Influences on Human
Activity
How do land formations, land use
patterns, ecological regions, natural
hazards influence migration patterns of
people?
Land Formations
• Diverse land formations throughout
the Earth
• Mountains, Plains, Plateaus, Mesas,
Buttes, Glaciers, Hills, Valleys,
Loess, Deltas, Cliffs, Deserts to
name a few
• The type of land in an area
determines how and why people live
in a region
Land Use Patterns
• Land Use includes:
• urbanization, industry
• Transportation
• Major Effects:
• deforestation of temperate regions since
1750urban sprawl
• soil erosion
• soil degradation
• salinization and desertification
Topography
• Affects agriculture, location of
cities and industry
• Mountains, hills, plateaus, ice caps,
flatlands, rolling plains, hilly plains
Ecological Regions
• Study of relationships between
living things and the environment
• Arctic and Subarctic Zone
• Humid Temperate Zone
• Humid Tropical Zone
• Arid and Semiarid Zone
Population Definitions
• Demography: study of population
characteristics, including settlement
patterns, growth, rate of development
• Settlement: Pre-Industrial, people were in
villages, Industrial, people lived in cities,
Post-Industrial with computers and
robots, people move into suburbs
• Landscape Transformation: People alter,
improve or destroy landscape
Population Definitions
• Agricultural Revolution: focusing on crop
development, began 10,000 years ago, made
people more sedentary
• Industrial Revolution: 1700s, modernized farming
methods and factory production
• Post Industrial: focused on global competitive
free trade and services without physical
occupation
Population Concepts
• Population Growth: number of births
plus incoming immigrants minus
number of deaths and departing
immigrants per 1,000
• Birth Rates: number of live births
per 1,000
• Death Rate: number of deaths per
1,000
Population Concepts
• Migration: may be forced or
voluntary
• Population Density: people per
square mile, largest density India,
China, Japan
Population
• In 1990 there were over 5 billion people in
the world
• In 2000 exceeded 6 billion
• By 2025 expected to be 8 billion
• 1960 25% of people lived in urban areas
• 1990s 45% lived in urban areas
• Cities have grown in population density:
People living in each square mile
• Concern due to food production cannot keep
up for all people, using natural resources
quickly, running out of places to dispose of
waste
World Migration Patterns
• Migrations effects geography, contributes
to cultural change and development
• Spreading of ideas and innovations
• Mixture of people and cultures throughout
the world
• Internal migration occurs within the
boundaries of the country
• External is movement from one country to
another or region to another
Developing Nations
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High rate of population growth
High % of population under 15 years old
Lower Life expectancy
Lower Literacy rate
Lower Rate of urbanization
Lower GNP/Capita figures
Limited industrial sector
Economy tied to agriculture/primary
activities
Developed Nations
• Declining population growth rates
• Higher Life expectancy
• Higher quality/quantity of food
supply
• Higher GNP/Capita figures
• Moving toward the service sector
• Higher rate of resource consumption
Population Trends
• More than 80 million people are
added to the world each year
• By 2015 there could be as many as 22
cities with 10 million or more people
• People who study population are
called Demographers
Demography
• Study of human population
• Concerned with size, structure, and
development
• Thomas Malthus believed that
population would naturally grow
faster than the amount of food
produced.
• Father of Demography
Population
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Currently 193 countries
6,800 different languages/dialects
2,261 written languages
½ world is illiterate
World is 70% adults and 50% female
Population increasing 1.3% year
Birthrate: 22 per 1,000
Death Rate: 9 per 1,000
½ world under 25
Over 60,000,000 die of lack of food per year
Japan has longest life expectancy at 108 years for females,
104 years for men
• Only 7% own a motorized vehicle
Migration Influences
• Emigration are the push factors that
drive people from an area.
• Immigration are the pull factors that
attract people to an area.
Bantu Migrations
• One of the most influential
migrations in human history
• Movement of the Bantu speaking
people from Western Africa to
regions South, then East and West
• Occurred between 3000-1000 B.C.
• Due to Agriculture and Metallurgy
Urbanization
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Movement of people to the cities
Urban area includes city and suburbs
Urbanization is rising everywhere on Earth
Urban areas combine people and activities
for convenience by providing economic
base and infrastructure
Functions of Cities
• Cities are economic bases through
functions such as providing services
and products to a trade area and
supporting its own residents
• Basic Sector produces exports
• Nonbasic Sector serves needs of the
city
Subsistence Farming
• Farming aim to provide enough for self and
family
• Cultivation takes place on small farms using
simple techniques
• Concentrates on basic needs
• Any surplus sold or bartered to provide other
needs
Diversified Farming
• Mixed
• Landowner has
large amount
of arable land
and
technology
• Landowner
eventually will
specialize
Cooperative Farming in Israel
Commercial Farming
• Crops for sale and profit
• Livestock production and grazing
• Emphasis on capital formation,
scientific progress and technological
development
• Large scale commercial farming is
Agribusiness
Food Supply
• Cereal grains dominate the calorie intake
of people, particularly in Asia and Africa
• Staple grains:
• Corn, native to Western Hemisphere
• Wheat, among two oldest grain along with
barley, most widely cultivated grain
• Rice: originated in Asia and staple for half
of the world’s population, labor intensive
and grows in paddies (flooded fields)
Housing
• Materials used reflect the region and
differences in culture
• Nomads move from place to place, so they
build houses that can easily be taken apart
and put back together
• Housing conditions vary from region to
region based on area, economics,
population and availability of food and
drinkable water
Natural Disasters
How does human activity adapt
to Natural Disasters?
Natural Disaster
• Extreme, sudden events caused by
environmental factors that injure people
and damage property.
• Forms of natural disasters: Avalanches,
Blizzards, Hailstorms, Drought, Famine,
Tsunamis, Earthquakes, Hurricanes,
Tornadoes, Floods and Diseases
Avalanche
• Any shift in
movement of snow,
ice, mud or rock down
a mountainside or
slope.
• Natural forms of
erosion
• Can reach speeds of
more than 200 miles
per hour
• Triggered by
earthquakes tremors,
human-made
disturbances or rain
Destruction from wind
pushed ahead of mass and
impact of mass
Blizzards and Hailstorms
• Blizzards are winter storms with high
winds in excess of 35 mph and
temperatures below 20 degrees F
• Hailstorms are precipitation in balls or
clumps of clear ice and compact snow.
• 1999 Blizzard in U.S. in Illinois,
Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan and Ohio
killed 73 and $500 million damages
Drought and Famine
• Long periods of
insufficient rain
• Famine is an
extreme shortage
of food that
causes death from
starvation
Africa
China Famine
• Deadliest famine in the world from
1959-1961
• 30 million people died
• Followed a crop failure and led to
starvation, disease and cannibalism
• Not revealed to world until 1981
Ireland and Dust Bowl
• Ireland 1845-49 Potato famine and
people could not import grain. 1.5
million died and 1 million came to U.S.
• Great Plains longest drought in 20th
Century 1930, 1934, 1936, 1939 and
1940. NY to PA across the Plains to
CA
Dust Bowl
• Dust Bowl covered
50 millions acres in
south central plains
in 1935-1936
• Heavy winds caused
dry soil to be blown
into huge clouds
Tsunamis
• Series of huge waves that happen after
undersea disturbance such as an
earthquake or volcanic eruption
• “Harbor Wave”
Tsunami 2004
• December 2004, 9.0 earthquake
largest in 40 years occurred off
coast of Indonesia Island of Sumatra
• Earthquake triggered tsunami in
Indian Ocean
• 226,000 died, 12 countries hit
Armenia
Earthquakes
• Trembling movement of
earth’s crust caused by
plate shifting
• Vibrations pass through
in waves
• 1964 Prince William
Sound Alaska, 9.2
followed by seismic
wave 50 feet high
Alaska
Armenia
• Armenia 1988
4,000 square
miles, 3 cities
leveled, 25,000
people died,
15,000
recovered from
rubble alive
Hurricanes
• Cyclone and
considered most
dangerous storm
because of their
potential size
• Typhoons are
hurricanes in the West
Pacific
• Fed by tropical waters
where they come from
and can travel
thousands of miles
Hurricanes
• Occur in late summer and early fall in
eastern U.S.
• East and SE Asia typhoon season can
last all summer
• Tropical depression are winds up to
39 mph
• Tropical storm winds between 39-73
mph
• Hurricanes over 74 mph winds
Hurricanes
• Costliest: Katrina in 2005 in S. Fl
and Gulf. 1800 died, 1464 in LA,
$100 billion
• 1928 Lake Okeechobee FL, 836 died
• 1900 Galveston TX 6,000-8,000 died
Deadliest in US
• 1776 “Hurricane of Independence”
from North Carolina to Nova Scotia
in Canada 4,170 died
Hurricane Katrina
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2005
Category 5
New Orleans
Costliest Hurricane
At least 1,836
people killed
• Estimates over
$100 billion
Tornadoes
• Violently rotating air extending from
within thunderclouds down to the
ground
• Super Outbreak April 1974, 148
tornadoes killed 315 people from
Alabama to Ohio
• Tornadoes “Twisters”
• Opposing winds spin
• U.S. has most in the world
Floods
• Body of water rises and overflows onto
normally dry land. Heavy rains, melting
snow or ice main causes
• Netherlands and England 1099 North
Sea flooded coasts and killed 100,000
• Johnstown Flood in US in Pennsylvania 1
out of every 10 people died, total 2,000
in less than one hour
Ohio River Flood 1937
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Pittsburgh, PA to Cairo, IL
1 million left homeless
During Depression after Dust Bowl
385 died
$500 million property loss
Global Warming
• Can be effected by humans
• Earth temperature has risen in last
century by ½ degree Fahrenheit
• Many think burning of fossil fuels
contribute and other human activities emit
greenhouse gases
• Greenhouse gases absorb energy and heat
from the Sun and radiate back to surface
to maintain temperature
Global Warming
• After warming earth, rest is radiated back
to space
• CO2, methane and other gases hinder this
process and less gas is radiated out
• Kyoto Protocal in Kyoto, Japan signed by
160 nations aimed to reduce greenhouse
gases
• 2005-2012 industrialized world must
reduce emissions by 5.2%
• Limited influence
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