All About Deafness
Holland High School
Deaf Education
Parts of the Ear
Outer Ear
• The Outer Ear is the part of the ear that you
This part of the ear is shaped round so it can
send sound to Middle Ear.
Without the Outer Ear shape-round, we wouldn’t
hear as well (the sound could become faint).
The Outer Ear sends sound to the Middle Ear.
Middle Ear
• Inside the Middle Ear are 3 little bones called the
Hammer, the Anvil, and the Stirrup.
The 3 bones are connected to the Ear Drum.
When sound waves come into your Middle Ear, it
causes the Ear Drum to vibrate like a drum.
These vibrations can make the 3 little bones
move as well.
Inner Ear
The Inner Ear (Cochlea) has 3 parts.
In the Center of Ear called Vestube.
Inside Vestube there are little hairs and liquid.
When the ear drum starts to vibrate, the liquid
moves and the hair moves to make the message
send to the brain through the auditory nerve.
Audiograms & Your
Understanding your Audiogram
• Audiograms inform you of your level of hearing
based on a test of various sound frequencies
given by an audiologist (hearing doctor).
Your hearing is based on decibels (dB) at each
frequency or (Hz-hertz).
To test your hearing - click the link below.
The yellow banana shaped figure
represents all the sounds that make
up the human voice when speaking
at normal conversational levels.
Near total silence - 0 dB
A whisper - 15 dB
Normal conversation - 60 dB
A lawnmower - 90 dB
A car horn - 110 dB
A rock concert or a jet
engine - 120 dB
• A gunshot or firecracker –
140 dB
Above is the decibels or dB of
sound for each area of
The audiogram shows the ranges of
hearing loss for adults. The ranges
that are listed are fairly standard
across the United States although
some variations do exist.
• -10dB to 25dB = Normal range (Grey)
• 26dB to 40 dB = Mild hearing loss
41 dB to 55 dB = Moderate hearing
loss (red)
56 dB to 70 dB = Moderately Severe
hearing loss (green)
71 dB to 90 dB = Severe hearing loss
over 90 dB = Profound hearing loss.
Causes of Deafness
Pre-natal means before birth
The most common pregnancy-related cause of
Deafness was “Prematurity”
• Prematurity means that the babies were born too early.
– Sometimes, the parts of the body were not developed completely
– It can cause hearing loss because the ears were not developed completely
The second most common pregnancy-related cause
of Deafness is “Other Pregnancy Complications.”
• This is the second most common pregnancy
related cause of deafness
• The children could become deaf if the
pregnant women have any types of symptoms
The third most common pregnancy-related
causes is “Cytomegalovirus”
• Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a any of a group of
herpes viruses that attack and enlarge epithelial cells.
Such viruses also cause a disease of infants
characterized by circulatory dysfunction and
• If pregnant women have CMV then, it could effect
the children
• If the children receive CMV then, it could cause
children mental and physical problems
• It can cause hearing loss
The next most common disease to cause
Deafness is “Maternal Rubella”
• Maternal Rubella is German Measles in a
pregnant woman that may cause
developmental abnormalities in the fetus
when occurring during the first trimester
• About 20% of Deaf people are deaf
because of Maternal Rubella
• It causes the cochlea to be damage really
Post-natal means after birth
The most common post-natal cause of Deafness was
Otitis Media
• Otitis Media or “Glue Ear” is a kind of ear
infection that can causes hearing loss
• People who have this if the fluid is filling your ear
tube too much and can causes continuous ear
The second most common post-natal cause of
Deafness is “Meningitis.”
• Meningitis can easily kill the children who were born
• Meningitis is an infectious disease characterized by
inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that
surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused
by a bacterial infection; symptoms include
headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
The most common genetic cause of Deafness
is “Genetic or Syndromic Causes”
• About 22% of people who became deaf was
because of genetic causes.
• The most common of these was Down
The second most common Genetic cause for
Deafness is “CHARGE Syndrome”
• People could have a hearing loss is because
their genes were not formed properly
• It could cause 4 major conditions and 7 minor
The third most common cause of Deafness is
“Warrensburg Syndrome”
• It a kind of disease that can causes unique
Physical features
• Sometimes, the person who has disease has
different colors of hair and sometimes, their
eye color does not match
• They could have some white patches on
their skin
Another disease that can cause hearing loss is
• Measles is an acute infectious disease
occurring mostly in children, characterized by
catarrhal and febrile symptoms and an
eruption of small red spots; rubeola
• It can cause deafness in both ears
Cochlear Implants
• The Cochlear Implant is a little, complex electronic
machine, that can help Deaf or Hard of Hearing people
hear the sounds.
The Cochlear Implant is very different from the Hearing
Cochlear Implant can detected damaged part of the ear
and send messages to the nerve.
The Implant sends sound waves to the nerve and then
to the brain.
Only Deaf or Hard of Hearing people can receive a
Cochlear Implant.
100,000 people in the world have received Implant.
In U.S. 22,000 adults and 15,000 children received a
Cochlear Implant.
How the Cochlear Implant
Under search-type “Cochlear Implant Video”
Hearing Aids
• The first Hearing Aid was invented by a man named
Harvey Fletcher who worked for Bell Laboratories.
It was connected with a cord to a case that was
attached on the body.
Behind The Ear Aids (BTE) have a little plastic case that
fits behind the ear and sends sound waves to the ear
using electricity with a wire and mini speaker.
BTE can be useful for children.
ITE (In The Ear Aids) is a machine that fits inside the
Hearing aids must be replaced when children grow.
How the Hearing Aid Works
• It must have the following to work properly:
1. A Microphone for sound.
2. An Electronic Circuit to help increase the sound.
3. A Receiver help send sound to Ear.
4. Batteries for electricity
• American Sign Language (ASL)
A visual language used by body and hand movements. ASL is a popular language in the USA
and Canada. ASL and English are different because of grammar, plurals, tenses, body
expression and fingerspelling.
• Auditory-Verbal
Deaf and Hard of Hearing learn to listen and communicate using
spoken language. They wear hearing aids and cochlear implants to
help listen. When using Auditory-Verbal, it is very important to provide
extensive counseling, education and support.
• Cued Speech
Deaf and Hard of Hearing learn to communicate using a system of spoken English and 8
handshapes that represent vowels and consonants. The speak language and use the
handshapes to see the unseen sounds.
• Manually Coded English
A sign system used to convey tenses, plurals, possessives and other syntactical forms of
MCE system is different than ASL. MCE is used more in public schools.
• Oral
The children who are deaf and hard of hearing who have been identified with a hearing loss
from an early age. They wear hearing aids or cochlear implants that helps them to
understand spoken English. They are taught speech (lip reading).
Communicating with Deaf and
Hard of Hearing Students
• Communicating with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
(readlip) try speaking slowly and clearly understand what people say.
Deaf person need write noted to hearing person order to communicate.
• If the person lipreads, try speaking slowly and clearly, using short
phrases. Do not raise your voice! · If the person does not understand
something you say, try rephrasing it. Don’t repeat the same thing over
and over.
Do not cover your mouth.
Maintain eye contact.
Not all deaf people lipread, so it may not work! Try using gestures and
It is not considered rude to offer a deaf person paper and a pen in
order to communicate.
If you know the American Sign Language alphabet, use it!
• It is a thing that deaf people can use to communicate with
any hearing person. You can bring UbiDuo to anywhere: a
restaurant, the police department, and etc.
You can buy two UbiDuos because one hearing person uses
this and the Deaf person that you will have to communicate.
The UbiDuo has a full-size keyboard
You can use this for eight hours
It has a rechargeable battery!
The UbiDuo has wireless and you can set the UbiDuo from
other UbiDuo up to 500 feet range through the walls or floors!
It has some emoticons that allow to show your feelings and
personality in conversations
It costs about $1995.00
Telephone Ringer Amplifier with Strobe Light
• This amplifier can be used for hard of hearing
and deaf people too
For hard of hearing people, when the phone
rings, it can ring loud enough for hard of hearing
For deaf, they have to set up the strobe light
anywhere in their house. Then, when the phone
rings, the strobe light will flash really bright to
let the deaf people know that someone has to
answer the phone now
It costs about $34.95
Sennheiser Set 810/810S
• The Sennheiser Set is for hard of hearing people
It helps them to hear the T.V. easier without
distracting other hearing people
You can use this only if you have Stereo or
mono operation
People can use this about 600 feet away from
the T.V.!
It costs about $229.00
ClearSounds CLA7 UltraClear Power Neckloop
• This can be used for anyone who wears hearing
It helps them understand speech more clearly
Also, it can help improve their speech ability
You can bring this anywhere: school, meeting at
work, and etc.
All you can hear is only from people who use
this, you won’t hear from anyone else. It really
helps them to listen to that person only without
distracting other people talking
It costs about $119.95
Hearing Aid Sweatbands – Natural
• Anyone who wear hearing aids can use it during
any sport or activity that make you sweat a lot
They can buy any size of sweatbands for their
hearing aids
Just add the small sweatbands on your hearing
It costs about $21.95 for all sizes
Sonic Boom SB300ss Alarm Clock
• Tired of wake up late? No worry, we got a new clock for
the deaf people!
All you have to do is to set the clock time and the alarm
time, then put the object that can vibration under your
soft bed. When the time have reach to the alarm time, it
will vibrations really powerful that you can feels the
vibration all over the bed!
Also, hard of hearing people can use them too. They can
control the volume on the clock. When the time have
reach to the alarm time, it will alarm really loud that
hard of hearing can hear!
It costs about $49.95
Shake – Up with Sidekick and Strobe/Vibration
• Do you worry about if there was a fire in your
house and you couldn’t notice it? Guess what?
There new kit for the deaf people!
You can add the vibration under your bed, soft
chair or couch, anywhere to let you know that
there is smoke or fire in your house.
Also, you can use the strobe light anywhere on
the walls. When the alarm goes off, the strobe
light will flash really bright so you can notice it
It costs about $322.95
• There is now a new videophone for the deaf people to communicate
with hearing people on the phone.
• Deaf people can set up the videophone on the T.V. and use
internet connection. Then, call someone. The relay will appear on
the T.V. and all you have to do is use sign language to the T.V. The
Videophone (VP) has a camera on it, so they can see you from the
VP. The relay interpreter can talk into the phone everything exactly
as it’s said. Then, the hearing people can answer back and the relay
interpreter will listen and sign everything that the hearing people
• Also, you can communicate with other deaf people with VP only.
Other person must have their own VP. You and other deaf people
can communicate only, no relay interpreter needed.
• It’s free for all deaf and hard of hearing people but it costs for
hearing people. Please call Harris Communications for pricing.
Disability Laws
• IDEA (Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act) states
that the disabled are to have the
same education as the nondisabled. The IDEA was
originally enacted by Congress in
1975 . It incorporates FAPE (Free
Appropriate Public Education) for students
with disabilities.
• ADA (Americans with Disability Act) gives
the disabled equal opportunity as the
non-disabled for jobs, state and federal
government, public transportation, public
• ADA law was signed by President George
H. W. Bush on July 26, 1990
For more Disability Law
National Association of the Deaf
Legal Rights-NAD provides information to Deaf individuals about their lawful rights.
• Captioning
• Education
• Government
• Health Care
• Housing
• Public Faculties
• Transportation
Advocacy Issues-NAD helps the Deaf to understand how to advocate for themselves.
• Air Travel
• Assistive
• Emergency
• Gallaudet
• Human Services
• Judicial
• Infant Screening
• Law Enforcement
• Past, Present
• Relay
• Telecommunication
• Vote 2008
Info & FAQ’s-NAD gives the Deaf a list of Frequently Asked Questions and various information.
American Sign
Communicate & Culture
Mental Health
News Room-NAD gives the Deaf more information about:
Blog Central
Current New
Archived News
Theatre in the Sky
Celebrate ASL
Inside NAD- describes activities and information about NAD.
Board of Directors
By laws
Fulton lll
Law & Advocacy
State Associations
DHHC provides:
• Guidance
• Resources
• An Advocate
• Interpreter Services
• Ask question & looking for answers
Programs available:
• Club “I Can”
• Camp “I Can”
• Education for families dealing with a child diagnosed with
hearing loss
• American Sign Languages Classes
Michigan Association For Deaf And Hard of Hearing
MADHS is the place for:
• Advocates
• Services
• Community Education
• Youth
• Resources
• Technology
• Interpreter Referral Service
• Advocacy and Community Services
• American Sign Language Classes
• Community Education
• Lip-Reading Classes
Advocacy Forms
• Request for Sign Language Interpreter Service
• Response to Directive to Address complaint Interpreter Referral
Agency Form
Communicating with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
•Communication Modes <>
•Deaf & Hard of Hearing Services<>
•Deaf/Hard of Hearing Connection <> Sunday May 13, 2007
•Dr. Allan S. Mehr. “Understanding your Audiogram.” <>
•Harris Communication. Vol. 17.0, 2008-2009: 1-76.
•Hound Dog Hearing. “Essential Guide to Hearing loss.” 2002. <>
•Jamie Berke. “Top 10 Top Causes of Hearing Loss in Children.” June 21, 2007.
•Michigan Association For Deaf And Hard of Hearing <>
•National Association of the Deaf. <>
National Institute on Deafness and Other Commuication Disorders (NIDCD). Cochlear Implant. May 2007
•ThinkQuest “Ears” <>
•University of Westminster. “Causes of Deafness” <>
•WROCC. “How to Read Audiogram”. <>
•Wikipedia. Hearing aid. Oct 2007. <>
Seth Tobias Laws and Audiogram
James Tinder
Technology and Causes
Rachel Bylsma
Communication and Resources
Ronny Howard
The Ear and Amplification
Executive Editor:
Mrs. Wiersma
Special Effects:
Seth Tobias
Rachel Bylsma

Research Project - Holland Public Schools