Political
• Small Clans/ Tribes 30-60
Economics
• Hunters and gatherers
• Slash and Burn agriculture
• Basin Irrigation
• Pastoralism
Religion
• Polytheism
• Sumerian= influential towards the Old Testament and
Recreation of “Hell” (Jews, Christians, Muslims)
Social
• Nomadic
• Patriarchal Social Systems= men > women
Intellectual
• Phoenicians= developed 22 letter alphabet  Greek and Latin
• Cuneiform= writing based off of wedged characters
Arts
• Spears, daggers, hammers, bow and arrow
• Pottery
• Metallurgy
Important People/Peoples
 Alexander the Great- King of Macedon. He was a pupil of Aristotle. While in
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Egypt he founded Alexandria his first and best-known city.
Aristotle- Greek philosopher, scientist and pupil of Plato.
Lydians- came up with the concept of coined money
Phoenicians- established naval city-states all along Mediterranean and
developed a simple alphabet that used only 22 letters
Hebrews- significant because of their religious beliefs (Judaism)
Assyrians- learned to use iron
Important Terms
 Cultural Diffusion- transmission of ideas and products from one culture to
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another
Cuneiform- system of writing from Mesopotamia
Foraging- term for hunting and gathering
Hieroglyphics- system of picture writing used in Egypt
Hellenistic Age- era in which Greek culture blended with Persian and other
Eastern influences spread throughout the former empire of Alexander the Great
Matrilineal- social system in which descent and inheritance are traced through
their mother
Pax Romana- the Roman Peace; the period of prosperity and stability
throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E.
Ziggurat- A multilayered pyramid constructed by Mesopotamians
Early Civilizations/ Neolithic Revolution
Nomads- Nomads hunted their food,
following animals for food and maintained
rudimentary shelters
Foraging Societies: Hunter gathererstraveled from point to point as plants and
animals dictated; could not build permanent
shelters; could not preserve food
Pastoral Societies- tamed animals and raised
animals to eat instead of hunting/following
animals; still could not farm; more and more
domesticated animals
The Neolithic/ Agricultural Revolution- from 8000 BCE
to 3000 BCE; people figured out how to grow their
own plants – allowed people to permanently settle
down and form larger communities (not full scale
civilization yet)
- people start to think in terms of
owning land; they don’t have to move
around anymore so they want private
property
- food surplus- more food than just
enough to feed people
- allowed for more
specialized jobs; no longer need everyone
making food so the other people fill other
occupations
- agricultural societies become more
complex and societies form – early
civilizations; farming villages turned
into small towns and cities
- animals used for labor
- technologies invented (sharpened
granite for farming tools, pottery to
cook in, and MOST IMPORTANTLYknowledge on how to use metals (later
parts of Neolithic revolution called Bronze
Age
How River valley civilizations came
about
• Many civilizations started here for the fertile
land, and later produced the own irrigation.
• Stable weather conditions
Olmecs 1200BCE – 400BCE
• Located in Mexico (near Veracruz)
• Grew corn beans and squash primarily
• Vast trade networks, encompassing very diverse
areas, but small territory relative to land availableno empire/political unification
• Each center seems to have fallen due to a violent
rebellion (defaced monuments)
• Colossal mounds used in religious ceremonies,
importance of animal motifs, calendar/writing
• Clear social structure, elites controlled labor pool
(increased food production), merchants
Chavin 900 – 250 BCE
• Very diverse environment (Andes mountains, jungles,
coastal plains)
• Maize, quinoa, potatoes, LLAMAS
• Center of regional trade
• System of reciprocal labor obligations (monumental
structures and irrigation)
• American metallurgy first developed in Andean region
• Not conquered or brought down by rebellion
• Rulers were buried with lots of gold, etc.
• Similar religious beliefs as Olmecs- jaguars,
priests/shamans, etc.
• LLAMA extremely important for trade, carrying massive
quantities around
Toltecs (968-1150)
After collapse of the Mayans
 Leader Topiltzin dedicated to
Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent)
 Strong militaristic ethic & cult of sacrifice
 Area
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 Northern Mexico to areas of Guatemala
 Capitol: Tula
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Destroyed by nomadic invaders
Rise of the Aztecs
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Also known as Mexicas
Formed in 1325
10,000 migrated to Lake Texcoco and
formed the capitol Tenochtitlan
Intrusive and militant group
Human sacrifice and conquest united with
political power of the ruler and the nobility
Area: Tarascan Frontier to Mayan area
Subject people forced to pay tribute,
surrender lands, and military service
Aztecs cont.
Women somewhat equal
 Ruled 1.5-25 million
 Religion
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 Little distinction between the world of gods
and natural world
 Festivals, ceremonies, and sacrifices
○ Sacrifices used to fuel the sun god
 Deities ex. gods of rain, fire, water
○ Male and Female form
Aztec Captiol: Tenochtitlan
Metropolis- central zone of palaces
Adobe brick houses (nobility had larger
homes)
 Geographically connected to island by four
causeway
 Capulli ruled neighborhoods
 Economy
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 Chinampas- irrigation system of floating islands
that provided agriculture
 Trade: market, barter or cacao beans/gold for
currency, and long distance trade with Pochteca
Social Hiearchy
Life of the Inca
Twantinsuyu - highly centralized
 Various ethnic groups
 Unified language
 Irrigated agriculture
 Combined ways of previous civilizations
ex. agriculture, religion, metallurgy
 Ruled 9-13 million
 Conquest
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 Economic growth and political pwer
Inca cont.
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Political
 Ruler considered a god
 Power divided into 4 provinces
 Nobility ear spools (orejones)
 Labor instead of tributes
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Religion
 Political and social life related to religion
 Holy shrine
○ stones, mountains, tombs, rivers, huacas etc.
 Temple of the Sun- center of state religion
Inca Cultural Acheivements
No writing system or wheel
 Math- knotted quipo to count
 Infrastructure
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Tambos- system of roads
Land/water management
Architecture & public buildings
Terrace farming
Art- built on predecessor peoples
 Metallurgy and pottery
Similarities
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Represented military and imperial
organization success
Controlled circulation of goods
Agricultural based with a food surplus
Nobles became more important than local
leaders
Allowed for diversity as long as authority
Empires acquired by conquest of
sedentary peoples
Belief systems, cosmology similar roots
Qin/Han Dynasty
• Qin Dynasty- 221-206 B.C.E
• leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang)
• Feudalism was abandoned
• Legalism- The main idea was to make a system that will make and
culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the
state.
• Han Dynasty- 207 B.C.E- 220 A.D
• Confucian ideals of government was used
• Intellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourished
• To ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court
developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system."
Roman Empire
• Early Rome was governed by kings, but after only seven of
them had ruled, the Romans took power over their own city
and ruled themselves. They then instead had a council known
as the 'senate' which ruled over them. From this point on one
speaks of the 'Roman Republic'.
• The Roman Republic was a very successful government. It
lasted from 510 BC until 23 BC - almost 500 years. In
comparison the United States of America only exist since 1776
- less than 250 years.
• The Roman empire in the end was overrun by millions of
barbarians from the north and east of Europe. It is believed to
have happened two or three times in history that huge
migrations took place across Europe, where peoples moved to
settle in new territories. The great migration proved too much
for the Romans to stem
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330 AD: Constantine founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site
of the ancient Greek city Byzantium: Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it
would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
395: The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in
Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna.
476: The Western Empire Falls: The Eastern Empire survives and now is labeled as
the Byzantine Empire.
568: Lombards invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the Byzantines.
610: Heraclius becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The theme
system is installed. The Empire's language changes to Greek. Eventual Lost of Syria,
Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims.
693: Muslims attack Constantinople.
690: Loss of North Africa to Muslims.
721: Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims 917: Bulgars under Symeon
overrun Thrace.
924: Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople unsuccessfully.
941: Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople: The
Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet.
976: Basil II becomes Emperor.
992: Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire
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1014: Basil II destroys the Bulgar army, earning the epithet Bulgaroktonos
("Bulgar Slayer").
1071: Defeat at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia
Minor.
1075: Loss of Syria to Muslims.
1054: The Great Schism: The Latin Roman Church and the Greek Orthodox
Church excommunicate each other.
1087: Byzantines defeated in Thrace.
1121: Reconquest of southwestern Asia Minor.
1179: Byzantine Army defeated by the Sultanate of Rum at Myriokephalon.
Hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost.
1202: Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice.
1204: Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of
Constantinople is formed as well as many Byzantine successor states. The capture
of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the Byzantines never fully
recovered.
1261: The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores the
Byzantine Empire.
1453: Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. End of the Byzantine Empire.
The Crusades were a series of wars taking place in Asia Minor and the Levant between 1095
and 1291, in which Western European nations engaged using the propaganda of religious
expeditionary wars.
There was a total of NINE Crusades!
• First Crusade: 1095-1099, established the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, providing more lands for the
crusading knights.
•Second Crusade:1147-1149, success of the Christians in the First Crusade had been largely due to the
disunion among their enemies.
•Third Crusade: 1189-1192, Not many years after the Second Crusade, the Moslem world found in the
famous Saladin a leader for a holy war against the Christians.
•Fourth Crusade:1202 – 1261
•Fifth Crusade: 1215-1221, the Battle of al-Mansura
•Sixth Crusade:1222-1244, achieved some small measure of success
•Seventh, Eighth, And Ninth Crusasdes:1245-1300: Led by King Louis IX of France, the Seventh and Eighth
Crusades were complete failures. In the Seventh Crusade Louis sailed to Egypt in 1248 and recaptured
Damietta. In 1270 he set off on the Eighth Crusade, landing in North Africa in the hope of converting the
sultan of Tunis to Christianity but died before he got far. King Edward I of England in 1271 who tried to join
Louis in Tunis, the Ninth Crusade would fail in the end.
7 Major Religions
•Christianity
•Hinduism
•Islam
•Judaism
•Confucianism
•Buddhism
•Shinto
Obinnna Egbuna
Monotheistic
• Christianity-Spread through missionaries and colonization of
other countries.
• Islam-Spread through people and trade within India after the
prophet Mohammed's death.
• Judaism-Judaism originated in the Middle East and has spread
throughout all parts of the world because of both voluntary
migrations and forced exile or expulsions.
• Buddhism-Spread partially through government aid of the
Chinese government in Asia but mainly through trade with
middle east.
Polytheistic/Other
• Confucianism-Did not exactly serve a god but moral was to honor those of
higher authority. Spread through Confucius himself and partially through
the government.
• Hinduism-Hinduism is the major religion of India, and the vast majority of
India's population today is Hindu, and it is a vast majority of religions
mixed together.
• Shintoism- Shintoism is considered a local religion located solely
in Japan. However, the basis of this belief comes from main
land Asia. Some consider Shintoism as a way of life instead of
a religion, because there is no God, no set of rules in which to
follow
The Rise of Islam
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Islam spread quickly to become one of the world’s
most popular religions
 Remains
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so to this day
Muslim merchants played a crucial role in trade and
cultural diffusion
5 Pillars of Islam
Abbasid was a “Golden Age” for Islam
 Court-life,
literature, learning
Five Pillars of Islam Explained
Importance of Islam
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Expansion into Sub-Saharan Africa, the Swahili
Coast of East Africa, parts of Europe and Asia
Caliph: political and religious successor of
Muhammad
Qu’ran
Islamic law known as Shari’a
ISLAM
http://prezi.com/f2t4debqc1t5/ap-worldhistory-prezi-period-3-middle-eastsouthwest-asia-timeline/
Qin/Han Dynasty
• Qin Dynasty- 221-206 B.C.E
• leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang)
• Feudalism was abandoned
• Legalism- The main idea was to make a system that will make and
culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the
state.
• Han Dynasty- 207 B.C.E- 220 A.D
• Confucian ideals of government was used
• Intellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourished
• To ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court
developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system."
Ottoman Empire
•1299-1923
•Muslim empire
•Peak at 1590 due to it’s expansion
•Had a military administration and civil administration
•Sultan was the highest position in the administration but
really served as figure head once the janissaries began to
manipulate his decisions
•Islam major religion
•Charged tax if a person belonged to any religion that wasn’t
ISLAM
• Had an agricultural based economy
•Instead of focusing on industrializing focused more on
expansion
•Expansion is what gained them most of their wealth
independent actions (like always corrupted)
• It didn’t industrialize at the pace of Western Europe which
didn’t allow them to become economically stable
•
Cont’d
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Decline factors
Major problems was brought upon the political system
when the lots of people claimed caliphate when sultan
died.
Advisors also were in charge of making decisions and
often were corrupted
There was local rulers which sometimes took Old man of
Europe
The ottoman empire completely ended during WWI when it
allied itself with the Allies that lost the war.
After the Ottoman empire terminated the countries became
independent.
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The Mongols were central nomadic people that arose around 1200 BCE, they are said to be the
world's largest empire.
Their first leader was a man by the name of Chinggis Khan(Genghis) ,he helped to unite the
Mongols and aided in the capturing/destruction of cites/civilizations.
The Mongols are know for their skilled ability on horseback and for their vicious fighting
methods and ability to capture major cities, as well as their aiding in establishing trading
routes/methods. The Mongols hand crafted some of the many weapons that they used to defeat
other cities
Many years after the death of Chinggis Khan, his great-grandson Kubilai Khan defeated a Qin
dynasty army but Kabul was interested in the Chinese empires and was constantly surrounded
by either Buddhist, Daoist, or Confucian advisors.
Therefore changing the Mongol empire onto the Yuan dynasty in China, this arose out of
Kubilai’s fascination with Chinese empires but as the years continued on Song loyalist started
revolting and due the new beliefs emphasized by Kubilai and his new religious beliefs the
Yuan dynasty military was to weak to fight back. So eventually they were over thrown by the
Ming dynasty therefore ending their long reign over China.
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The Silk road- Know as one of the major trade that stretched across China and helped in
trading silk along with other goods, along with the trading of goods the Silk road helped
spread different languages/dialects and religions across China as well as diseases…Black
Death
Royal road- Used by the Persian empire was a trade network that united the empire and
delivered mail to other empires as well as being a trade route for the Persians.
Indian Ocean Trade- The trade network used between Africa and Asia, this trade network
allowed the Asian people especially the Indians to trade goods with the Africans, allow African
goods to come to the European/Indian land area, therefore creating a bases that would
eventually include slave trade
Saharan Trade- African trade that included salts and helped to spread culture/religion
throughout Africa
Sub-Saharan trade- Significant because it helped in the spreading of the Bantu language which
is significant to African history
• Spain Conquista of
America
Spain
•How It began: Christopher Columbus (in 1492) was looking for a shorter route to get to
India (India because they wanted to take part in the spice trade. Go cinnamon!) (Shorter route B/C of Galileo’s
theory of Earth being round) and they hit the Americas!
•Background Info!
•He went and asked the kingdom of France and Britain—denied.
•Queen Isabella And King Francis had just come out of a 800 year religious war with
Muslims, Catholics, and Jews. Very Pro-Catholic!
•Effects: Discovered the West Indies. Columbus started exploration in the Americas.
Other Explorers:
•Hernan Cortes (1512) conquered the Aztecs.
•Francisco Pizarro (1531) conquered the Inca.
How they did it:
•Disease
•Superior weapons
•The Aztec thought Cortes was a god
Established cultural, economic, and social
imperialism
*REMEMBER TREATY OF TORDESILLAS -----
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Time period 1350-1550
Age of learning, literature, art and culture
Humanism- Encouraged people to be
curious and to question received wisdom .
Questioned religious beliefs.
Turned of attention to scientific discoveries.
(ex. Astronomy and Anatomy).
Humanist principles were applied to art
work.
Colonization in Africa and Asia
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•
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•
•
•
•
•
Colonization in Africa pushed by three main factors: economic,
political, and social.
European powers wanted control of the natural resourced produced
in Africa like precious metals and even people.
1885 Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa:
End of slavery in Africa “Commerce, Christianity, and Civilization”
South Africa = British vs. Boers settlers.
French in North Africa
Belgium = Congo
Newly formed political boundaries caused tribes to clash and a lot of
native Africans lived and worked under harsh conditions.
•
•
•
China and Japan allowed minimal trade with the West so Europe
began its sights on India
French-Indian War
British East India Company
•Ignoring
the claims of African ethnic groups,
kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans
established colonial claims
•European nations expand their empires by
seizing territories from Muslim states
•As the Mughal Empire declined, Britain
seized almost the whole subcontinent of India
•Demand for Asian products drove Western
imperialists to seek possession of Southeast
Asian lands.
Between 1789 and 1802 France was wracked by a revolution
which changed the government, administration, military and
culture of the nation as well as plunging Europe into a series
of wars.
 France went from a largely feudal state under an absolutist
monarch to a republic which executed the king and then to an
empire under Napoleon Bonaparte.
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In France the bourgeois and landowning
classes emerged as the dominant power
The Revolution unified France and enhanced
the power of the national state.
Feudalism was dead; social order and
contractual relations were consolidated by
the Code Napoléon
The Role of Women
• 1500-1600: women assumed roles like cooking
cleaning and educating children.
• 1610-1635: roles expanded to more manual labor.
• 1791: Declaration of Women’s rights.
• 1805: women began to work in textile factories.
• 1832: Unmarried women established their right to
vote.
• 1876: Specialized training schools opened up.
• 1944: Women built weapons, vehicles, aircrafts,
and ships in WWII
Decolonization
 Decolonization- The process of becoming free of colonial status and achieving
statehood or independence.
 Between WWI and WWII, movements for independence began in Africa and Asia.
 National self-determination-fight for independence.
 Europe’s power was destroyed by WWII.
 1947-1962 – Virtually every colony achieved independence.
Africa
Independence movements led by western educated elites.
Great Britain and France could no longer afford colonies, but still wanted to keep trade
after independence.
Few professionals/skilled people to run the gov’t – resulted in national identity issues.
Kwame Nkrumah
Egypt became independent in 1952
South Africa
Formation of National African Congress in 1912
White minority had more power over black majority – created a system of segregation
known as apartheid.
Most black nations gained independence in the late 1950’s and 1960’s.
Decolonization Latin America
There had
been
unsuccessful
revolts in Latin
America
two and three
hundred years
but these
revolutions.
BUT in the 19th Century
Europe was cray cray
because of the
vertically challenged
Napoleon. *1
This distracted Europe from
its American holdings.
*1 Napoleon was actually
above average height, the
short rumors was started by
England and America. They
are historically very messy.
Decolonization in Middle East
 1917: Balfour Declaration
 1922: Britain receives League of Nations
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mandate for Palestine
1936-1939: Arab uprisings in Palestine
1948: Partition of Palestine and First ArabIsraeli War
1952: King Farouk is overthrown in Egypt
1956: Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal
1958: United Arab Republic is formed
1964: The Palestine Liberation Organization
is formed.
World War I
• 1914-1918
• Central Powers vs. Allies
– CP: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey
– A: 3 members of the Triple Entente: Britain and the British Empire
France and Russia
• Causes
–
–
–
–
–
Tensions between Russia and Austria
Imperialism competition for land
Nationalism: Balkans
Alliances- growth of military, generals, army
Assassination:
• ArchDuke Ferdinand from Austria
• Princep, a member of the Black Hand group, killed Ferdinand in Sarajero.
World War II
•
•
•
•
1939-1945
Causes:
– Deliberate strides towards military expansion by new regimes in Japan and Germany
– Germany disliked the Treaty of Versailles
• War guilt cause: takes blame (no option; forced)
• Pay reparations ($33 billion for war damages)
• Army decrease, no navy, no subs, buffer zone between France/ Germany (Rhineland)
• Land- don’t keep colonies: give land to France and Great Britain; 13% of Germans living in that
territory given was lost.
Sparked War in Europe when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939
Holocaust: genocide of Jews
– Deaths in gas chambers (mustard gas, chlorine gas, cyanide gas, etc.)
– United Nations
• Differences w/ League of Nations:
– US involvement
– HQ in US
– Security council has military authority that can be used to stop aggression by “rogue”
actions
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Killed more, involved more countries, and costed more than any previous war in history.
Resulted in the downfall of Russian and German monarchies.
Caused the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary to completely collapse.
Contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia and the triumph of fascism in Italy.
Ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia.
Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was a result of
World War I, including the Holocaust and World War II.
Sparked the development of the atomic bomb and the use of poison gas.
The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also
be related to the First World War.
Caused the creation of the League Of Nations
 The United States assumed a new position as a global superpower.
 Many War Crime Trials.
 Caused the race for possession of nuclear arms.
 Created the United Nations
 Enormous technological progress was made
 made the English develop radar which would be the forerunner of television.
 Broadened women’s rights.
BASIC CORE
0-7 pts
Has acceptable thesis
1 pt
Show basic understanding of all documents
1 pt
Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all documents
2 pts
Evidence from all Documents
2 pts
Evidence from all but One Documents
1 pt
Analyze POV in at Least Two Documents
1 pt
Grouping Two or Three
1 pt
Additional Document
1pt
EXPANDED CORE (If you got all seven basic)
0-2 pts
Structure for the Essay
I.
Introduction
• Thesis
• Roadmap
II.
Body Paragraph(s)
• 1st Sentence for each body paragraph should be a comparative (a direct
comparison sentence)
• 2nd sentence then explains/analysis the direct comparison in the first sentence
III.
Then subsequent sentences in the paragraph should provide at least 2 info
statements/evidence in each paragraph.
IV.
Conclusion
Keep in Mind/ Tips:
* the thesis can only be counted as the thesis and not also as a direct comparison
* use linking comparative words such as “whereas” to help set up direct comparisons
* if in the comparative question there is a parenthetical qualifier such as (political, economic,
cultural), it is not required that evidence is given for each. This parenthetical qualifier helps
students think about what to write.
AP World History Compare/Contrast
Ideas
• Clear focus throughout, stays on topic, no irrelevant
information
• Detailed, accurate specifics
• Insight – consistently compares and contrasts in a
thoughtful manner
• All parts of question thoroughly answered
Organization
• Thesis statement takes a stand, answers all components of
question
• Clear topic sentence for each body paragraph
• Clear focus for each paragraph
• Paragraphs divided into thoughtful categories
• Transitions between points
Change and Continuity Example
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