Total Communication By: Brittany Melefsky & Lindsay Pitsch S What is total communication? S The teacher uses every means of communication available to communicate with the deaf pupils: manual language, finger spelling with the manual alphabet, writing, speech, pantomime, drawing-whatever! S ……..Most American educational programs for deaf children report that they are using the method of total communication.” S Lane, Harlan (1992). The Mask of Benevolence. New York, New York: Random House. What is Total Communication? Continued S The Northview Total Communication Program is designed around each student's unique blend of abilities and needs. Total Communication uses all forms of communication - verbal, nonverbal, amplification - whatever meets each student's needs and maximizes language competence and knowledge in each student. The best method of communication depends on: •amount and type of hearing loss •age when the loss occurred •age when the loss was identified •parents' expereience with hearing loss •cognitive abilities •experiences •motivation •interests S http://www.nvps.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=103:Deaf%20and%20Hard%20of%20Hearing%20Progra m&catid=35:District%20Information&Itemid=28 Total Communication starts in 1967 S originally developed by David Denton at the Maryland School for the Deaf S Total communication is less a mode of communication than a philosophical approach advocating anything that works. Total communication is a combination of oralism, manualism, auditory training, and visual aids. It includes anything and everything necessary to give the child access to language. S Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. Strengths to Total Communication S Fundamental to this approach is the recognition that children have different styles of learning. S Provides alternate modes to chose from S Helps to ensure that each child will find ways to meet his or her own communication needs. S Total communication is used to bridge the gap between strict oralism and strict manualism. S Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. Weaknesses to Total Communication S It is simply impossible to use two languages simultaneously. S All total communication programs (in the United States) are English programs. S In nearly 40 years of implementing total communication it has not changed the deaf academic achievement S In practice, the Total Communication policy has become simply sim-com. Technology Used vs. Available Technology we saw S Videophone S Smart Board S Elmo Projector S Hearing Aids S Cochlear Implants S FM System/Receivers Technology we didn’t see S Visual Representation of Announcements and T.V. S Flashing Fire Alarms Think About it S “It is philosophically impossible for one to obtain the same amount of information with all ones senses at a single point in time. To presume that the deaf child will utilize his hearing, lip-reading, speech and sign all at the same time is foolish. In other words the attempt to reach the child by a number of routes, the result is not total communication but total confusion” S Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. Early Intervention Programs S “Because of the Total Communication movement in schools and programs for the Deaf, many early intervention programs changed from oral-only to oral with the addition of signing, relying in particular on one of the invented systems of signing that we have called, generically, manually coded English, or MCE systems.” S Lane, H, Hoffmeister, R, & Bahan, B (1996). A journey into the Deaf-World . San Diego: DawnSignPress. Positive Happenings Holland High School S The ASL Club at Holland High consists of both hearing and deaf students. Participants meet weekly to learn sign language, play games, and get to know each other. S “There is a strong passion among the Deaf Ed staff and our students to bridge the communication gap of deaf and hearing people. Oftentimes, our deaf students are nervous about joining a club or getting more involved in school events,” At Lunch on Wednesdays the students meet and ASL club is held, by holding the meetings during lunch the club is accessible to all students as they do not have to arrange for rides to or from school, have to get up early or miss sports practices ASL CLUB Trips to R.I.T and Gallaudet S Each year the students take a trip it either Gallaudet or R.I.T to allow them to experience Deaf culture and higher education S The school has money saved up in a grand that was donated and the trip only cost the students $20.00 TOTAL Northview High School S “Disability isn't the issue, opportunity is. We must teach the way they learn.” S Dr. Robert Anthony, Supervisor of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program S The Northview Diversity Committee exists to assist students and staff in accomplishing the next step in learning through the following mission statement: S Students, together with staff and community, will value their individual diversity and the diversity of all others by demonstrating respect and acceptance for the similarity and uniqueness within all persons. Vocational Training S Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students are recommended to attend High School for 5 years. S Diploma vs. Certificate of Completion S Programs for vocational training for students who are deaf and hard of hearing. S KCTC (higher level) S KTC (lower level) Additional Resources for YOU! S Northview High School: http://www.nvps.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=103:Dea f%20and%20Hard%20of%20Hearing%20Program&catid=35:District%20Informati on&Itemid=28 S http://www.handsandvoices.org/comcon/articles/totalcom.htm S http://deafness.about.com/cs/communication/a/totalcomm.htm Works Cited S Lane, Harlan (1992). The Mask of Benevolence. New York, New York: Random House. S Lane, H, Hoffmeister, R, & Bahan, B (1996). A journey into the Deaf-World . San Diego: DawnSignPress. S Ogden, Paul W. (1996). The Silent Garden. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.