IGNORE FIRST TWO
SLIDES THIS IS
DIFFERENTIATED FOR
CIRINCIONE’S KIDS
Welcome to Europe
Physical Features
The Danube River is the 2nd longest river in Europe
and an important shipping route across the continent. It
flows E to W from Germany to the Black Sea.
► The Rhine River originates (starts) in the Swiss Alps
mountain range and flows NW to the North Sea.
Important for shipping goods throughout continent.
► The English Channel is a narrow sea between Great
Britain and France. (1994 an underground rail, the
“chunnel” opened… allows below water transportation.)
► The Mediterranean Sea is the world’s largest inland
sea, located between Europe, Africa, and Asia.
► The Europe Plain is a vast, flat area stretching from
France’s Atlantic coast to the Ural Mnts. In Russia. Rich
farmland containing some of the largest cities (Paris,
Berlin, and Moscow.)
►
Welcome to Europe
Physical Features
►
►
►
►
►
The Alps are a magnificent mountain range in South
central Europe stretching from E-France and N-Itlay
through Switzerland and Austria. Snowmelt from the
Alps pours into many of Europe’s rivers.
The Pyrenees mountain range extends along the
border between France and Spain. Most of the P. Mnts.
Are in Spain.
The Ural Mountains in Western Russia form the
boundary between Europe and Asia.
The Iberian Peninsula in southwest Europe contains
Spain and Portugal. It is separated form the rest of
Europe by the Pyrenees Mountains.
The Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe is
occupied by Norway and Sweden. This mountainious
region is bordered on the N by the Barents Sea, a
section of the Arctic Ocean.
Welcome to Europe
► The
Ural
Mountains in
Western
Russia form
the boundary
between
Europe and
Asia.
Welcome to Europe
► The
Mediterranean
Sea is the world’s
largest inland sea,
located between
Europe, Africa, and
Asia.
Welcome to Europe
► The
Iberian
Peninsula in
southwest
Europe contains
Spain and
Portugal. It is
separated form
the rest of Europe
by the Pyrenees
Mountains.
Welcome to Europe
►The
Pyrenees
mountain range
extends along the
border between
France and Spain.
Most of the P.
Mnts. Are in
Spain.
Welcome to Europe
► The
Alps are a
magnificent
mountain range in
South central Europe
stretching from EFrance and N-Italy
through Switzerland
and Austria.
Snowmelt from the
Alps pours into many
of Europe’s rivers.
Welcome to Europe
► The
English Channel
is a narrow sea
between Great Britain
and France. (1994 an
underground rail, the
“chunnel” opened…
allows below water
transportation.)
Welcome to Europe
► The
Scandinavian
Peninsula in Northern
Europe is occupied by
Norway and Sweden.
This mountainous
region is bordered on
the N by the Barents
Sea, a section of the
Arctic Ocean.
Welcome to Europe
►
The Europe Plain
is a vast, flat area
stretching from
France’s Atlantic
coast to the Ural
Mnts. In Russia.
Rich farmland
containing some of
the largest cities
(Paris, Berlin, and
Moscow.)
Welcome to Europe
► The
Danube River
is the 2nd longest
river in Europe and
an important
shipping route
across the
continent. It flows E
to W from Germany
to the Black Sea.
Welcome to Europe
► The
Rhine River
originates (starts) in
the Swiss Alps
mountain range and
flows NW to the North
Sea. Important for
shipping goods
throughout continent.
Find Me!
► Belgium
► France
► Germany
► Italy
► Poland
► Russia
► Spain
► Ukraine
► United
Kingdom
Russia
Belgium
United
Kingdom
8
Poland
Ukraine
France
1
Italy
Spain
Europe Map Quiz
► Name,
August 31, 2009, Class Period in
upper right hand corner.
► Europe map quiz (title)
► Number your paper 1-20 (do not skip lines)
► NO TALKING
 1st time= -25pts… highest grade= 75= C
 2nd time= 0… =F… parents get called
15
12
1
3
11 8
2
9
16
8
1
4
6
10
13
14
5
20
17
8
19
18
1
Location, Climate, Natural
Resources Affect Where
People Live
August 31-September 4
SS6G10 The student will explain the impact of
location, climate, natural resources, and
population distribution on Europe.
In your groups you will take notes on how the
location, climate, and natural resources of your
country affect where people live and how they
trade You will have one of the following countries
to become experts on:
1.
2.
3.
4.
the United Kingdom
Russia
Germany
Italy
United
Kingdom
Pg. 254-259;
271
Location
Climate
Farmland or
Industry (and
what they
produce)
Where People
Live
(most populated)
Natural
Resources
Russia
Pg. 348-355
Germany
Pg. 282-286
Italy
Pg. 303-307;
313
Location of United Kingdom
Country of islands: Great Britain, Northern Ireland,
Scotland, and Wales. The location makes it a hub for trade
with other countries. Across the English Channel from the
U.K. is France, west across the Irish Sea is the Republic of
Ireland; east across the North Sea is the Scandinavian
Peninsula.
► London’s Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in the
world.
► Location has helped the U.K. become an international
banking and insurance center. Has more foreign banking
branches than any where in the world.
► It’s location on the Atlantic Ocean also helps it trade with
the US. The US is the U.K.’s number one trading partner.
►
Climate of the United Kingdom
►
►
►
►
Mild climate with rainfall throughout the year.
Southeastern section is protected by mountains from the wind blowing
in from the Atlantic, so they are the driest areas. The rest of the country
often has mild, wet weather. The highlands of Scotland are the wettest.
Temperatures change with the seasons. Winters are mild and wet.
Snowfalls are not very deeps and usually occur in the mountains,
Summers are warmest in the south. The mild climate keeps ports free of
ice and open for trade all year.
Warm waters and winds from the Gulf of Mexico affect the climate of
the U.K. The Gulf Stream moves warm water along the coast of North
America. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean and warms Ireland and the
western coasts of England, Scotland, and Wales. The Gulf Stream makes
the winters in the U.K. much miler.
The climate is good for farming. The land is good for farming too. Much
of the land is used for grazing and agriculture because of the mild
climate, but less than two percent of the people earn their living as
farmers. Most people live in urban areas where jobs are more available.
Natural Resources of the United
Kingdom
►
►
►
The UK has deposits of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and iron ore. These
resources formed the backbone of the country’s industry; auto
production, steel manufacturing, and shipbuilding. Other resources
include lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, sand, and slate.
Today, manufacturing is declining because these natural resources are
being used up and industry is changing to cleaner forms of energy.
Competition with other countries has also led to a loss of manufacturing
jobs.
Many people who once had mining and manufacturing jobs are working
in service industries. In the UK, nearly 80% of the people work in
service jobs such as tourism, health care, education, banking, and
insurance. People must move to more urban areas to find new jobs and
must work for much lower wages.
Fishing is profitable along the shores of the UK. Fisherman catch crabs
and other shellfish, cod, herring, and mackerel. Nearly 25% of the
county has arable land (land suitable for growing crops). Over half of
the land is used for farms. A large amount of arable land means the
country can produce about 60% of its own food. Farms with sheep, beef
cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs used the land to keep business going.
Location of Russia
Russia spans two continents (eastern part of Europe;
northern part of Asia). It would take a week to travel
Russia from West to East by train. Russia shares a border
with 15 countries and two oceans. At its closest point,
Russian and the United States are only about 3 miles apart
across the Bering Strait.
► European Russia is almost landlocked. Most of the land is
far from sea or frozen over for most of the year.
► St. Petersburg is an exception. It is a port city on the Baltic
Sea. It has beautiful canals, gardens, and palaces. It is a
major center for trade. A network of railroads surrounds St.
Petersburg, bringing goods into the city for shipment
around the world. It is home to over 5 million people. In
the 1990s, tourism began to grow.
►
Climate of Russia
►
►
►
►
European Russia has 2 seasons: winter and summer. Hottest month is
July and the coldest is January. The average yearly temperature is
below freezing. Many areas have soil that is permanently frozen. This
ground is called permafrost. Because of arctic winds, harsh winters are
a part of Russian life. Winters are often dreary with gray skis. In
summer, winds from the south bring warmer temperatures but not
much rain.
In Asian Russia, the climate is extreme. Siberia, the land furthest east,
can have low temperatures of -40 degrees F. However, hot days in
Siberia can reach over 90 degrees.
Distance from the sea influences the climate. The European Plain is the
driest, both the lands bordering the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea are
exceptions. They have more rainfall and warmer temperatures.
The climate, distance from the sea, and rugged terrain keep many of
Russia’s resources from being used.
Natural Resources of Russia
►
►
Russia is a land of many resources. Vast forests for lumber
still are found there. However on the European side of
Russia, most of the deciduous and evergreen forests have
been cleared away for cities and farms. Deposits of gold,
aluminum ore, coal, and iron are found in the Ural
Mountains, which border the European Plain. Russia is a
leading producer and exporter of gold, minerals, metals,
and machinery. Many factories that process iron and other
metals are located in this region.
Russia’s large size and cold climate make it difficult for
Russians to use their resources. For example, oil and gas
are natural resources of Russia. However, they are mostly
in Siberia and in Asian Russia. That makes them difficult to
reach.
Location of Germany
►
►
►
Germany is located in north-central Europe on the
European Plain. Germany is about the size of South
Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama combined. However, five
times more people live in Germany than in these three
states. About 85% of people live in urban areas. The land
is generally in three zones: Alps Mountains in the South,
hilly to mountainous in the middle, plains in the north.
The Rhine River (over 800 miles long) is very important for
trade because many cities are located along the river.
Germany’s location in the center of Europe makes it a
crossroads of travel and trade. Germany also has an
excellent highway system which encourages trade between
other countries.
Climate of Germany
► Most
of Germany has a marine climate. The
Gulf Stream warms the region.
► Precipitation provides enough moisture for
the land to produce good crops.
► Eastern Germany is farther from the effects
of the sea. This part of the country has
longer, colder winters. Summers tend to be
longer, hotter, and drier.
Natural Resources of Germany
► Germany
has many natural resources
including: iron ore, coal, and potash.
Uranium is used for nuclear fuel. Nickel,
natural gas, and copper are important too.
Timber is a renewable resource. Much of
the forests in the north has been cut to
provide land for farms, villages, an towns,
but there are still large amounts of timber in
the south. About one-third of the land is
arable (usable for crops).
Location of Italy
►
►
►
Italy is a country in southern Europe. It is on a long, bootshaped peninsula. The peninsula is surrounded on three
sides by the Mediterranean Sea. Italy is about twice the size
of the state of Georgia, but it has seven times as many
people. The largest urban areas are Rome, Naples, Milan,
and Turin. About half of the people live in the most northern
one-third of the country.
Islands and mountains affect life in Italy. Mountains affect
how people live and how they transport goods. The island of
Sicily is located a few miles west of the tip of the boot. The
island of Sardinia is a bit further away (about 200 miles
west).
Italy's location on the Mediterranean Sea affects trade with
other countries. Trade with Africa, Asia, and Europe is
benefited by this fact. Excellent highways, bridges, and
tunnels connect Italy with their neighbors to the north.
Climate of Italy
► Most
of Italy has a Mediterranean climate. The
Mediterranean Sea keeps the temperature
comfortable for most of the year. Summer skies
are generally clear, and rain is rare in summer. Dry
summers are on characteristic of the climate.
Winters are usually cloudy and rainy. The Alps
block cold air moving from the north.
► Northern Italy has enough rain for growing crops.
Southern Italy is much drier. It only gets about
half as much rain.
Natural Resources of Italy
►
►
►
Italy has few mineral resources. Natural gas is the most
valuable mineral resource in Italy. Marble and granite are
available. These are used in the construction of buildings
and artwork. Coal, mercury, zinc, and potash are other
minerals found in Italy.
Arable land is important. Grapes and olives are important
in wine making and olive oil making.
The sea is an important resource too. The long coastline
allows more than 800 ports for fishing boats. About 50,000
Italians make their livings as fishermen. Anchovies and
sardines are two fish important to the economy. Italian
fishermen also gather sponges and coral.
nd
2
►
►
►
►
Russia
Memorie
Markus
Ryan
Angel
period groups
United Kingdom
►
Kharisma
►
Hannah
►
CJ
►
►
►
►
►
►
Russia
Destiny
Ryan N.
Roderick
Germany
Austin
Rusbel
Laniquia
United Kingdom
►
Isaiah
►
Linda
►
Brooke
►
►
►
►
►
►
Italy
Jeremy
Payton
Sierra
Germany
Kevin
Kylie
Erykah
rd
3
►
►
►
Russia
Selena
Cha’Koria
Sydney
period groups
United Kingdom
►
Amber
►
Noah
►
Javarus
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
Russia
Triston
Cody R
India
Germany
Nakiera
Cody
Janecia
Ricardo
United Kingdom
►
Jacob
►
Hi’Keria
►
Cameron
►
►
►
►
►
►
Italy
William
LaVarus
Shyam
Italy
Jiorgia
Jotavious
Bryson
th
4
period groups
Languages and Religions
Diversity of Languages
► Europe
is a continent of diverse languages. Some
are in the same language family, so people from
one country can often understand the language of
people from another country. Many European are
bilingual (speak 2 language) or multilingual
(speak several languages). The native languages
in Europe belong to the Indo-European language
family. Branches of the Indo-European family
include the Germanic languages, Romance
languages, and Slavic languages.
What Language Do You Speak
► Germanic:
German and English. English is
spoken in more parts of the world than any
other language.
► Romance: French and Italian. These
languages are based on Latin, the language
of the Ancient Romans.
► Slavic: Russian is an example of a Slavic
Language.
What’s Your Religion
► Judaism:
religion and culture of the Jewish
people and the first recorded faith to worship one
God (monotheism). The beliefs and history of
Judaism make up the historical foundation of
many other religions, including Christianity and
Islam.
► There have been small populations of Jews in
Europe for centuries. Today, most European Jews
live in France, the United Kingdom, Russia, an
other countries that were formerly part of the
Soviet Union.
What’s Your Religion
► Christianity
is a religion based on the teachings
of Jesus Christ. Its sacred scripture is the Bible.
► It is the dominant religion in both Western
European and Eastern Europe.
► Two major division
 Catholic
► Most
Italy
of Europe is Catholic… In the South… France, Spain and
 Protestant
► Northern
countries… Germany and the United Kingdom
What’s Your Religion?
► Islam
is the religious faith of Muslims founded
by Muhammad in the 7th century. Allah is the
sole deity and Muhammad was his prophet.
► Many Muslims are immigrating to Western Europe,
making Islam the fastest growing religion in
Europe. Muslim populations are highest in France,
Germany, and the United Kingdom. There are
large Muslim populations in Eastern European
countries like Albania and Bosnia.
Standard of Living
Reading is Essential to the Standard
of Living
► Standard
of Living: measure of a nation’s
quality of life based on income, education, life
expectancy and other factors.
► One factor that has a huge effect on a country’s
economic health and its citizens’ standard of living
is Literacy Rate.
► A country that improves the literacy rate among its
citizens will improve the standard of living within
that country and improve its economy (income
making potential).
► Educated and skilled workers are an important
factor in a country’s economic growth!
Standard of Living
► Europe
is unique because most countries
that comprise this continent have
approximately a 99% literacy rate.
► However, Russia places a high emphasis on
education and has a 99% literacy rate, but
the economy has struggled since the
breakup of the Soviet Union. WHY?!!
► Therefore, there are obviously other factors
which contribute to the standard of living.
Long story short…
►
►
►
►
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union placed heavy
importance on science and math education… think SPACE
RACE… ARMS RACE… SPUTNIK…
Well… along comes the end of the Cold War in 1991, the
U.S. and the S.U. are now friends.  And there is no
longer a need for brilliant, or rather mad scientists (some
may say) mind set.
Now, the people must learn to exist and survive under a
new government who requires the people to enter a new
form of economy with new and different jobs.
Unemployment rates skyrocket… like SPUTNIK
Bottom line… smart, literate people with little common
sense. (perhaps overly simplified, but you get the picture
nonetheless)
Standard of Living
► Clearly
there are some obvious factors which
contribute to the standard of living.
 Literacy rate: the ability of the people to read
► More
people can read, more people working, more people working,
better the products being created (think original cell phone to
current IPhone)
► Unemployment rate: # of people not working
► As the unemployment rate goes up does the STANDARD OF LIVING
go up or down?
► Can someone explain?
 Life expectancy (how long the average person is expected
to live)
► HUH?
How does that influence how SOWEEEET my life is?
► SOMEONE EXPLAIN PLEASE!!
Partner Project
►
►
►
►
►
►
Use the provided information sheets to complete the
graphic organizers.
Choose any 3 countries you want to know more about.
Tomorrow we will share our findings.
Be ready to present.
You must answer the following question:
What do the following concepts mean and how do the
following terms relate?





Unemployment rate
Literacy rate
Standard of living
Life expectancy
GDP per capita
Unitary, Confederation, and
Federal
Unitary: a
form of
government in
which power
is held by one
central
authority;
Examples:
Cuba and the
United
Kingdom
Confederation:
voluntary
associations of
independent
states that, to
secure some
common
purpose, agree
to certain
limitations on
their freedom of
action and
establish some
joint machinery
of consultation
or deliberation.
Example:
European Union
Federal:
characterized by
or constituting a
form of
government in
which power is
divided between
one central and
several regional
authorities.
Examples:
Australia,
Germany,
Russia, Canada,
Brazil, Mexico
Autocracy
►
►
►
►
►
Autocratic: government in which one person possesses unlimited
power and the citizen has little if any role in the government.
Example: Cuba
In an autocracy, where most dictators maintain their position via
inheritance or military power, the citizen has little, if any, role in the
government. People who try to speak out against the government are
often silenced through use of power.
In an oligarchy, a small group exercises control. Communist countries
are mostly oligarchies. The citizen has a very limited role in
government.
In a democracy, supreme power is vested in the people and exercised
by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation
usually involving periodically held free elections.
Oligarchy
Oligarchic: government by the few, sometimes a
government in which a small group exercises
control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes.
The citizen has a very limited role.
► In an oligarchy, a small group exercises control.
Communist countries are mostly oligarchies.
► The citizen has a very limited role in government.
Democracy
► Democratic:
a government in which the supreme
power is vested in the people and exercised by
them directly or indirectly through a system of
representation usually involving periodically held
free elections.
► In a democracy, supreme power is vested in the
people and exercised by them directly or indirectly
through a system of representation usually
involving periodically held free elections.
► Examples: United Kingdom, Germany,
Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Australia
Predominant Forms of Democracy:
Presidential: a system of government in which
the president is constitutionally independent of the
legislature.
Parliamentary: a system of government having
the real executive power vested in a cabinet
composed of members of the legislature who are
individually and collectively responsible to the
legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by
the legislature
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Slide 1