SECTION 1
Hemispheres/Latitude/
Longitude/Globes and
Map Projections
A) Hemispheres
• North of Equator=Northern Hemisphere.
• South of Equator= Southern
Hemisphere.
• Equator is at 0 degrees latitude.
• East of Prime Meridian=Eastern
Hemisphere
• West of Prime Meridian=Western
Hemisphere
• Prime Meridian is at 0 degrees
longitude.
B) Latitude and Longitude
• Degrees North or South of the
equator is called latitude.
• Tropic of Cancer is at 23 ½
degrees North of the Equator.
• Tropic of Capricorn is at 23 ½
degrees South of the Equator.
• Degrees measured East or West
of the equator is called longitude.
• What is the purpose for latitude and longitude?
• To find the exact location of a
city or place.
• Absolute location- pinpoints
the precise spot of where one
line of latitude crosses one line
of longitude.
• EX: Florence, KY 38 degrees N
85 degrees W
C)Globes and Maps
• The globe is the most
accurate way to represent the
Earth.
• Mapmakers use projections to
make a map.
• 3 types of map projections
1) Goode’s Interrupted
Projection-
Adv: accurately presents the
size and shape of
continents.
Disadv: distance in oceans
less accurate.
2) Mercator Projection
Adv: land shapes fairly
accurately, shows true
directions
Disadv: size and distance not
close
3) Robinson Projection
• Adv: shows size and
shapes of oceans and
continents accurately.
• Disadv: near north and
south poles not accurate.
Chapter 1 Section 1
Using
Geography
Themes
A) Five Geographic Themes
1) Location- Knowing where you
are
-Relative location is finding out
how far and in what direction you
are from another place.
2) Place- Where a place is and
what a place is like.
- Physical Characteristics (land
shape, plants, climate, animals)
Five Geographic Themes Con’t
- Characteristics of people,
things they have created,
language, clothing, music,
ways they live.
• 3) Human/Environment InteractionWay earth appears after humans
have changed it.
• (Ex) Build roads, cut down forests,
build houses.
Five Geographic Themes Con’t
• 4) Movement- How people in one
place make contact with another
place.
• Trading goods with other
countries.
• (Ex) telephone, computer, satellite
• 5) Region- Areas that share
common characteristics
• (Ex) landscape, climate, language,
Chapter 1
Section 2
A) Planet Earth
• 8 or 9 planets in our solar
system including Earth.
• The sun is 93 million miles
from the Earth.
• The sun is made up of hot
gases.
• The Earth makes one revolution
around the sun in 365 1/4 days.
B) Seasons
• The Earth is tilted on axis which
is why we have seasons.
• June 21 is summer solstice (most
hours of sunlight)
• December 22 is winter solstice
(least hours of sunlight)
• Sept 23/March 21 is spring and
fall equinoxes (12 hours of
sunlight & 12 hours of darkness)
Chapter 2 Section 1
A) Earth’s Water
• Water covers 70% of Earth’s
surface.
• Climate determines the
amount of water a place
receives.
• Water, climate, and vegetation
influence how people live.
B) The Water Cycle
• Song #1 “Water Cycle Jump”
• Rivers, lakes, and oceans contain
water in liquid form.
• Atmosphere holds water vapor.
• Water cycle is constantly moving.
• The sun drives the water cycle.
• Song #2 “Water Cycle Song
• Draw the water cycle!
C) Types of Water
• Water is home to millions of
kinds of plants and animals.
• Song #3 “The Water Cycle
Song”
• Water at the Earth’s surface can
be freshwater or saltwater.
• Which water is most important
to humans?
1) Freshwater
• Only 2-3% of the water on Earth
is freshwater.
• 80% of that is frozen in glaciers
and ice sheets.
• Lakes and rivers are sources of
freshwater.
• Regions with little rainfall use
aquifer’s for water supply.
2) Ocean Water
• All oceans are salt water.
• 4 major oceans (Pacific,
Atlantic, Indian, Arctic)
• 97-98% of the planet’s water is
salt water.
• The Pacific Ocean is the
largest and deepest ocean in
the world.
Chapter 2
Section 2
Influences on
Climate
What causes climate?
• The original source of
climate is the sun.
A) Latitude and Climate
• Real hot and dry between the
Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of
Capricorn.
• Cool or cold at the N/S poles.
• The Earth’s tilt and rotation causes
regions to receive different
amounts of sunlight and seasons.
• The sun’s direct rays fall yearround at low latitudes near the
B) Storms
• Moving wind and water make climates
milder, but also cause storms.
• Storms: Thunderstorms, Tornado, and
Hurricanes.
• Hurricanes form over warm Atlantic
Ocean in the summer and fall.
• Hurricanes bring high winds and tons
of rain.
• Hurricanes that form in the Pacific
Ocean are called typhoons.
C) Wind, Water, Currents
- Latitude, movement of air, and
movement of water currents help
create Earth’s climate.
- Near equator, air and water are most
intensely heated.
- Large warm water ocean current is the
Gulf Stream.
- Gulf Stream current flows from Gulf of
Mexico and the east coast of U.S.
D) Hurricanes
• What states could be in danger of getting
hit by a hurricane?
Chapter 3 Section 1
Culture
A) Culture
• Culture is a way of life of a
group of people who share
same beliefs and customs.
• Culture includes: social groups,
religion, gov’t, language, daily
life, history, arts, music,
literature, ways they make a
living.
1) Early Cultures
• 4 cultures arose in Asia and
Africa 4-5,000 years ago.
• All four cultures developed
agriculture and ways of
irrigating, or bringing water
to the land.
B) World Culture Regions
• There are 8 major things (traits)
that make up Culture.
• 1) Governments- Authoritarian (1
person rules with unlimited
power) or Democracy (Citizens
choose their leaders, checks &
balances)
• 2) Language- Sharing languages
is very important for culture.
• 3) Religion- Major ones are Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and
Judaism. Religious differences are a
challenge/problem in many countries.
• 4) Social Groups- Many types of social
groups, the amount of money normally
determines your social group.
• 5) Economies- How people produce
goods, what goods they produce, and
how they are bought and sold.
• 6) Daily Life- What people eat, what clothes
people wear, what type of homes people live
in.
• 7) Arts- Is a number of things that expresses
culture such as: paintings, sculptures, dance,
music, theater, architecture, and literature.
• 8) History- History shapes how we view the
world. Can be successes (celebrating
holidays) or it can be dark periods as well.
Either way, it can influence how a group of
people sees itself.
Chapter 3 Section 2
Population
Population Growth
• Population increasing at a rapid
rate over the last 200 years.
• Why? 1) Better health care and
living conditions have decreased
the death rate. 2) High birthrate
• Challenge from increased
population growth is famine.
• Famine is lack of food in an area.
A) Population Distribution
• People live on only about 15% of the
world’s land.
• People can’t make home, grow crops
on land covered with ice, deserts, and
high mountains.
• Population distributed very unevenly
over the Earth’s surface.
• Largest populations by continent:
1) Asia- 4.1 billion 2) Africa- 995 million
3) Europe- 739 million 4) N.A.- 529 mill.
5) S.A.- 386 million
Know these Vocab Words
•
•
•
•
•
•
Population DensityRefugeeUrbanizationDeveloping CountryBirthrateThese vocab words are on your
test this Friday. Make sure you
know their definitions.
B) Population Growth
• The world’s population is
about ______ billion people.
• Population has grown rapidly
since the 1800’s.
• 3 things determine where
people live.
• 1) Climate 2) Culture 3) Jobs
Most/Least Populated Countries
•
•
•
•
•
•
1. China 1.4 billion
2. India 1.25 billion
3. U.S.A. 318 million
4. Indonesia 253 million
5. Brazil 203 million
*The smallest populated country is
Vatican City (836 people)
• *Monaco, San Marino, Liechtenstein
have between 30,000-37,000 people.
Local Population
• Florence, KY: 31,000 people
• Union, KY: 5,600people
• Boone County: 124,442 people
• Ockerman Middle School: 910
people
• State of Kentucky: 4.4 million
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