reformation’s questioning authority of beliefs and authenticity also laid the groundwork for the Enlightenment, which would sweep Europe and led some to reject all religions and others to call for the overthrow of existing governments. World War I Throughout the 20th century, extreme nationalism spread throughout the countries of Europe, causing intense competition among nations. A rise of nationalism caused a fierce rivalry between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia called World War I (WWI). Other factors leading to IMPACT World War I were imperialism and militarism. One side of the war were the Central Powers of Germany and Austria –Hungary along with the Ottoman Empire. The Allied side featured Great Britain, France, and Russia with the United States getting involved near the end of the war. There are several impacts that WWI had on the countries. hyperlink to Treaty of Versailles IMPACT hyperlink to Russian Revolution HOME BACK TO World War I Treaty of Versailles At the completion of World War I, England and France were in a mood for revenge. World War I was over. The killing had stopped, however the terms for peace still had to be worked out. On January 18, 1919, a conference to establish these terms began at IMPACT the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris. For one year, 32 countries would vigorously debate. France and England would have the final say on the terms of the treaty. Woodrow Wilson would represent the United States, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Lloyd George of England. Wilson’s hopes for self-determination, an end to secret alliances, and reduced militaries was defeated. The main goal of the treaty was to punish Germany. The provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were strict punishment for Germany. 1) League of Nations: This was the only of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points to be accepted. It set up an international peace organization. Enemy nations and neutral nations were initially excluded however. (Germany, Russia) 2) Territorial losses: Germany returns Alsace Lorraine to the French; French border extended to the west bank of the Rhine River 3) Military Restrictions: Limits set on the size of the German army; Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing weapons or war material; Germany forbidden to build or buy submarines or airplanes. 4) War Guilt: Sole responsibility for the war placed on Germany’s shoulders; Germany forced to pay the allies $33 billion in war reparations over 30 years Germany would sink into an economic depression as a result of their inability to repay the war reparations, especially after the United States depression cut off American aid to Germany. As a result of the punishment of Germany, a person such as Adolf Hitler was able to gain power. With the promise to bring Germany back to its former glory and have revenge on the Treaty of Versailles, the German people were convinced that Hitler was worthy of their vote. Hitler would begin a campaign of conquering Europe, bringing about World War II. IMPACT hyperlink to World War II HOME Industrial Revolution In 1750, most people in Europe lived on small farms and produced most of their needs by hand. A century later, many people lived in cities and most of their needs were produced by complex machines using steam power. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to Belgium, France, Germany, the United States and Japan. It was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, and altered the way people lived. Capitalism and the Market Economy: Capitalism and Market Economies are based on trade and capital, which is money for investment. Higher demand for a product means higher prices and higher profits for traders and merchants. Lower demand means lower prices and lower profits. The British, with their vast overseas empire, had the capital necessary to invest in the building of railroads, factories, and mines. IMPACT The Factory System and Mass Production: The use of the Factory System allowed for mass production of textiles and other goods. This shifted people from production at home with the Put Out System, to production in large factories in cities. Mass production also allowed for lower prices on the good produced. Working Conditions: Factory workers worked very long hours, for little pay, under harsh conditions. Workers included children as young as 8, both male and female. Many people were injured or killed due to unsafe working conditions. Big Business: As the Industrial Revolution grew, so did business. To meet the needs of this growth, business owners sold shares of their companies to stockholders who would share the profits and losses. The influx of capital allowed business to grow into corporations that had dealing in many different areas. IMPACT HOME Urbanization and the Changing Society: People moved to towns and cities to be closer to the factories. Conditions were very poor during the early part of the Industrial Revolution, as factory workers lived in over crowded buildings, with no sewage or sanitation services. This resulted in widespread disease. New roles were defined for Middle Class men and women. MC men went to work in business, while MC women worked from home and cared for the family. The higher standard of living for the middle class meant that their children received some form of formal education. Working Class families faced many hardships due to poor living and working conditions, and most WC children never received an education. Silk Road The Silk Road was a Central Asian trade route used by Chinese, Indians, Muslim, and other traders. The Chinese made silk and soon became known for it. Soon silk was in demand and traders walked along routes known as Silk Roads. This increased trade and more products than just silk were traded. Indians realized they could make profits by being middlemen. They built stations near oases along the Silk Road. They bought Chinese goods and then sold them to traders headed towards Rome. Due to the number of different cultures and peoples traveling and trading along the Silk Road, an abundance of cultural diffusion would take place. Social Buddhism started in India, but because of the Silk Roads, it spread IMPACT to China and then Korea. Eventually Buddhism would spread from Korea to Japan, becoming the most widespread religion of Eastern Asia. The impact of Buddhism is still felt in East Asia today. The Silk Road also brought poets, philosophers, scientists to Paris. Most of these were to come from Cordoba in the Muslim Empire. Many non-Muslims adopted Muslim customs. Cordoba would become the center of Muslim culture. In Cordoba, Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad a cultural blending of people fueled a period of achievements in the arts and sciences. The Silk Road increased trade which led to a rise in banking in India. Commerce was profitable. Many Indian merchants went to live abroad, bringing culture with them. Many throughout Asia adopted Indian traditions, especially those in art, dance, and architecture. This was especially strong in Thailand, Cambodia, and Java. Hinduism also spread to Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bornea. Economic Location on the Silk Road not only gave them benefits from IMPACT HOME an exchange in culture, they also were to gain financially. To encourage trade, Muslim money changers set up banks and offered lines of credit (called sakks and pronounced “checks”). You could exchange sakks in any other city in the empire. Bantu Migration History: The Bantu originated in the north western area that they now occupy. Their migration throughout Africa is one of the largest migrations in human history. This migration began in about 1000 BC and continued until the 3rd or 4th century AD. There is continued speculation about why they moved in the first place. One reason may be that overpopulation encouraged some groups to move away in order to practice agriculture. Another could be that they were in search of fertile land. Or, the move may have been due to internal conflicts within their communities or external attacks by their neighbors. IMPACT Location: The Bantu people make up about 2/3 of Africa's population, and inhabit the southern half of the continent Language: The Bantu are a group of people known more as a language group than as a distinct ethnic group. They speak related languages and have similar social characteristics. The Bantu are split into two major language families, the Eastern Bantu and the Western Bantu. The most widely spoken Bantuderived language is Swahili, which is used by up to 50 million speakers on the eastern coast of Africa. There are two ways in which Bantu languages are different from English, Spanish, French, German, or other European languages. One is that you can stick markers onto a verb to indicate who's doing and receiving the action, so what would take a whole sentence in English only takes a single word in Swahili. The other is all nouns are marked as belonging to one of fifteen to twenty genders. IMPACT The Bantu introduced many things into the areas they migrated to. They were an agricultural people and introduced crops such as millet and sorghum. They may also have introduced iron smelting and iron tools. As the Bantu speakers spread south into hunter-gatherers’ lands, territorial wars often broke out. The Bantus, with their advanced weaponry, usually emerged victorious. The Bantu speakers exchanged ideas and intermarried with the people they joined. This intermingling created new cultures with unique customs and traditions. Along with agriculture and iron smelting, the Bantus passed along ideas about social and political organization. Some of these ideas still influence the political scene in eastern and southern Africa. Although the Bantu migrations produced a great diversity of cultures, language had a unifying influence on Africa. HOME Mikhail Gorbachev Born March 2, 1931, he was the leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His attempts at reform helped to end the cold war but also ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union would dissolve with his resignation. He was awarded the Noble Peace IMPACT prize in 1990. He was best known for his negotiations with US President Ronald Reagan in an attempt to reduce the military build up of both countries. His rule would end in 1991 after the Communist hard-liners attempted to overthrow him from power. Boris Yeltsin would step up and bring down the coup attempt. Yeltsin would soon gain the Presidency of the Soviet Union and break it apart for ever. The Soviet Union would become a group of independent nations led by Russia. Social – In 1985 Gorbachev began to promote a policy of glasnost or openness to the Soviet people. For the first time since the Communist Revolution of 1917, people were able to discuss freely the problems that plagued the Soviet Union. Glasnost brought about remarkable changes. The government allowed churches to open. It released dissidents from prison and allowed the publication of books by previously banned authors. Reporters investigated problems and criticized officials. Economic – The new openness of the Soviet Union allowed citizens to IMPACT HOME complain about economic problems. Consumers protested that they had to stand in line to buy food and other basics. Gorbachev blamed these problems on the Soviet Unions system of central planning. Under central planning, party officials told farm and factory workers how much to produce. They also told them what wages to pay and what prices to charge. Because individuals could not increase their pay by producing more, they had little incentive to produce more. In 1985, Gorbachev introduced the policy of perestroika or restructuring of the economy. In 1986 he made changes to revive the Soviet economy. Local managers gained greater authority over their farms and factories, and people were allowed to open small private businesses. Gorbachev’s goal was not to overthrow Communism, but rather move the USSR away from the command economy they were under and into a more free-market economy. Neolithic Revolution 10,000 years ago, some women may have scattered seeds near a regular campsite. When they returned next season, they may have found new crops growing. This discovery would usher in the Neolithic Revolution or the agricultural revolution. The shift from food gathering to food production would change life for early humans forever. Numerous changes would take place for early humans as they would now become farmers. Nomadic life would turn to a life of settlers. Agriculture Early groups practiced a slash and burn farming in which IMPACT they cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field. The ashes that remained fertilized the soil. Farmers planted crops for a year or two, then moved to another area of land. After several years, trees and grasses grew back, and other farmers repeated the process of slashing and burning. At the same time, hunters’ expert knowledge of wild animals likely played a key role in the domestication of animals. They tamed horses, dogs, goats, and pigs. Like farming, domestication of animals came slowly. Stone Age hunters would drive animals off of cliffs to be slaughtered. Humans now would drive animals into man-made enclosures. From there, farmers could keep animals as a constant source of food and gradually tame them. Villages to Cities As former nomads began to settle, villages would IMPACT HOME soon emerge. These villages would crop up near important water sources such as rivers. The first civilizations would soon develop into cities. People settled in stable communities that were based on agriculture. The invention of new tools such as hoes, sickles, and plow sticks made the task of farming easier. As the population grew, social relationships became more complicated. Elaborate irrigation systems were built, thereby producing a surplus of crops. When this occurred, some were free to pursue other jobs aside from farming. People now became specialized, such as craftsmen and traders. Those with higher skilled jobs became wealthier and social classes emerged. With soaring populations came the need for governments and laws. Record keeping also became and important part of city life. A writing system was soon developed in which traders could keep track of their transactions. Seed Drill The Seed Drill was invented in 1701 by Jethro Tull. This invention allowed fields to be plowed in straight lines, and seeds to be planted at specific distances apart and at specific depths in each one. This invention would pave the way for the agricultural revolution of the 1700s, in which inventions IMPACT such as the cotton gin, and procedures such as crop rotation and enclosures became commonplace. Fewer farmers were required to produce enough food to feed the entire population. Economic The invention of the seed drill greatly boosted agricultural production and crop yields. Before this invention, seeds had simply been sprinkled among the fields, leading many to die from failure to root. With the seed drill, each seed was plowed carefully and as a result, more crops flourished. With the extra crops, the population flourished and more workers were produced, which led to a boom in industrial production in England. As a result, England was very advanced and became a major force. With all of their extra output of goods, they began to trade more, thus further increasing their wealth. Socially The seed drill decreased the number of farmers needed to sow IMPACT HOME crops drastically. As a result, more people turned to the cities to work in the factories and textile mills. The Industrial Revolution began with a new wave of workers, and inventions such as the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny were produced. Factory workers were subject to low wages, long hours, and dangerous and unsanitary working conditions. There was no hope of returning to the farms however, as the seed drill had so diminished the amount of farmers needed. The seed drill also led to a major population boom in Europe, as with more food available, more mouths could be fed. The population of Europe had finally exceeded the population of Europe before the plague. Louis XIV Louis XIV was four years old when he became King of France. Because of his young age, the Cardinal Mazarin ruled until his death. Louis was 22 when he would take control of the government. As a result of mistreatment by the nobles when he was of a young age, Louis’ first act as King would be to reduce the power of the nobles. King Louis XIV was a vain person, who liked to be called the “Sun King” as he believed that everything revolved around him. He was not only committed to complete control, but he was also committed to the arts and luxury. Social - IMPACT In his personal finances, Louis spent a fortune to surround himself in luxury. For example, each meal was a feast. Nearly 500 cooks, waiters, and other servants worked to satisfy his tastes. Versailles was the center of the arts during Louis’ reign. Louis made opera and ballet more popular, even dancing in a play entitled The Sun King. One of his favorite writes was Moliere, who Louis protected after a play was written that belittled religion. Not since Augustus of Rome had there been a European monarch who supported the arts as much as King Louis XIV. Under him, the chief goal of art was no longer to glorify God as it had been during the Middle Ages. Nor was it to glorify humans as it was during the Renaissance period. The goal of art now was to glorify the king and support Louis’ absolute rule. Political -. Once Louis XIV took control, his first act was to reduce the IMPACT HOME power of the nobility and make himself an absolute ruler. He weakened the power of the nobility by excluding them from his councils. Instead, the nobles were assigned as servants to wait on Louis hand and foot. It was said that 100 nobles greeted Louis every morning and were there to assist him in getting dressed. Having the nobles at the palace increased King Louis’ authority in two ways…It made the nobility totally dependent on Louis. It also took them from their homes, thereby giving more power to the intendants of France, whose job it was to collect taxes and administer justice. To keep the intendant’s power under control, Louis forced them to communicate with him regularly.