Total Communication
By:
Brittany Melefsky
&
Lindsay Pitsch
S
What is total communication?
S The teacher uses every means of communication available to
communicate with the deaf pupils: manual language, finger
spelling with the manual alphabet, writing, speech, pantomime,
drawing-whatever!
S ……..Most American educational programs for deaf children
report that they are using the method of total communication.”
S
Lane, Harlan (1992). The Mask of Benevolence. New York, New York: Random House.
What is Total Communication?
Continued
S
The Northview Total Communication Program is designed around each
student's unique blend of abilities and needs. Total Communication uses
all forms of communication - verbal, nonverbal, amplification - whatever
meets each student's needs and maximizes language competence and
knowledge in each student. The best method of communication depends
on:
•amount and type of hearing loss •age when the loss occurred •age when
the loss was identified •parents' expereience with hearing loss •cognitive
abilities •experiences •motivation •interests
S
http://www.nvps.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=103:Deaf%20and%20Hard%20of%20Hearing%20Progra
m&catid=35:District%20Information&Itemid=28
Total Communication starts in
1967
S
originally developed by David Denton at the
Maryland School for the Deaf
S
Total communication is less a mode of communication than a
philosophical approach advocating anything that works. Total
communication is a combination of oralism, manualism, auditory training, and
visual aids. It includes anything and everything necessary to give the child access
to language.
S
Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Strengths to Total
Communication
S
Fundamental to this approach is the recognition that children have different
styles of learning.
S
Provides alternate modes to chose from
S
Helps to ensure that each child will find ways to meet his or her own
communication needs.
S
Total communication is used to bridge the gap between strict oralism and
strict manualism.
S
Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Weaknesses to Total Communication
S It is simply impossible to use two languages simultaneously.
S All total communication programs (in the United States) are
English programs.
S In nearly 40 years of implementing total communication it
has not changed the deaf academic achievement
S In practice, the Total Communication policy has become
simply sim-com.
Technology Used vs. Available
Technology we saw
S
Videophone
S
Smart Board
S
Elmo Projector
S
Hearing Aids
S
Cochlear Implants
S
FM System/Receivers
Technology we didn’t see
S
Visual Representation of
Announcements and T.V.
S
Flashing Fire Alarms
Think About it
S “It is philosophically impossible for one to obtain the
same amount of information with all ones senses at a
single point in time. To presume that the deaf child will
utilize his hearing, lip-reading, speech and sign all at the
same time is foolish. In other words the attempt to reach
the child by a number of routes, the result is not total
communication but total confusion”
S
Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Early Intervention Programs
S “Because of the Total Communication movement in schools
and programs for the Deaf, many early intervention
programs changed from oral-only to oral with the addition
of signing, relying in particular on one of the invented
systems of signing that we have called, generically, manually
coded English, or MCE systems.”
S
Lane, H, Hoffmeister, R, & Bahan, B (1996). A journey into the Deaf-World . San Diego: DawnSignPress.
Positive Happenings
Holland High School
S The ASL Club at Holland High consists of both
hearing and deaf students. Participants meet
weekly to learn sign language, play games, and get
to know each other.
S “There is a strong passion among the Deaf Ed
staff and our students to bridge the
communication gap of deaf and hearing people.
Oftentimes, our deaf students are nervous about
joining a club or getting more involved in school
events,”
At Lunch on Wednesdays the students
meet and ASL club is held, by holding
the meetings during lunch the club is
accessible to all students as they do not
have to arrange for rides to or from
school, have to get up early or miss
sports practices
ASL
CLUB
Trips to R.I.T and Gallaudet
S
Each year the students take a trip it either Gallaudet or R.I.T to allow
them to experience Deaf culture and higher education
S
The school has money saved up in a grand that was donated and the
trip only cost the students $20.00 TOTAL
Northview High School
S “Disability isn't the issue, opportunity is. We must teach the way they
learn.”
S Dr. Robert Anthony, Supervisor of Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Program
S The Northview Diversity Committee exists to assist students and
staff in accomplishing the next step in learning through the
following mission statement:
S Students, together with staff and community, will value their
individual diversity and the diversity of all others by
demonstrating respect and acceptance for the similarity and
uniqueness within all persons.
Vocational Training
S Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students are recommended to
attend High School for 5 years.
S Diploma vs. Certificate of Completion
S Programs for vocational training for students who are deaf
and hard of hearing.
S KCTC (higher level)
S KTC (lower level)
Additional Resources for YOU!
S
Northview High School:
http://www.nvps.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=103:Dea
f%20and%20Hard%20of%20Hearing%20Program&catid=35:District%20Informati
on&Itemid=28
S
http://www.handsandvoices.org/comcon/articles/totalcom.htm
S
http://deafness.about.com/cs/communication/a/totalcomm.htm
Works Cited
S
Lane, Harlan (1992). The Mask of Benevolence. New York, New York: Random House.
S
Lane, H, Hoffmeister, R, & Bahan, B (1996). A journey into the Deaf-World . San Diego:
DawnSignPress.
S
Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.
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Total Communication - Deaf-Education-Practicum-Work