EDUCATION System in
Pakistan
5 December , 2008
1
1
Contents
PART - I
•
Constitution of Pakistan
•
Organization & Functions
PART – II
•
Education Scenario
•
Financing
•
Education Policy
•
Other Programmes
2
Constitution of Pakistan
3
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan, 1973 – Article 37-b
“The State shall remove illiteracy and
provide free and compulsory secondary
education within minimum possible
period”
Concurrent Legislative List:
Curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy,
centres of excellence, standard of
education & Islamic education
4
Functions and
Organizations
5
Major Functions of Ministry of Education
Under Rules of Business 1973
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
National policies, plans and programmes in education.
Development of curricula and textbooks.
International aspects of education.
External examinations. Equivalence of degrees and diplomas.
Education in the Capital, Federally Administered Areas and
AJ&K.
Financial assistance to educationists and men of letters.
National libraries.
Boy Scouts and Girl Guides.
Welfare of Pakistani students abroad and foreign students in
Pakistan.
Continue…
6
•
•
•
International exchange of students and teachers.
Foreign studies and training. International assistance.
Administration of Selective Federal educational institutions.
Act No. X of 1976 provides for Federal
supervision of curricula, textbooks and
maintenance of standards of education.
7
Millennium Development Goals
(2001)
1. Ensuring
that
by
2015
all
children,
particularly
girls,
children
in
difficult
circumstances and those belonging to ethnic
minorities, have access to and complete free
and compulsory primary education of good
quality
2. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and
secondary education by 2005, and achieving
gender equality in education by 2015, with a
focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access
to and achievement in basic education of
good quality
8
Functions of Administration Wing





Recruitment / appointments / promotions / transfers / grant of
leave and pension to employees of main Ministry.
Rules and regulations for appointments, promotions, transfers
etc. in main Ministry.
Maintenance of CR dossiers / ICP Charts / declaration of assets
of officers of Ministry.
Disciplinary cases, Courts and Wafaqi Mohtasib cases.
Administrative and financial matters of Federal Board of
Intermediate and Secondary Education and Pakistan National
Commission for UNESCO, Inter Board Committee of Chairmen,
Islamabad.

Administrative matters / budget of Education Division.

Processing of release of funds and reconciliation of expenditure.
Continue…
9
Functions of Administration Wing


Public Accounts Committee, Departmental Accounts Committee,
Audit observations and Internal Audits.
Business relating to the Parliament / Cabinet and other organs of
State.

Follow-up of President’s and Prime Minister’s Directives.

Inter-Ministerial and Intra-Ministerial Coordination.



Redressal of public grievances relating to Ministry and its
organizations.
Matters pertaining to Pakistan Boys Scouts Association and
Pakistan Girls Guides Association.
Presidential Awards i.e. Izaz-i-Kamal, Izaz-i-Fazeelat and Izaz-iSabqat etc.
10
Functions of Policy & Planning Wing

Formulation of National Policies, Plans and Programs.

Process all development schemes (DDWP, CDWP, ECNEC).






Organize Inter-Provincial Education Secretaries/Ministers'
meetings.
Prepare and monitor implementation of PSDP, Medium Term
Plan (MTP) and Perspective Plan (PP).
Coordinate release of funds with Finance Div., Planning &
Development Div. and AGPR.
Monitoring and evaluating education sector expenditures.
Assist and coordinate with Provincial Education, Finance and
Planning Departments and District Governments to develop
education sector plans.
Collection of statistics.
Continue…
11
Functions of Policy & Planning Wing







Surveys and research studies.
Laison with development partners, within government and
foreign donors and institutions.
Negotiate external economic assistance.
Prepare reports for media, budget speech, Economic
Survey, year book etc.
Disseminate government policies, plans, and programs
among all development partners and stakeholders.
Develop and Maintain Ministry’s website.
Oversee functioning of Academy for Educational Planning
and Management.
12
Functions of Curriculum Wing
Curriculum Wing has been empowered through Federal
Supervision of Curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of
Standards of Education Act, 1976:



To prepare or cause to be prepared [1] schemes of studies,
[2] curricula, [3] manuscripts of textbooks and [4] schedules
or strategy for their introduction in accordance with the
education policy.
To approve manuscripts of textbooks produced by other
agencies before they are prescribed.
To direct any person or agency to delete, amend or withdraw
any portion, or the whole, of the curriculum, textbook or
reference material.
13
Functions of Projects Wing

Monitoring of projects.

Collaboration between FIUs & PIUs.

Interact with donor agencies/partners/stakeholders.

Evaluation of projects.

Management and release of project funds.

Implementation of various projects (GoP and foreign
funded).
14
Functions of Training Wing








Teacher Training and Education-In-service and Pre-service
Training Programmes in collaboration with donors agencies.
Science Olympiads and fairs in collaboration with Intel and
universities etc.
Foreign and local scholarships.
International Cooperation and Cultural Exchange Programs.
Coordination / NOC to foreign students for admission in Pakistan
on self finance.
Management of educational institutions in ICT.
Administrative, financial and legal matters of following
institutions:
 National Institute of Science and Technical Education,
Islamabad
 Federal Directorate of Education, Islamabad
 Federal College of Education, Islamabad
 Polytechnic Institute for Women, Islamabad
Continue…
15
Functions of Training Wing

National Education Foundation, Islamabad

National Museum of Science and Technical Education, Lahore

Colombo Plan Staff College, Manila, Philippine

Technical Panel on Teacher Education, Islamabad

Dawood College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi

National College of Arts, Lahore

Sindh Madressah-tul-Islam, Karachi

Department of Libraries
16
Functions of Monitoring & Evaluation Cell






To monitor induction of modern education in Madaris and the
working of NGO’s.
To improve working of various organizations by suggesting
measures based on performance.
To identify areas in which performance has been unsatisfactory,
alongwith suggestions for improvement.
Keep Secretary / Minister informed on proper observance and
implementation of procedures in various departments,
particularly financial discipline.
Monitor and prevent losses due to fraud, misappropriation,
pilferage, misuse and theft.
Keep Secretary / Minister informed of any activities prejudicial
to the public interest and state of discipline and morale of
students and employees.
17
Functions of PMU
PMU will closely oversee all stages and aspects of planning, resource
mobilization, monitoring and coordination of all development projects
including ESR Programme at Federal, Provincial and District level.
Main Functions of PMU
 Ensure timely release of funds to line departments.
 Evolve Monitoring mechanism to gauge the out-puts/out-comes of
development Projects.
 To collect quarterly monitoring reports containing physical as well as
financial achievements.
 To ensure optimum and efficient utilization of the budget.
 To evaluate achievement of programme objectives and targets.
 To suggest and supervise remedial measures to improve effectiveness
and efficiency of the programme.
18
Pakistan Chairs Abroad
1. Quaid-e-Azam Distinguished Professorship at Columbia University,
USA.
2. Quaid-e-Azam Studies Chair, University of California, Berkeley,
USA.
3. Quaid-e-Azam Fellowship, Cambridge University, UK.
4. Allama Iqbal Fellowship, Cambridge University, UK.
5. Allama Iqbal Fellowship, Humboldt University, Germany.
6. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo,
Egypt.
7. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Ain Shams University, Cairo,
Egypt.
8. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Kazakh Albai Khan University
of International Relations and World Languages, Almaty,
Kazakhistan.
Continue…
19
Pakistan Chairs Abroad
9.
Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Ankara University, Turkey.
10. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Tehran University, Iran.
11. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Tribhuvan University,
Katmandu, Nepal.
12. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Jordan University,
Amman.
13. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Peking University,
Beijing, China.
14. Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Bapist University, Hong
Kong.
15. Allama Iqbal Research chair in Urdu and Arabic, King Saudi
University, Saudi Arabia.
20
Area Study Centres For:
1.
Central Asia, University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
2.
South Asia, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
3.
Far East and South East Asia, University of Sindh.
4.
Europe, University of Karachi, Karachi.
5.
Middle East and Arab Countries, University of Balochistan,
Quetta.
6.
Africa, North and South America, Quaid-e-Azam University,
Islamabad.
Pakistan Study Centres at Universities of Punjab,
Sindh, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta & Q. A. University
Shaikh Zayed Islamic Centres, University of Punjab,
Karachi & Peshawar.
21
Centres of Excellence
1.
2.
3.
4.
Psychology – Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad.
Mineralogy – University of Balochistan, Quetta.
Analytical Chemistry – University of Sindh, Jamshoro.
Water Resources Engineering – University of Engineering and
Technology, Lahore.
5.
Arts & Design – Mehran University of Engineering and
Technology, Jamshoro.
6.
Marine Biology – University of Karachi, Karachi.
7.
History and Culture – Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad.
8.
Molecular Biology – University of the Punjab, Lahore.
9.
Gender Studies – Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad.
10. Geology – University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
11. Physical Chemistry – University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
12. Solid State Physics – University of the Punjab, Lahore.
22
PART – II
EDUCATION SCENARIO
23
Human Development Index
Country
Ranking
(out of 177 countries)
2005
2006
2007
Iran
99
96
94
Sri Lanka
93
93
99
Maldives
96
98
100
India
127
126
128
Bhutan
134
135
133
Pakistan
135
134
136
Bangladesh
139
137
140
Nepal
136
138
142
Source: Human Development Reports, 2005-06 & 2007-08, UNDP
24
Literacy Rates
47%
67%
Pakistan:
Male:
Female:
55%
67%
42%
28%
58%
48%
42%
58%
22%
55%
67%
42%
67%
Literacy Definition
(As in 1998 Census)
“The ability of a person
who can read a
newspaper and write a
simple letter in any
language”
Sources: Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2006-07
25
Educational Institutions by Level
Level
Pre-primary
Mosque school
Total
Public
Private
1,081
287
794
14,123
14,035
88
122,349
105,526
16,823
Middle
38,449
14,334
24,115
Secondary
25,090
10,550
14,540
281
11
270
4,831
1,882
2,008
1,025
2,823
857
116
59
57
1257
426
831
3,059
916
2,143
12,153
354
11,799
3,120
2,241
879
227,791
151,772
(67%)
76,019
(33%)
Primary
British System
NFBE
Inter & Degree Colleges
Universities
Technical/ Professional
Vocational
Deeni Madaris
Others
TOTAL
26
Source: National Education Census 2006, GoP
Institutions by Medium of Instruction
Type
# of
Institutions
Urdu
148065
(65%)
English
22779
(10%)
Sindhi
34168
(15%)
Others
22779
(10%)
Total
227,791
Public
151,744
103,186
(68%)
3,035
(2%)
33,384
(22%)
12,139
(8%)
Private
76,047
43,347
(57%)
21,293
(28%)
1,521
(2%)
9,886
(13%)
Source: National Education Census 2006, GoP
27
No. of Institutions, Enrolment, Teaching Staff
Area
Educational
Institutions
Covered
Enrolment
NonFunctional (Million)
Teaching
Staff
Pakistan
227,791
12,737
33.5
1,356,802
Punjab
110,459
2,742
18.3
716,768
Sindh
51,006
3442
6.6
290,749
NWFP
37,761
1,781
5.2
198,893
Balochistan
10,986
306
1.1
50,893
ICT
1,189
23
0.4
19,387
FATA
5,145
123
0.6
22,079
Northern
Area
3,977
128
0.4
15,196
AJK
7,268
192
0.9
42,837
Source:
National Education Census (NEC), 2006
28
Enrolment (Million)
Province/Area
Total
Male
Female
Rural
Urban
Pakistan
33.379
18.981
57%
14.398
43%
19.159
57%
14.219
43%
Punjab
18.298
9.795
54%
8.503
46%
10.374
57%
7.924
43%
Sindh
6.552
3.844
59%
2.707
41%
2.551
39%
4.001
61%
NWFP
5.206
3.322
64%
1.884
36%
3.936
76%
1.270
24%
Balochistan
1.110
0.713
64%
0.396
36%
0.662
60%
0.447
40%
ICT
0.390
0.208
53%
0.181
47%
0.090
23%
0.300
77%
FATA
0.605
0.440
73%
0.165
27%
0.605
100%
-
Northern Area
0.354
0.190
54%
0.164
46%
0.288
81%
0.066
19%
AJK
0.859
0.464
54%
0.395
46%
0.650
76%
0.209
24%
National Education Census (NEC), 2006
29
Source:
Deeni Madaris (Enrolment and Teaching Staff)
No. for
which Data
Collected
Area
No.
Covered
No. of
Refusals
Pakistan
12,979
826
12,153
1,549,242
58,391
Punjab
5,459
159
5,300
674,281
24,977
Sindh
1,935
119
1,816
312,693
11,951
NWFP
2,843
275
2,568
336,983
12,058
769
99
670
65,597
2,891
77
15
62
10,557
657
FATA
135
43
92
14,162
481
FANA
1,193
39
1,154
88,540
3,160
568
77
491
46,429
2,216
Balochistan
ICT
AJK
Enrolment
Teaching
Staff
Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006
30
Drop-out Rates
Enrolment
1999-2000
Class 11-12
Class 9-10
Class 6- 8
Dropouts
1999-2000
0.076
30.14% 0.023
1.311
22.41% 0.294
3.074
Dropouts
2004-05
Enrolment
2004-05
Class 11-12
0.708
15.7%
0.111
Class 9-10 1.479
15.68% 0.232
Class 6- 8
15.9%
0.528
31.3%
4.641
3.323
24.5% 0.753
Class 1-5
Class 1-5
14.829
12.480
53.0% 6.614
Total: 16.941 Million Total: 7.684 Million
Total: 20.339 Million Total: 5.512 Million
Total children eligible for enrolment (5-16):
Children who did not enroll (5-16):
Source:
1. National Institute of Population Studies, 2004-05,
44.340 million
24.001 million
2. NEMIS, M/o Education.
31
Total schools upto Middle level
160,798
PAKISTAN
Missing Facilities
53,481
(33%)
46,766
(29%)
No Boundary
Wall
No Drinking
Water
81,633
(50%)
No Electricity
Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006
57,216
(35%)
No Toilet
9,776
(6%)
No Building
32
Public Schools in Union Councils
Pakistan
Punjab
Sindh
NWFP
Baloch.
AJK
FANA
Number of
Union
Councils
6,438
3,446
1,108
998
567
196
111
No. of Union
Councils
without
Boys High
School
2,080
(32%)
1,170
(34%)
386
(35%)
247
(25%)
225
(40%)
20
(10%)
32
(29%)
No. of Union
Councils
without Girls
High School
3,919
(61%)
2,014
(58%)
780
(70%)
619
(62%)
374
(66%)
45
(23%)
87
(78%)
No. of Union
Councils
without
Boys Higher
Sec. School
5,880
(91%)
3,215
(93%)
993
(90%)
816
(82%)
567
(100%)
178
(91%)
111
(100%)
No. of Union
Council
without Girls
Higher Sec.
School
6,053
(94%)
3,243
(94%)
1,046
(94%)
911
(91%)
567
(100%)
175
(89%)
111
(100%)
33
Computer and Science Labs in High Schools
Punjab
Sindh
NWFP
Baloch.
Total
Pakistan
Total
number of
high schools
13,152
4,608
2,723
670
21,153
Without
Computer
Labs
4,030
(31%)
1,362
(29%)
1,256
(46%)
476
(71%)
7,124
(34%)
Without
Science labs
1,527
(12%)
832
(18%)
511
(19%)
356
(53%)
3,226
(15%)
Without
Science
Teachers
1,143
(9%)
---
247
(9%)
86
(13%)
1,476
(7%)
34
Financing
35
Financing
Year
Recurring Development
(Rs. billion)
Total
% of
GDP
Private
Sector
% of
GDP*
2000-01
69.5
6.4
75.9
1.82%
16.8
2.22%
2001-02
70.4
8.5
78.9
1.79%
22.0
2.28%
2002-03
79.5
10.4
89.9
1.86%
26.3
2.41%
2003-04
94.3
30.0
124.3
2.20%
31.1
2.75%
2004-05
106.6
33.3
139.9
2.13%
36.0
2.67%
2005-06
128.9
41.9
170.8
2.21%
40.7
2.74%
2006-07
160.0
56.6
216.6
2.48%
45.5
2.96%
2007-08
191.0
65.0
256.0
2.44%
* % of GDP including Private sector budget.
Source: Demands for grants, Budget books of Govt. of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP,
Balochistan & AJ&K. Federal Ministries/Divisions, District Governments.
36
EDUCATION BUDGET AS % AGE OF
GDP (2005-06): SOUTH ASIA
Country
Percentage
Iran
4.7
India
3.8
Bangladesh
2.4
Maldives
7.5
Nepal
3.4
Pakistan
2.21 (05-06)
2.44(07-08)
Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008
37
Education Policy
38
Challenges












Weakened Governance
 Fragmentation
 Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier Relationships
Poor Quality of Teachers & Managers
Quality of curriculum, textbooks & exams
Low level of literacy
Out of school children
Dropouts
Public Private Partnership
In-adequate financing
Gender Equity
Poor monitoring & evaluation
Imbalance in primary, middle & secondary schools
Inconvenient school location
39
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL
EDUCATION POLICY
•
•
Universal and Free Primary and Secondary Education
Promotion of Equity
•
Minimum National Standards
•
Relevance to Labour Market
•
•
Sector Planning
Financial allocation of 7% of GDP by 2018
•
•
Encourage Private sector
Link Allocations to Definition of Free Education
•
Improve Planning, Management and Implementation
Capacity
•
Donor Harmonisation
•
Overcoming Fragmented Governance
Continue…
40
•
Bridging the Public Private Divide
•
•
Improved Examination System
Introduction of Early Childhood Education (3-5 years) &
inclusive education.
•
•
Achieve the MDG goals.
All Primary schools shall be upgraded to Middle level
•
•
Well developed plan for expanding school facilities.
High priority to reducing drop out rates
•
Improved school environment
•
Career Counselling at higher secondary level
•
Develop national literacy curriculum
•
Enhance qualifications for employment as teachers
Continue…
41
•
•
Pre-service & in-service teacher training
Accreditation and certification of teachers
•
Merit based teacher recruitment, professional
development, promotions & postings
Curriculum development
•
•
•
•
Competitive publishing of textbooks and learning
materials
District Education Boards to be established for
managing schools
Separate management & academic cadres
42
1.
Policy Reforms Undertaken
i. Highlights of New Scheme of Studies:
a. ‘Islamiat’ as an integrated subject in Classes I-II.
Full-fledged subject from Classes III to XII. ‘Ethics’
for non-Muslims.
b. Advanced ‘Islamic Studies’ in Classes IX-XII as an
elective subject.
c. General Science compulsory from Classes IV-VIII.
d. Pakistan Studies compulsory upto Class-X. Advance
Pakistan Studies as Elective for Classes XI & XII.
Continue…
43
Highlights of New Scheme of Studies
e. History, Geography compulsory in Classes VI-VIII.
Includes history of sub-continent upto 1947. Post
1947 in Pak Studies.
f. Computer Literacy compulsory for Classes VI-VIII.
‘Computer Science’ elective subject in Classes IXX and a Group in Class XI-XII.
g. Choice of Arabic / Other Languages, Drawing,
Technology, Home Economics, Agriculture in
Classes VI to VIII.
h. Medical Technology Group (6 subjects) in Classes
XI & XII.
44
ii. Review of Curriculum:
a. Curriculum being updated in view of new
Scheme of Studies, challenges of modern
world and job market.
b. Curriculum for 24 core subjects notified.
Implementation from 2009. Total subjects 81.
45
iii.
New Textbook Policy:
Main features are:
 improved quality of education through quality
textbooks at affordable prices,
 competitive publishing of textbooks by public
& private publishers,
 textbook boards will become facilitating &
regulating authorities. Will approve textbooks.
 controversial material (cultural, religious,
ethnic) shall not be included in textbooks.
46
iv. National Education Assessment
System (NEAS)
 to improve quality of education at
elementary level.
 to develop
assessment.
capacity
in
education
 to measure learning achievements of
students in grades IV and VIII.
 Based on test results,
system being rehashed.
education
47
v. Examination System:
a. Centralized Examination System.
b. Question papers will have 3 parts:
i. 20% objective.
ii. 50% short answers.
iii. 30% descriptive answers.
 Choice reduced to 33%.
 Papers based on curriculum, not textbooks.
 Teachers being trained to prepare children for
new pattern.
c.
Grace marks reduced from 11 to 3 in max of 2
subjects.
48
vi. Access to Education
a. Free education and textbooks up to
secondary level.
b. To promote girls' education, future
primary schools to be co-education
with female teachers only.
c. Stipends to girl students at Middle
level.
49
vii. Governance Reforms
a. Inter-Provincial Education Ministers' (IPEM)
Conference, for uniformity at national level.
b. Colleges & Technical education schools
withdrawn from Districts and placed under
Provinces.
c. Introduction of Prep (ECE) Class.
d. Regulatory Authority for private educational
institutions in Islamabad.
e. Uniform academic session from 2009.
Continue…
50
f.
All schools Bilingual. English and Urdu compulsory
from Class-1 onwards.
g.
English as medium of instruction for Science, Math
and Computer Science. Islamiat, Pak Studies in
Urdu in all schools.
51
Thank you
52
Descargar

Document