UNIT 4
Defining & Explaining
Vocabulary
• Revision of the vocabulary
• WORD FORMATION (U2 -> p28): N from Vbs
Grammar and functions
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Revision of grammar structures
Expanding definitions & Giving explanations
Relative clauses
Shortened Relative Clauses
WHAT vs WHICH
Uses of THAT
TRANSLATION
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(1) do engineers use
(2)so many metals
(3) there are
(4) it offers
(5) strength
(6) their strength and toughness.
(7) Concrete
(8) it is frequently/widely/commonly used
(9) depends on
TRANSLATION
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(10) lighter and more corrosion resistant
(11) what (we have) to do with them after use.
(12) can be broken down
(13) weak
(14) they are mixed together,
(15) an alloy
(16) which is much stronger
(17) obtaining
TRANSLATION
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(18) a number of different procedures
(19) in which
(20) consists of heating
(21) below its melting point
(22) cooling it
(23) makes them softer and less brittle
(24) more easily
(25) In this way
(26) are being developed
(27) from which to choose.
EXERCISE (prep)
1. around which
2. on which
3. on which
4. in which
5. with which
6. by which
7. in which
8. through which
9. by which
10. at which
Exercise
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Strength is the main property that steel offers.
The process which/that is known as polymerization consists of
joining different polymers of/from which plastics are made.
Electrons, the electrical charge of which is negative, are the
responsible particles for the production of electricity.
The high speeds at which the rotor in a generator turns produce
large amounts of electricity.
An electrolytic cell is the place where/in which the electrolytic
process takes place.
The discovery of semiconductors allowed the mass production of
chips, which reduced the cost of computers significantly.
Lead whose symbol is Pb, is the heaviest metal.
There are many different ways in which we may change the
properties of materials.
Exercise (shortened R.C.)
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CONTAINING
SUPPLYING
OBTAINED
SHOWN
NOT FLOWING
FED
TAKEN
DEVELOPED
SURROUNDING
KNOWN
WHAT vs WHICH
1.
The mixture of copper and tin is WHAT is known as bronze, WHICH was
probably the first alloy used by man.
2.
We need to benefit from solar energy, WHICH is difficult in some
countries.
3.
They were not surprised at WHAT this device can detect, because they
knew WHAT to expect.
4.
The maintenance engineers did WHAT they could, WHICH wasn't much.
5.
Many companies don’t know WHAT to do with their waste, WHICH
makes for serious environmental problems.
6.
He is familiar with several programming languages, WHICH makes him
suitable for the job.
7.
We don’t know WHAT caused the accident in the power plant.
8.
WHAT goes up must come down.
9.
It doesn’t matter WHAT you do, the system won’t work properly anyway.
10.
I am sure that WHAT the technicians say is correct, but we should look
for better alternatives to provide clean energy.
LISTENING: Alloys
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COMBINATION OF METALS
CARBON
BY MIXING
THE PROPERTIES OF AN ALLOY
IN A PURE STATE
STEEL
OF WHICH
IRON
SMALL AMOUNTS OF CARBON
CARBON STEEL
…to which … CHROMIUM, COPPER …NICKEL
TO OBTAIN THE DESIRABLE PHYSICAL AND
CHEMICAL
• BRASS AND BRONZE
• COPPER
LISTENING: Alloys
• DEPEND ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS THAT IT
CONTAINS
• IN A DIFFERENT WAY
• An alloy OF IRON THAT IS EVEN MORE MAGNETIC THAN PURE
IRON
• OF MAKING AN ALLOY
• UNTIL THEY MELT
• RATHER THAN A SIMPLE MIXTURE
• A MIXTURE OF THE PROPERTIES OF ITS COMPONENTS
• FREEZES AT 0ºC and sodium chloride MELTS AT 801ºC,
• THIS SOLUTION FREEZES AT –23ºC.
• A SOLUTION FREEZES AT A LOWER TEMPERATURE THAN ITS
COMPONENTS DO
• SOLID SOLUTIONS
• THEY BEHAVE IN A SIMILAR WAY
• A LOWER MELTING POINT than the substances OF WHICH IT IS
COMPOSED.
• PURE IRON MELTS AT 1,500ºC and carbon at 3,350ºC,
• MELTS AT 1,150ºC.
LISTENING2: Alloys
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The properties of an alloy DEPEND ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE METALS OR
NON METALS THAT IT CONTAINS. Indeed they are usually a combination of
their properties. But often the alloy possesses the properties of the original
elements to a different extent
For example, there is an alloy of ALUMINIUM CONTAINING IRON THAT IS EVEN
MORE MAGNETIC THAN PURE IRON
The usual method OF MAKING AN ALLOY is to heat the component elements
UNTIL THEY MELT then to mix them thoroughly
Thus, an alloy is a solution RATHER THAN A SIMPLE MIXTURE
As you know, the properties of a solution are not simply A MIXTURE OF THE
PROPERTIES OF ITS COMPONENTS
Water for example FREEZES AT 0ºC and sodium chloride MELTS AT 801ºC,
but if sodium chloride is dissolved in water to form a strong solution of saltTHIS
SOLUTION FREEZES AT –23ºC.
In fact, as a general rule, A SOLUTION FREEZES AT A LOWER TEMPERATURE
THAN ITS COMPONENTS DO
And since alloys are SOLID SOLUTIONS
it should not surprise you to learn thatTHEY BEHAVE IN A SIMILAR WAY
an alloy usually has A LOWER MELTING POINT than the substances OF
WHICH IT IS COMPOSED.
For example, PURE IRON MELTS AT 1,500ºC and carbon at 3,350ºC,
but cast iron, AN ALLOY OF IRON & CARBON, melts at 1,150ºC.
CORRECT MISTAKES
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The properties of an alloy depend on the materials that IT
contains.
Electrons orbiting farther from the nucleus are easily drawn away.
An electrolytic cell is the place in which ELECTROLYSIS takes
place.
Alloying is a process in which several metals are involved (in it).
Steel is an alloy WHOSE composition consists of carbon and iron.
Go on with what you were doing.
A compiler is the name GIVEN to the software that (it) translates
a program into machine code.
Conductors are materials THROUGH WHICH electricity can flow
The mixture of copper and zinc is called brass, WHICH (it) is the
most common non-ferrous alloy.
Metals can be heated to a certain temperature above (of) which
their properties change.
The temperature AT WHICH iron melts is 1,550ºC.
The amount of electricity generated depends on the speed AT
WHICH THE ROTOR turns.
USES of THAT
• Relative pronoun (THAT or WHICH) :
e.g. The materials THAT /WHICH are used in structures must be very strong
• Conjunction: THAT (after vbs such as TO
SAY, TO STATE, TO KNOW THAT…).
E.g. She said THAT it was raining
• Adj + N /Pronoun: THIS/THESE (+ N)<->
THAT / THOSE (+ N)
e.g. Iron is commonly used in engineering. This/That (material) is alloyed
with other metals
e.g. Zinc and nickel are very strong. These/Those (materials) are commonly
used in alloys
• Pronoun:
USES of THAT
- El/Los (pronoun) + ADJECTIVE
=the one / the ones.
E.g.I like the blue bag but not THE RED ONE
- El/Los (pronoun) + OF/ Short Rel Clause
(typically used with comparison) (el
que/el de)= THAT/THOSE OF/short REL
CL
– The density of iron is higher than THAT OF zinc: la
densidad del hierro es mayor que la (densidad) del
cinc
– The results are better than THOSE presented last
year: los resultados son mejores los (resultados) que
presentamos el año pasado
EXERCISE: Uses of THAT
1. Conjunction…. …. Pronoun
2. Relative pronoun
3. Pronoun
4. Pronoun
5. Pronoun
6. Relative pronoun …. Relative pronoun
7. Relative pronoun …. Conjunction …. Pronoun
8. Pronoun …. Relative pronoun
9. Conjunction
10. Pronoun
WORD FORMATION (U2 p 28)
NOUN from VERB
-ing -> English (e.g. building)
-tion/sion ->Latin (e.g. Explanation/emission)
-ment (e.g. management)
- er/or (object) (e.g. boiler/conductor)
- ure (e.g. mixture)
- ent/ant (e.g. content/coolant)
- nce (e.g. performance)
- age (e.g. drainage)
- al (e.g. disposal)
- y (e.g. discovery)
WORD FORMATION: p 28
1. EXPOSURE to GASEOUS fluorine.
2. IMPROVEMENTS … RESISTANCE
…FULLY … PITTING
3. DENSITY … its SUBSTITUTION ….
WEIGHT …HARMFUL … EMISSIONS
4. its STRENGTH … its ABILITY …
DEFORMATION …its RESISTANCE … to
DEFLECTION
5. COMPONENTS … CHEMICALLY ….
ENVIRONMENTALLY safer COOLANTS
… higher PRESSURES
WORD FORMATION: Aluminium p 29
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ACTIVITY
ENGINEERING
DEVELOPMENT
APPLICATIONS
TOUGHNESS or DUCTILITY
FAILURE.
ACCEPTANCE
COMPONENTS
REFRIGERANTS or COOLANTS and PRESSURES
WORKABILITY and corrosion RESISTANCE
ABILITY
STRENGTH
TREATMENT
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UNIT 2 CLASSIFICATION