The American Nation Chapter 2 Before the First Global Age, Prehistory–1600 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. The American Nation Chapter 2: Before the First Global Age, Prehistory–1600 Section 1: The First Civilizations of the Americas Section 2: Native American Cultures Section 3: Trade Networks of Africa and Asia Section 4: Tradition and Change in Europe Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. The First Civilizations of the Americas Chapter 2, Section 1 Goals to learn: • How did people first reach the Americas? • What were the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations like? • How did early cultures develop in North America? Theories About How People Reached the Americas Chapter 2, Section 1 Land-bridge Theory • Thousands of years ago, glaciers, or thick sheets of ice, stretched across Canada. The glaciers locked up water from the oceans, causing sea levels to fall and uncovering the land beneath the sea. This situation exposed a land bridge joining Siberia and Alaska. Bands of hunters might have crossed this land bridge from Asia to the Americas. • Video clip: “Demonstration of the Land Bridge Theory” • Video clip: “Mapping of the Land Bridge Theory” Coastal-route theory • People might have reached North America by crossing icy arctic waters by boat. Other theories • People might have reached the Americas from Europe, Africa, or South Pacific islands. Adapting to a New Way of Life 12,000 years ago – Ice Age ends and large animals died • Hunting smaller animals • Gathering wild berries, nuts, and grains • Fishing 5,000 years ago – Farming • Permanent Settlements • More food • Population growth Cities are formed • Some farming communities in Central America grew surplus (extra food)— enough to support large populations. • With enough food available to feed large populations, the first cities emerged. • These cities marked the rise of the first civilization in the Americas. Civilization = A society that has cities, a well-organized government, different social classes, a complex religion, and a method of record keeping. 12,000 years ago – Hunters and Gatherers (:45) The Olmecs Chapter 2, Section 1 • Earliest known civilization in the Americas • Lived in the lowlands along the Gulf of Mexico, about 3,500 years ago. • Achievements: They left behind huge, carved stone heads and smaller carved figures. They built stone temples and developed a calendar. The Olmecs • • • • • Name means rubber people Oldest city was San Lorenzo Largest City was La Venta Used glyphs – picture writing Disappeared??? The Mayas Chapter 2, Section 1 • Early Mayas lived in the rain forests of present-day Guatemala and Mexico. About 3,000 years ago, they began clearing the rain forests and draining swamps to create farmland. • Mayan cities sprang up from Central America to southern Mexico. • Trade flowed along a network of roads. • Achievements of Mayan priests: advances in astronomy and mathematics. They learned to predict eclipses and created an accurate, 365-day calendar. They developed a system of numbers that included the concept of zero. • Around A.D. 900, the Mayas abandoned their cities. Historians are not sure why. The Mayas • • • • • • • • Colorful, short people Valued crosseyes Cities included stone pyramids Polytheistic and used ancestral worship Used glyphs Made paper and books Used slash and burn farming Advanced irrigation systems Cities of the Mayas The Mayas (6:00) Mayan Religion and Society (4:45) Decline of the Mayas (1:44) The Aztecs Chapter 2, Section 1 • A new civilization arose north of the abandoned Maya cities— the Aztecs. • The early Aztecs were nomads = people who move from place to place in search of food. • In the 1300s, Aztecs settled around Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. • The Aztecs built their capital, Tenochtitlán, in the middle of the lake. They constructed a system of causeways (raised roads made of packed earth) to link the city to the mainland. In some places, they dug canals. In other places, they planted crops on the floating gardens (chinampas) they had created. • Aztec priests developed complex calendars. • The Aztecs paid special attention to the sun god, to whom they sacrificed thousands of captives each year. • By 1500, the Aztecs ruled a huge empire from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. Heavy taxes and the sacrifice of prisoners of war sparked revolts. The Aztecs • Used picture writing • Set up military units with conquered people • Extended families and arranged marriages • Established schools • Corn was main source of food • Slash and burn farming and terrace farming • Advanced in medicine The Aztecs Chapter 2, Section 1 Tenochtitlan Understanding Where the Aztecs Came From (3:57) The Aztecs (10:08) The Incas Chapter 2, Section 1 • • • • • The Incas built one of the largest empires in the Americas. By 1500, their empire stretched for almost 2,500 miles along the west coast of South America. The center of the empire was Cuzco, a city high in the Andes. It had massive palaces and temples made of stone and decorated with gold. At the center was the palace of the emperor. The Incan empire was very well organized. The Incas maintained 10,000 miles of roads. Runners carried royal orders across the empire. They carried with them a device known as a quipu—a cord or string with knots that stood for quantities, such as bags of grain. The Incas were skilled engineers. They built massive stone temples and forts. In order to farm the steep mountains, they created terraces, or wide steps of land. The Incas • • • • • No system of writing Ilama was an very important animal Made many religious sacrifices Used a variety of crops Sapa Inca was absolute ruler Cuzco Quipu The single knot. Used in multiples to represents digits in the tens and higher places. The long knot (with four turns.) Used to represent digits in the units position. The number of long turns determined the digit. The figure eight knot. Used to represent one in the units position. Some Early Cultures of North America Chapter 2, Section 1 Culture Location Characteristics Hohokams present-day southern Arizona Anasazis Four Corners region where Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet 1. They irrigated the desert. 2. They traded along the network of roads they built. 3. They built large houses of stone and adobe, or sun-dried brick. In the 1500s, the Spanish called these houses pueblos, meaning “village.” Mound Builders From the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi Valley and from Wisconsin to Florida 1. Beginning about 3,000 years ago, various groups built large earth mounds. At first, the mounds were used for burials. Later, the mounds were used for religious ceremonies. 2. The Hopewells and the Mississippians were the best-known groups of Mound Builders. The Mississippians built a large city at Cahokia in present-day Illinois. About 2,000 years ago, they dug networks of irrigation ditches so they could farm the desert. They grew corn, squash, and beans. culture—the entire way of life of a people, including homes, clothing, economy, arts, and government. Landmarks of the Hohokams, Anasazis, and the Mound Builders Introduction to the Anasazis (:57) Anasazi Indians (1:03) Anasazis – 1500 years ago At the Fall of Rome (1:24) Anasazis – 1300 years ago At the Time of the Dark Ages (2:54) Anasazis – 900 years ago At the High Middle Ages (4:45) The Great Migration of Anasazis 700-725 years ago (2:21) Section 1 Assessment Chapter 2, Section 1 The Olmec civilization arose in South America when a) Olmec warriors drove the Mayas into the rain forest. b) Olmec hunters arrived from Asia and settled down to gather nuts and wild berries. c) Olmec farmers were able to grow enough food to support large populations. d) the Aztecs shared the secret of digging canals and farming swamps. The best definition of the word culture is a) the entire way of life of a people. b) the ability to build large cities. c) the building of massive palaces, temples, and other structures. d) learning, such as engineering and astronomy. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here. Section 1 Assessment Chapter 2, Section 1 The Olmec civilization arose in South America when a) Olmec warriors drove the Mayas into the rain forest. b) Olmec hunters arrived from Asia and settled down to gather nuts and wild berries. c) Olmec farmers were able to grow enough food to support large populations. d) the Aztecs shared the secret of digging canals and farming swamps. The best definition of the word culture is a) the entire way of life of a people. b) the ability to build large cities. c) the building of massive palaces, temples, and other structures. d) learning, such as engineering and astronomy. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.