Assessment Considerations
with Hearing Children of
Deaf Parents
Jimmy Lee, MS, CCC-SLP
Department of Hearing, Speech and Language Sciences
Gallaudet University
Washington DC
Jimmy Lee, MS, CCC-SLP
 Gallaudet University Hearing and Speech
Coordinator of Speech Language Services
Clinical Supervisor
Former member of ASHA’s Multicultural
Issues Board
Gallaudet University
Hearing and Speech Center
 The Center is a full service, urban clinic. We
serve members of the Gallaudet community
and the greater Washington DC area. We
are committed to our community. The
Gallaudet and surrounding community
include a large number of Deaf families with
hearing children.
 ASHA Guidelines - Rationale for Bilingual
Language Assessment
 Children of Deaf Adults – CODAs/kodas
 Assessment Considerations
 Assessment Strategies
Guidelines for Assessment
 American Speech-Language-Hearing
Association. (1985). Clinical Management of
Communicatively Handicapped Minority
Language Populations [Position Statement].
Available from
Cultural Sensitivity
 “Ability to recognize cultural factors which
affect the delivery of speech-language
pathology and audiology services to minority
language-speaking community. “
Cultural Sensitivity - Considerations
 Cultural Variables
Child-rearing practices
Gender/gender identification
Generational views
Nonverbal behaviors (i.e., eye contact, gestures)
Perceptions and beliefs about age and disability
Rules of interaction (i.e., turn taking, interruption)
Sexual orientation
Socioeconomic status
 “Ability to administer and interpret formal and
informal assessment procedures to
distinguish between communication
difference and communication disorders. “
Linguistic Variables
 All primary and subsequent oral, written, and
manual languages used by the individual and
Bilingual Language Assessment
 In accordance with the ASHA Code of Ethics and the guidelines for
evaluating English language learners:
 It should be noted that test scores would be invalid for testing a client
who is not reflected in the normative group for the test's standardization
sample, even if the test were administered as instructed. However,
these tests can provide valuable descriptive information about a client's
abilities and limitations in the language of the test.
 For this reason, all scores obtained should be interpreted with extreme
caution. Static testing should be used for future comparative purposes
only. More dynamic assessment will provide invaluable information
regarding the client’s progress as an English Language Learner.
Dynamic Assessment
 A method of conducting a language assessment
which seeks to identify the skills that an individual
child possesses as well as their learning
potential. The dynamic assessment procedure
emphasizes the learning process and accounts for
the amount and nature of examiner investment. It is
highly interactive and process-oriented. The
following chart compares features of a traditional (or
static) assessment procedure to the dynamic
assessment procedure.
Assessment Variations
Static Assessment
 Client/Family is passive
 Examiner observes
 Identifies Deficits
 Standardized
Dynamic Assessment
 Client/Family is active
 Examiner participates
 Describes modifiability
 Fluid and Responsive
Hearing Children of Deaf Parents
 CODA vs. koda
CODA – Adult Child of Deaf Parents
koda – Pediatric Child of Deaf Parents
 We will consider kodas for today’s discussion
 The National Kids of Deaf Adults (KODA)
Family Conference
Assessment Considerations
 Identify L1
 Indentify secondary languages
 Establish proficiency in L1 if not English
 Establish proficiency in English
 Determine if a difference or disorder is
Confounding issues with kodas
 Bimodal language learners
 SLPs proficiency in ASL
 Lack of valid reliable means of assessing ASL
 Communication with the Deaf family
 Cultural v. Medical Models
 Family’s ability to share information about
spoken language development
 Perceptions of family of SLPs
Bimodal bilinguals
 Phonological Development in ASL
 Phonological Development in spoken English
 Lack of overlap modally – potential theoretical
brain mapping
 Hands v. Mouth
 Identification of Articulation/Phonological
 Interpreters
 Occupational Therapists
 ASL Specialists
Case History
 Relevant topics
age of acquisition of L1 and L2
perceived development of ASL (siblings, kodas, deaf kids)
language(s) used at home and at school/work
amount and integrity of exposure to each language
language of preference with siblings, peers, parents, etc
progress made as an English Language Learner if available
report of academic performance
Language Sample Analysis
 Morphology
 Syntax
 Semantics
 Pragmatics
 Phonology
Static Language Testing
 PLS, CELF P, Birth to Three, Rossetti, CASL
 Be aware of modifications
 Report Modifications
 Assessment through an ASL interpreter
 Assessment without an ASL Interpreter
 Language Modality in the session
Spoken Language – All clinicians
Sign Language – Designated clinician
Reporting Results/Recommendations
 Use Extreme Caution
 Work over time for a diagnosis of disorder
 Language Stimulation
 Speech Therapy v. Language Therapy
Future Directions
 How does bimodality impact language
learning in kodas?
 What errors are characteristic of kodas
speech/language and constitute acceptable
difference based deficits?
 At what age do kodas evidence full mastery
of English?
 What quantity/quality of spoken language is
necessary for kodas to acquire spoken
 I gratefully acknowledge ASHA, the
Multicultural Issues Board and the Office of
Multicultural Affairs for the extensive
knowledge and resources I liberally borrowed
and applied in this presentation.
 I also wish to thank all of the Deaf families
who have sought services for their hearing
children at the Gallaudet University Hearing
and Speech Center
Contact Information
 Jimmy Lee, MS CCC-SLP, G '93
Clinical Educator/Coordinator of SLP
Gallaudet University
Department of Hearing, Speech, and
Language Sciences
800 Florida Avenue, NE
Washington, DC 20002
202-651-5324 (fax)
Final thought
 "The stranger who tells our stories when we
cannot speak not only awakens our spirits
and hearts but also shows our humanity –
which others want to forget– and in doing so,
becomes family"
Mende Proverb, Sierra Leone

Assessment Considerations with Hearing Children of Deaf