Introduction to the
ESL Scope and Scales
DECS Language & Multicultural Education Portfolio
Professional Development & Resource Materials for ESL
1
Introduction to the
ESL Scope and Scales
• The SACSA Framework and ESL students
• Who are ESL learners?
• The needs of ESL Learners and variables that affect their language learning
• Links betweens SACSA Standards and ESL Scales
• How were the ESL Scope and Scales developed?
• Benefits of using the ESL Scope and Scales
• Who uses the ESL Scope and Scales?
• Language demands of SACSA
• The model of language in the ESL Scope and Scales
• Structure of the ESL Scope and Scales
• Resources for teachers
2
The SACSA Framework and ESL
students
From the Introduction for each Learning Area of the SACSA
Framework:
In supporting teaching and learning for ESL
students and in assessing their performance,
educators should use the Scope and Standards
in this Band, in conjunction with the Scope and
Scales for ESL.
3
Who are ESL learners?
Defining ESL learners in relation to the SACSA
Standards:
Has the
student
achieved the
Standard in the
Learning Area?
Yes
No
No support
required
Is he / she of nonEnglish speaking
background?
Yes
Is Standard
Australian
English an
issue?
Yes
ESL
learner
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Needs of ESL Learners
I need to be able to use the
right English
I want my
knowledge
valued.
I find it hard
to move between my
family life and
school life.
I need to feel safe so that I am
not ashamed of being wrong.
I want to understand and
take part in school and
community issues.
5
Variables affecting language learning
•proximity to Australian
society
•proficiency of first
language
•proximity of first
language to Standard
Australian English
•prior educational
experience
•learning environment
•religious and cultural
beliefs
•life experience
•socio-economics
6
Links between the SACSA Standards
and the ESL Scales
Year level
R
1
Standard
2
3
1
Scales
1
2
3
4
5
6
Early Years
1
2
3
4
5
6
Primary
Years
1
2
3
4
5
Middle Years
1
2
3
4
Senior Years
1
2
3
4
4
5
2
6
3
7
8
9
10
4
5
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14
6
7
8
9
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14
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How were the ESL Scope and Scales
developed?
• Outcomes for each learning area for each
Standard were examined for their language
requirements
• This language is made explicit in the ESL Scope
and Scales.
ENGLISH
ARTS
LANGUAGES
HEALTH & P.E.
DESIGN AND
SOCIETY &
TECHNOLOGY
MATHS
ENVIRONMENT
SCIENCE
ESL Scope
and
Scales
8
Benefits of using the
ESL Scope and Scales
The ESL Scope and Scales:
• highlight the specific language needs of ESL learners
within the curriculum
• provide a common framework for teachers to talk about
the language demands within the learning areas
• assist teachers with programming for ESL learners
• inform teachers’ methodology
• support teachers to report on ESL students’ language
and literacy development
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Who uses the ESL Scope and Scales?
• ESL teachers
• Teachers who have identified that they have ESL
learners in their classroom
ENGLISH
ARTS
LANGUAGES
HEALTH & P.E.
DESIGN AND
SOCIETY &
TECHNOLOGY
MATHS
ENVIRONMENT
ALL LEARNING
AREAS
ESL learning
needs
10
What are the language demands of
SACSA?
Science 4.6 Explores how living things have changed over
geological time and debates the value of species diversity
and the ethics of human intervention.
11
What are the language demands of
SACSA?
Science 4.6 Explores how living things have changed over
geological time and debates the value of species diversity
and the ethics of human intervention.
Argument
in
Written
Discussion
Oral
Debate
Description
the
context
of
thecontext
contextof
of
inin
inthe
the
context
Outcome4.6
4.6of
Outcome
4.6
Outcome
Outcome 4.6
Language of
Language
of Written
Language
of
Argument
Oral Debate
Discussion
Description
12
What are the Strands of the
ESL Scope and Scales?
Text in
Context
Language
13
What is the model of language for the
ESL Scope and Scales?
Science 4.6 Explores how living things have changed over
geological time and debates the value of species diversity
and the ethics of human intervention.
There are choices to be made about:
•text type -
Genre
•technicality - What - Field
Who - Tenor
•position •medium -
How - Mode
ESL learners need to develop control of Standard Australian
English to make these choices.
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Text in Context and
Language comparison
Text 1:
I’m gunna clear that paddock
What?
You know, that one.
That stinks.
Text 2:
The rapid deterioration of the diversity of native flora
and fauna can be directly attributed to the
proliferation of detrimental land management
practices.
15
Field
The ‘what’ of a text is FIELD.
Field refers to the content.
Field continuum
everyday fields………..specialised fields………..highly technical fields
16
Tenor
The ‘who’ of the text is TENOR.
Tenor is concerned with the relationship between the
participants of a text.
Tenor continuum
informal…………….increasing formality……………formal
familiar………………………………………………..unfamiliar
17
Mode
The ‘how’ of the text is MODE.
Mode refers to how the text is communicated.
Mode Continuum
most spoken…………………………………….most written
18
Text in Context
Language
language to:
Genre
•structure a text
range of genres
•build cohesion
•expand information
•verbs
Field
technicality
(What)
•noun groups
• technical vocabulary
•nominalisations
Tenor
position
•possibility
•certainty
(Who)
•attitude
•foregrounding
Mode
medium
(How)
•tense
•voice - active and passive
•print conventions
19
Structure of ESL Scope & Scales
• BANDS – Early Years, Primary Years, Middle Years, Senior
Years
• INTRODUCTION
• SCOPE - KEY IDEAS
• SCALES - OUTCOMES
• GLOSSARY
20
Links between the Strands,
the Scope and the Scales
Scope
Text in Context
Language
Scales
Text in Context
Language
GenreKey Idea
GenreKey Idea
Genre Outcome
Field Key Idea
Field Key Idea
Field Outcome
Tenor Key Idea
Tenor Key Idea
Tenor Outcome
Mode Key Idea
Mode Key Idea
Mode Outcome
21
ESL Scope & Scales
Programming
ESL SCOPE
Reporting
Assessing
ESL SCALES
ESL SCALES
22
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