Part 3: Student Presentations
Citizens, Society, & the State
*Information in RED added by Mrs. Silverman
Iran: Ethnic Cleavages
By: Kaeyn, Jessica, Danielle
Ethnic Groups
• Official language of Iran is Persian (Farsi).
• Most important ethnic groups with specific
history, culture, customs, and language are:
o Turks
o Kurds
o Azeris
o Arabs
o Turkmans
o Lurs
o Baluchis
Ethnic Groups
• Official language of Iran is Persian (Farsi).
• Many Azeris live in the NW close to Azerbaijan,
creating a worry that they will want to form a
larger state by taking territory from Iran
– BUT, they are strongly Shiite and Supreme Leader is
• Ethnic minorities are regularly sentenced to
death by hanging
• Kurds and Arabs tend to be Sunni Muslim, so the
religious cleavage is reinforced by ethnicity
• Turks believe that they are the original inhabitants of
• Several Turkish dynasties have ruled Iran: Safavids,
Qajars, Seljuk, and Ghaznavid
• Kurds and the Azeris seek independence and have
frequently agitated for more cultural freedom and a
greater degree of autonomy
– Both groups are concentrated in the north
– Muhammad Reza Shah and his father successfully
thwarted any secessionist tendencies of both groups
– Now only a select few seek to still get independence from
Iran Religious Cleavages
Bogdan Cioanta, Caroline Filan, Katie Grover
Religious Percentages
• 89% Shi’a Muslim
• 10% Sunni Muslim
• 1% Combination of
Jews, Christians,
Zoroastrian, and
Constitutional Rights?
• There are rights given
by the constitution
and guarantees basic
rights, but many have
fled country since
1979 to escape
Baha’i Persecution
• Baha’i’s have been persecuted
because Shi’ites believe it to be
an unholy offshoot of Islam
• Leaders have been killed,
imprisoned, tortured, schools
have closed and property taken
by state
• Many have immigrated to
Canada along with large groups
of Jews and Armenian
• Sunni Muslims are in a similar
situation and rights are unclear
Social Class
Ashley C.
Katie S.
Amanda B.
Upper/ Middle Class
 North
 Clergy
members, large land owners, and
 Entrepreneurs, bazaar merchants,
professionals, managers, military officers
 More educated
 More secular
Working Class
 Kargar
 Working
class divided into different groups
 Unskilled workers
 Strikes/protests
Lower Class
 Characteristics
groups: those with regular employment
and those without
 Lifestyle
After the revolution, the composition of the middle class did not
change significantly, but its size doubled from about 15 percent
of the population in 1979 to more than 32 percent in 2000
The largest component, factory workers, numbered about 2.5
million on the eve of the Revolution, double the number in
1965, accounting for 25 percent of Iran's total labor force. Since
1979, the urban working class has continued to expand; by the
early 2000s, it constituted more than 45 percent of the
employed labor force
In cities with populations greater than 250,000, the lower class
makes up an average of 40 to 50 percent of the total
Recipients of regular incomes of people employed in the
diverse services sector, such as attendants , bakery workers,
sales clerks, domestic servants, trash collectors, painters, street
cleaners, etc. These job categories include at least 1 million
workers who are employed only occasionally or seasonally,
primarily as a result of the shortage of full-time positions in an
economy that has had an official unemployment rate ranging
between 10 and 15 percent of the labor force since the early
Ideological Cleavages
Josh Havrilla & Josh Birdsell
• Adhere to Shar’ia law
• Majority in Parliament
• Generally want things to remain
the same (stability)
• Promote Secularization
• Value stronger democratic ideals
• 11,451,367 (35.5%)
• 19,087,397 (59.7%)
• NOTE: Most reformers do not want to do away with
the basic principles of an Islamic state, but they
display a wide array of opinions about how much
and where secularization and democracy should
be infused into the system.
Iranian Protests
Tristan Snow
Andrew Christopher Hartnett
• 2009 Presidential Elections
• Ahmadinejad Won
• Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Medhi Karroubi
were most supported
 The 2009–10 Iranian election protests were a series of
protests following the 2009 Iranian presidential election
against the disputed victory of Iranian President Mahmoud
Ahmadinejad and in support of opposition candidates Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi which occurred in major
cities in Iran and around the world starting June 13 th 2009.
Jun 12, 2009- Election results announced
Jun 13, 2009- first day of protest
Jun 14, 2009- Basji paramilitary invades Tehran University
Jun 20, 2009- First Casualty, video on Facebook and YouTube
Jun 26, 2009- 2 million demonstrate in Tehran
Dec 7, 2009- University students’ rally turns into protest, marks aniversary
of Shah’s killing of 3 students in 1953
• Dec 21, 2009- funeral of Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri, cleroc
who was critical of Ahmadinejad, hundreds of thousands attend
• Dec 28, 2009- martial Law is declared in Najaf Abad
Other Names
Green Revolution
Sea of Green
Green Wave
 In October of 2012, a demonstration erupted over the failing
currency. This was the first outbreak of public anger over
Iran’s collapsing currency and other economic problems. The
riot police violently clamped down on black-market money
changers, hundreds of citizens marching to demand relief and
merchants in the sprawling bazaar closing their shops in
Maddy Gamma, Callie Galfas, and Rachel Cleypool
* Granted the right to vote in 1963
* First admitted into Iranian universities in 1937
* Now account for over half of Iran's university
* Although they have been given more rights, in
some areas their rights are still in question. For
example, it is under debate whether or not
women should be allowed to smoke hookah
* Nine women out of 290 in Majles
* Women can run for seats in Majles, but are constitutionally
barred for the presidency
* The constitution states that “the president will be elected
from religious-political men, or "rijal," a plural for man in
* Well represented in some areas: doctors and government
* Very difficult to get hired – represent 33% of labor force
* Must wear hijab
* “bad hijab” is the exposure of any body part except for the hands or face
* Punishable by either 70 lashes or 60 days in prison
*Divorce/custody laws now follow Islamic
*Ban on public discussion of women’s issues in
a way that contradicts Islamic law
* Women over the age of 18 need consent of their father before they travel, and if
they are married they needs husbands approval before receiving any documents
* A new bill that is being debated would give husbands or fathers the right to take
away the women's documents at any time, even after they have been granted
“Bad Hijab”
Andrew Clark
Nolan English
‫احزاب سیاسی ایران‬
Iran Political Parties
• Constitution guarantees right for citizens to organize
• Political parties were outlawed in 1987 by Ayatollah
Khomeini due to factional infighting
• Government did not allow them until Khatami’s election as
president in 1997
• Only parties that do not challenge the Islamic regime can
actively participate
Active Political Parties
• Opposition parties banned 1983
• Party system reflects factionalism
• Splintering of political elites on points of view and personalities
• Parties are unstable and likely to change
• Form coalitions before elections
• Four main coalitions
• Reformists
• Independents
• Religious minorities
Red - Conservatives (182)
Green - Reformists (75)
Yellow - Independents (19)
Gray - Religious minorities (14)
There are a total of 64 political parties in Iran which can be
divided into these categories:
• Communists
• Socialist and Social Democrats
• Ethnic nationalist
• Muslim Democrats
• Liberal Democrats
• Anti-Islamic Nationalist
‫احزاب سیاسی ایران‬
Types of political parties
In 1997 President Khatami, along with his reformist supporters,
created two major parties :
The Islamic Participation Front: The party is Pro-Islam and supports
Democracy in Iran. The decision center of the party is the Central
Council which has 30 members.
 ‫ایران برای همه ایرانیان‬
 “Iran for all Iranians”
The Islamic labor party: This party was formed
after abolishing the previous decades of union workers
and puts emphasis on nationalism,
populism, reformism and Islamism.
The Servants of reconstruction:
formed by Hashemi Rafsanjani, the
current chairmen of the
Expediency Council
‫احزاب سیاسی ایران‬
The major active parties
• Any real political opposition has been exiled
o The Liberation Movement - Formed by Iran's first prime
minister but he resigned months after students took over
the US embassy. It is a moderate Islamic party but it
supports the separation of church and state.
o The National Front- Originally wanted the oil industry
nationalized. Committed to nationalism and secularism.
Supports the ideals of the former Prime Minister
Muhammad Mosaddeq.
‫احزاب سیاسی ایران‬
The major opposition parties
o The Mojahedin- Formed as a guerrilla organization to fight the Shah.
They believed in Marxism and Islam. They saw Islam as a religion
that favored equality, social justice, and redistribution of wealth.
o The Fedayin- Modeled its self after the Marxist guerrilla movements
taking place in Latin America in the 1970’s. During their fight with
the Shah they lost more fighters than any other group and this
earned them a lot of popular support among citizens.
o The Tudeh- Established in the 1940’s they were formerly supportive
of the Soviet communist party. Strongly anti-imperialist, most of its
leaders have been executed and has since
lost much of its strength due to government
repression and internal splits.
‫احزاب سیاسی ایران‬
Other opposition parties
Two of the previous five opposition parties have been banned
and the leaders executed.
• The National front: Banned because the clergy felt threatened
by their potential appeal
• The Tudeh: In 1949 the party was blamed for the attempted
assassination Shah Mohammed Reza – the leaders were
executed and party was forever banned. The government
"confiscated its assets, dissolved affiliated organizations,
especially the Central Council and rounded up some 200
leaders and cadres.“
‫احزاب سیاسی ایران‬
Banned political parties
Interest Groups In Iran.
By: Jake, Riley, and Leevz.
Explanation of the topic
• In Iran interest groups exert influence on
political, legal, and religious systems.
• There are many interest groups within Iran
and they each serve their own purpose.
• Each group is composed of individuals that all
share common interests and have a common
goal within the particular group.
• The Tudeh Party of Iran- This is a communist interest
group in Iran it played an important role in Mohammad
Mosaddeq’s Campaign. It was formed in 1941 with
Soleiman Eskandri as the head.
• Student Movement Coordination Commitee for
Democracy in Iran (SMCCDI)- They oppose theocracy,
attempt to create a better tomorrow, and implement
bill of rights.
• The is also smaller interest groups in Iran that deal with
media that spread information throughout Iran.
• Although there is not many interest groups in Iran.
Organized Labor Movement
• Concerns:
– High unemployment
– Low wages
– Lack of decent housing
– Unsatisfactory labor law - denies the right to call
strikes and organize unions
• Workers’ House (1979)
• Islamic Labor Party (1999)
• May Day Rally is their main protest
Women’s Rights
• Gained momentum after 1963
• White Revolution
– Won the right to vote
– Hold public office
• Family Protection Law (1975) allowed for more
rights concerning divorce, custody, and reduced
• Modern Issues:
Job security
Pay scales
Maternity leave
Higher-level professions
• The One Million Signatures Movement
Goals are
Introduce “genuine Islamic Culture”
Support the rights of the oppressed
Prevent superpowers from imposing culture and
Enhance women’s scientific, intellectual, and
cultural capabilities
Increase women’s rights and
participation in civil society
Foreign and Non-State controlled media is illegal and strictly controlled by the
The largest media organization in Iran the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, is
entirely controlled by the government with the president being appointed by the
Supreme Leader every 5 years
The Islamic Revolutionary Court has the
right to monitor, suspend publication, and
revoke the licenses of publications it finds
guilty of “antireligious material, slander, or
information detrimental to the national interest”
Level of freedom of press has varied with faction in power
• Khatami – issued permits to dozens of new publications to
create independent press
• After 2000 Majles elections when many reformist were elected,
outgoing Majles approved a press control law, which Council of
Guardian said could not be overturned by new legislature
• Freedom of the press
• Must follow Islamic beliefs
• Must have a publishing license (act of publication against
Islam is not permitted and can be punished by the
revoking of a publication license)
• Anything anti-government can be considered anti-Islamic
• No censorship of non-fiction books exist
• Non Islamic books are subject to confiscation
• Publishers and authors that publish and write non-Islamic
books are held responsible for attempting to offend public
morals or Islam
• In 1987, all papers and magazines in circulation were set
up to support the Islamic Republic of Iran.
• Virtually no new works of contemporary fiction have
appeared in print.
• Radio and television is controlled by the government.
• Several banned broadcasting groups broadcast in
countries such as Iraq.
• Despite the ban on Google applications, including Gmail
and YouTube, Iranians often turn to illegal satellite
receivers to as alternative sources of information
Media in Iran is both privately and publicly owned.
• Both are subject to censorship by the government.
The government engages in censorship programs to
anything divergent from the country’s regulations.
• The majority of Iranians, around eighty-percent, receive their
news from government-owned media.
• This helps reduce the assimilation of news into the
public sphere that the government does not approve
Many Iranian citizens use VPN networks to surpass
the governments internet restrictions to use social
media’s such as Twitter and Facebook.
A special court called the Islamic Revolutionary
Court, has authority to monitor the print media in the
• If a jury finds them guilty of publishing antireligious
material, slander, or information detrimental to the
national interest, then:
• May: suspend publication or revoke licenses of
papers or journals.
Around 963 pages in Iran are blocked from the general public.
• Half of these pages are about people.
• Of this half, around 108 citizens of Iran have allegedly been killed and 161
have been detained.
Of the blocked pages:
- Civil and Political--------------
- Sex and Sexuality-------------
- Religion----------------------------
- Human Rights-------------------
- The Arts
- Media and Journalism----- 5%
- Academic Page-------------- 2%
Harry Potter Actress Emma Watson is blocked from the internet in Iran.
• Gained momentum after 1963
• White Revolution
• Won the right to vote
• Hold public office
• Family Protection Law (1975) allowed for more rights
concerning divorce, custody, and reduced polygamy
• Modern Issues:
Job security
Pay scales
Maternity leave
Higher-level professions
• The One Million Signatures Movement
Women’s Rights

United Kingdom