Extra Credit: What is the relevance of archaeology to today’s issues? - Worth up to 8 points added to high grade of test 1 & 2; - 500 words maximum -Open by a statement of how many classes you have missed and why you deserve extra-credit -Due: Tuesday (4/27) Some possible themes: - Long-term change of human groups, including dynamics of humansenvironment (ecological/climate change and disaster); -Culture & Civilization as adaptations to environment, demography and other factors, rather than simply achievements of only some people; -Archaeology defines what constitutes civilization and provides novel instances of human achievements; -Understanding and valorizing cultural diversity ANDEAN CIVILIZATION Cultural and biological adaptations to highland Andean Environments: more blood that is more viscous and richer in red cells, a heart that is proportionately larger, and specially adapted, larger lungs, with an enhanced capacity to take in oxygen from the thin atmosphere. Terraced and irrigation agriculture, specialized crops, drought resistance, coca chewing to reduce fatigue and metabolize carbohydrates, providing greater energy Chronology of Central Andes • Late Preceramic: 3000 to 1800 BC • Initial (ceramic) Period: 1800 to 400 BC Three Horizon and Two Intermediate Periods • Early Horizon (Integration): 400 to 200 BC • Early Intermediate (Regionalism): 200 BC to AD 650 • Middle Horizon (Integration): AD 650-1000 • Late Intermediate (Regionalism): AD 1000-1476 • Late Horizon (Inka; integration): AD 1476-1533 Late Preceramic • “The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization” (Moseley 1975): “Maritime Hypothesis” - Rich marine resources provided basis for early settled communities and complex societies, such as Caral, Aspero, and El Paraiso, On Peru’s desert coast - Ample evidence of Industrial crops (cotton, Gourds, reeds) but less Evidence of food crops - Also, El Nino (natural disaster) and drought Caral The first urban center in the Americas, covers 66 ha (163 acres); by 2400 BC it was the capital of a regional polity in the Supe River, with various temple structures facing a central plaza, the largest of which, the “Piramide Mayor” was 160x150 m (525x492 ft) and 18 m (59 ft) high. Caral’s Amphitheater El Paraiso Aspero, with six substantial platforms up to 8 m (18ft) high, surrounded by 15 ha (37 acres) of deep refuse. Uppermost levels of two platforms date to ca. 3000-2500 BC Late Preceramic U-shaped Initial Period ceremonial complex at Sechin Alto, includes the largest monument in the Americas for this time (1800 BC) After a millennium of agricultural expansion, several centuries of drought was an important factor in the abandonment of these centers, after 800 BC U-shaped temple Sunken circular Courts/plazas Cerro Sechin Temple shows ample evidence of warfare Chankillo, ca, 400 BC Early Horizon Chavín de Huantar The main complex of masonry buildings, called the Castillo, composed of (a) New Temple and (c) Old Temple U-shaped plaza and sunken circular courtyard The “Lanzon” in the subterranean Gallery (b) U-shaped plaza with sunken circular courtyard The “Staff God” Chavin art and iconography, the Chavin “cult,” spread throughout much of Central Andes in the Early Horizon, although uncertain degree of political and economic integration Paracas, South-Central Coast • Necropolis of elite burials in subterranean vaults with elaborate mummy bundles and exquisite fabrics in dazzling colors Early Intermediate Period: Gallinazo Culture in northern Peru, notable for platform mounds and extensive irrigation in coastal river valleys Gallinazo Group, vast sprawl of collapsed adobe brick buildings, estimated to contain some 30,000 rooms and compartments The Moche of northern coastal Peru Painted murals from the Huaca del Luna Extremely elaborate art and iconography that provides details on diverse aspects of Moche culture Moche rulers lived in opulent residences atop the Huaca del Sol, which measured 340 x 160 m (1115 x 525 ft) and over 40 m (130 ft), one of the largest mounds ever constructed in South America Adobe bricks used in construction of the Huaca del Sol had “makers marks” that identified communities of corvée laborers Painted murals at El Brujo Marching prisoners The “Presentation Theme” Moche ideological themes expressed in iconography include battle between supernatural beings, death and burial of a king, and teams of kuraka (elite) warriors 'blackened residue' in a Moche goblet was human blood (Bourget and Newman, 1998) Moche elite (kuraka) burial at Sipán Moche semi-divine warrior king Throughout Andean civilization, kuraka class ruled as divine intermediaries between heaven and earth A massive El Nino flood and drought between AD 562-594 diminished the power and integration of the Moche state, which disappeared ca. AD 700-800 The Nazca polity (south coast) was relatively small in population, but produced ‘geoglyphs,’ which have caused wild speculation, and include >1000 km of straight lines, >300 geometric figures, and dozens of animal figures MIDDLE HORIZON: WARI & TIWANAKU Tiwanaku The Gateway of the Sun at Tiwanaku; with staff-god (similar to Early Horizon Chavin deity), cut from a single block of stone Ruling kuraka at Tiwanaku stressed imposing temple mounds, gateways, and stelae, which were eschewed by their northern Wari neighbors, although Wari came to adopt Tiwanaku pantheon Faith in both religion and government was undermined after ca. AD 1050, after several centuries of drier climate (drought) Contact and interaction between upland Wari center of Cerro Baul and mid-valley Tiwanaku center of Omo in the Moquequa valley Reed boat in Lake Titicaca LATE INTERMEDIATE: CHIMOR Rectangular compounds, or ciudadelas, at Chan Chan, capital city of the Chimor empire, the second largest empire in pre-Columbian Americas, which was subjugated by Inca ca. 1470 Taycanamu: semi-mythical ancestral founder of Chan Chan who arrived by sea Chimor's paramount rulers, who probably ruled as god-kings, lived in enormous enclosures called ciudadelas and held court in rooms called audiencias LATE HORIZON: INCA At the time of European contact, the whole Andean area was under the control of the Inca empire The Inca traced their foundation to a venerated ancestor named Manco Capac, but the expansion of the Inca empire was initiated by Pachacuti, the seventh potentate, and his son and grandson The Inca empire or “Land of the Four Quarters” (Tawantinsuyu) had four major geographical territories, known as suyu, composed of 80 political provinces. It was linguistically diverse, but used a lingua franca called Runa Simi (Quechua). Sacsahuaman The capital city of Cuzco, the navel of the universe, was constructed in the shape of a Puma. It was dominated by the temple-fortress of Sacsahuaman and the residences of royal lineages (kanchas), the most opulent of which was the Coricancha, with a gold-bedecked “House of the Sun” and silver adorned temple of the moon Sacsahuaman, fort-like temple crowning the heights of the imperial capital; made by a rotating force of 20,000 corvée laborers over several decades The ceque system Inca writing: the khipu 30,000 to 40,000 km (18,600-24,800 miles) of thoroughfares and trunk lines Inca road Machu Picchu Inca bridges Inca tunnel Andean peoples, like the Inca, developed both cultural and biological adaptations to the high elevations of the Andes, such as terraced agriculture, irrigation, heightened lung capacity, greater amounts of red-blood cells, and chewing coca with quinoa, to deal with fatique Inca political economy depended on agricultural taxation, textile tribute, work draft (corvée labor) and required tribute from both men and women Machu Picchu, the Versailles-like rural palace and estate made by the emperor Pachacuti, was rediscovered by American archaeologist Hiram Bingham in 1911 The Inca emperor was decimated by a smallpox pandemic in the 1520s, which triggered a seven-year civil war between rival claimants to the throne. As Atahualpa marched south to claim Cuzco, he was intercepted, kidnapped, ransomed, and killed by Francisco Pizarro’s forces.