Teaching Latin American History I
As a Hybrid Course
William A. Paquette
Professor of History
MERLOT History Editor
[email protected]
Why Teach Latin American History?
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The Hispanic Population represented 14.8% of the United States Population
in 2006 and remains the fastest growing minority group in the United States.
United States History textbooks are Anglo-centric with the focus on England
and the English settlements in the United States.
The first European explorers in the 15th century to the United States were
sent by Spain.
The vast majority of exploration and successful colonization in the Americas
was done by Spain and Portugal in the 16th century.
The oldest city in the United States is St. Augustine, Florida; and, yet
colonial America’s focus remains the English settlements.
The exploration and settlement of Florida, Texas, California, and the region
between Texas and California was done by Spain and predates the
westward expansion of the 19th century United States, but it is rarely
emphasized in proper chronological context.
The need for the Spanish (and Portuguese) perspective on the exploration,
colonization, and settlement of the Americas.
The Spanish encountered the Americas most advanced Pre-Columbian
civilizations among the Aztec, Inca, and Maya peoples.
Percent of Hispanics by Region
of the United States (2006)
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In the Northeast 11.3% of the population is Hispanic.
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In the Midwest 5.3 % of the population is Hispanic.
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In the South 14.5 % of the population is Hispanic.
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In the West 26.6 % of the population is Hispanic.
Distribution of Hispanics by Place of
Origin (2006)
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65.5 % are from Mexico (28.3 million).
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8.6 % are from Puerto Rico (3.7 million).
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8.2 % are from Central America (3.5 million).
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6.0 % are from South America (2.6 million)
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3.7 % are from Cuba (1.6 million).
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8.0 % are Hispanic from other locations (3.4 million).
Why a Hybrid Course?
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Students are engaged in active learning.
Blackboard becomes a tool permitting continuous
discussion.
Permits the use of videos whose running time are longer
than the normal classroom meeting.
Blackboard discussion board permits video content and
commentary exchanges.
MERLOT websites enhance content learning, which
demand longer time allotments.
Lectures permit introduction of key themes.
Lectures direct active learning activities.
Hybrid resources extend learning and offset limits of existing
Latin American History textbooks.
Permits the incorporation of student experiences in Latin
America.
Permits the incorporation of faculty study in Latin America.
The Geography of Latin America
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Map 1: Pre-Columbian Civilizations in Latin America.
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Map 2: 1780 Viceroyalties in Latin America.
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Map 3: Contemporary Latin America.
Pre-Columbian Civilizations
Viceroyalties of 1780 Latin America
Latin America: Geography and
Population Centers
The Olmec Video
The Mysterious Olmec People
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Students watch The Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico produced
by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
The origins of the Olmec people remains a mystery.
The National Gallery of Art’s exhibition on the Olmec
brought Shang Dynasty scholars to Washington who
concluded that funeral shards contained Shang Dynasty
Chinese calligraphy.
Were the Olmec Chinese?
If the Olmec were Chinese how would this change the
record on the history of the Americas?
The Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico engages the student in
using art and archaeology to decipher clues to a culture’s
origin.
Identifies the populations of Mesoamerica influenced by the
Olmec.
Central America:
The Burden of Time Video
The Maya of Central America
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The Maya civilization was the only one in the Americas to
develop a written language.
The Maya excelled in mathematics and astronomy.
Who were the Maya?
What were their religious beliefs?
How were they governed?
Did they engage in bloodletting?
What is their history timelines?
How accurate is the Mel Gibson film Apocalypto?
What sports did the Maya play?
Why did their civilization collapse before the arrival of the
Spanish?
Why does the Maya calendar stop on December 23, 2012?
Mesoamerica: Slides from Coba,
Chichen Itza, and Tulum
Three Maya City States:
Coba, Chichen Itza, Tulum
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Coba, Late Classic Period, 200 B.C.E. to 900 C.E.
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Chichen Itza, Terminal and Early Post Classic Period, 800 to
1200 C.E.
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Tulum, Late Post Classic Period, 1200-1530 C.E.
Tulum & Chichen Itza Video
The Mesoamerican Ballgame
MERLOT Assignment
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Provides information about the Maya culture.
Provides information about Maya art.
Provides information about major Maya city-states: Chichen
Itza, Uxmal, Palenque, Tikal, Yaxchilan, Bonampak, and
Copan.
Explains the rules of the Maya ballgame.
Introduces user to diagrams of play, game songs, uniforms,
artwork associated with the sport.
Discusses whether women could play.
Presents what happened to the team that lost.
The site self-tests by creating a animation that allows two
teams to play the game and score points.
Mesoamerican Ballgame
Xcaret
Mesoamerican Ballgames Video
The Astronomy of Central and South
America
MERLOT Assignment
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The site introduces the user to the importance astronomy
played in the Pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas.
Users are able to calculate dates according to the Maya
calendar system.
The site explains how the Maya calendar system was
developed.
The site explains how the movement of heavenly bodies
determined religious celebrations, war declarations, political
decisions.
Introduces users to the Maya prophecy interpreted as the
end of the world on December 23, 2012.
Explains how the reign dates of Maya rulers are calculated.
Compares Maya, Toltec, Aztec, Inca calendar systems.
Astronomy of Central and South America
Uxmal Video
Teotihuacan
Aztec City of the Gods
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Review slides from Mesoamerica CD on Teotihuacan
The Citadel
The Temple of Quetzalcoatl
The Avenue of the Dead
The Pyramid of the Sun
The Pyramid of the Moon
The Quetzal-Papalotl
Palace of the Jaguars
Temple of the Feathered Conches
Mel Gibson’s Apocalypto Video
Maya and Aztec Contributions
The Accuracy of Apocalypto
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The Maya writing system of glyphs for science and
literature.
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The Maya calendar system.
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The legacy of the Maya.
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Olmec, Maya, and Toltec influences on the Aztec.
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The abandonment of Teotihuacan.
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Tenochtitlan, the Aztec Capital.
Pre-Columbian Civilizations of
South America
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Coastal Civilizations along the Andes.
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The geography of South America.
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The civilization known as Sipan.
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The Inca civilization.
Sipan Video
The Lord of Sipan
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Who were the Moche?
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Who was buried in the Moche tombs?
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Where did the Moche live?
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What is learned from the archeological tomb evidence?
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What was the level of civilization for the Moche?
The Incas Video
The Inca
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What caused the Inca to thrive?
Where was the Incan Empire located?
How did the Inca communicate without a written language?
How was the Inca military organized?
How did the geography of the Andes affect the development
of the Inca Empire?
How did a road system facilitate government functions?
Who were the Nazca?
What is the importance of Cuzco and Manchu Picchu?
What food crops did the Inca grow?
Describe the Inca system of terracing.
What does mummification reveal about Inca religious
beliefs?
The Geometry of the Inca
MERLOT Assignment
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Introduces user to the design of Manchu Picchu and how
geometry was infused in this Inca city design plan.
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Examines the mysterious lines of Nazca using mathematical
rules of geometry.
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Examines the layout of Cuzco by mathematical design and
relates the design to other Inca cities.
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Permits new interpretations about the origins of ancient
cities by the study of mathematics.
The Geometry of the Inca
Los Incos
MERLOT Assignment
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The site explores the history of the Inca people.
The site describes the political organization of the Incan
Empire.
The site examines the development of technology by the
Inca and how this affected agriculture and warfare.
The site presents an understanding about agriculture,
terraced farming, and the variety of foods grown, e.g. the
many varieties of potatoes and tapiocas.
The site examines the critical function of roads and
messengers in trying the Incan Empire into a unified state.
The site presents specific artistic contributions by the Inca.
The site presents specific scientific contributions by the Inca.
The site examines the extensive network of trade and
commerce.
Los Incos
The Mission Video
The Mission Video
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What was the nature of the dispute between Spain and
Portugal in the Amazon River region?
How did the Portuguese Jesuits treatment of the native
population compare with the treatment of the indigenous
population by the Spanish Jesuits?
What contributed to the indigenous populations acceptance
of Roman Catholicism?
Which European country was awarded the land in dispute?
How did the Spanish treat the indigenous population?
What does the film reveal about Spanish colonial policies
toward the indigenous population?
How did Roman Catholicism fail the indigenous peoples?
The Buried Mirror Series
Video Series
The Buried Mirror
Video Series
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Part I: The Virgin and the Bull explores the symbolism of the
two most misunderstood archetypes of Spanish culture: the
Virgin Mary and the bullfight.
Part II: Conflict of the Gods retraces the culture and society
of the Aztecs.
Part III: The Age of Gold examines how gold, silver,
chocolate, tomatoes, the potato, and Roman Catholicism
contributed to the destruction of the pre-Columbian world.
Part IV: The Price of Freedom follows the independence
movements of Bolivar and San Martin in 19th century Latin
America.
Part V: Unfinished Business focuses on the contemporary
problems facing Latin America.
European Voyages of Exploration
Spain and Portugal
MERLOT Assignment
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Examines the history of Spain and Portugal before exploration.
Discusses the political systems in place for both Spain and
Portugal in the 15th century.
Describes the economy, people, and urban population of Spain
and Portugal.
Explains why both Spain and Portugal became exploring
nations.
Identifies the key figures in Spain and Portugal who promoted
exploration and colonization.
Discusses the role of Spain and Portugal’s explorers,
conquistadors, and Roman Catholic Church in the colonization
of the Americas.
Explains when and why African slavery was introduced into the
Americas.
Provides the opportunity to evaluate the Spanish and
Portuguese legacy on the Americas indigenous populations.
The European Voyages of Exploration
The Conquistadors
MERLOT Assignment
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Offers theories for the fall of the Aztec Empire.
Examines the role of Cortes as hero or villain.
Explains why the Incan Empire succumbed to the Spanish.
Traces the routes of Spanish and Portuguese explorers
along the Amazon.
Examines the critical role of Cabeza de Vaca in protecting
the rights of indigenous peoples.
Introduces theories about who were the first people to
populate the Americas.
Introduces users to key figures associated with European
exploration of the Americas.
Provides an effective timeline for the arrival and settlement
of Europeans into the Americas.
The Conquistadors
MERLOT Assignment
16th Century Spanish Census of the
Americas
MERLOT Assignment
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The site provides the 50 item questionnaire developed by Juan
Lopez de Velasco to provide the King of Spain with an
understanding of the lands Spain acquired in the Americas.
Questions ask the identification of native languages.
Questions ask which conquistadores took which regions.
Questions ask for the description of the geography.
Questions ask for the description of the plant and animal life.
Questions ask for the description of Spanish and indigenous
villages.
Questions ask for the description of how homes are built.
Questions ask for the description of crops cultivated.
Questions ask for the identification of plants for medical use.
Questions ask about trade and commerce.
Questions ask about the location of churches and monasteries.
16th Century Census
MERLOT Assignment
Builders of Image:
Latin American Cultural Identity Video
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Why is Latin America an important to understanding the
history of the Americas and the United States?
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How does Art shape the cultural identity of Latin America?
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How does music shape the cultural identity of Latin
America?
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How did the art and music of pre-Columbian civilizations
blend with the art of African slaves and Catholic Spain and
Portugal?
Builders of Image Video
Summary of Learning Tools
for a Hybrid Course
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Slides
Videos
MERLOT assignments
Readings
Discussion Boards
Maps
Lectures
Faculty/student travel experiences
The End
William A. Paquette
Professor of History
MERLOT History Editor
[email protected]
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Teaching Latin American History I