Study Guide del capítulo 4 Present Progressive You use the present progressive to describe actions that are ON GOING/IN PROGRESS It is formed by using the verb ESTAR with the present participle ANDO for –ar verbs, and IENDO for –er and –ir verbs. Los Irregulares CAER DECIR DORMIR LEER MENTIR MORIR PEDIR TRAER CAYENDO DICIENDO DURMIENDO LEYENDO MINTIENDO MURIENDO PIDIENDO TRAYENDO When using an object pronoun is used with the present progressive, place the direct object BEFORE the first verb, or after and are ATTACHED to the participle. When the object pronoun is attached to the participle, an ACCENT mark is added. The progressive can be also used with ANDAR or SEGUIR ANDAR SEGUIR Andar + present participle gives the impression that: SOMEONE GOES AROUND CONSTANTLY DOING SOMETHING / “ALWAYS” sometimes with a negative connotation. Seguir + present participle is used to: SAY SOMEONE IS STILL DOING SOMETHING. Translate the following. 1. Pepita is talking on the phone. PEPITA ESTÁ HABLANDO POR TELEFONO. 2. They’re always washing their hands. ELLOS SE ANDAN LAVANDO LAS MANOS. 3. I am still eating cherries. YO SIGO COMIENDO LAS CEREZAS. 4. You are always preparing lobster. ANDAS PREPARANDO LA LANGOSTA. 5. Claudia and I are always cooking it. (fried chicken). CLAUDIA Y YO ANDAMOS COCINÁNDOLO. CLAUDIA Y YO LO ANDAMOS COCINANDO. 6. José is still marrying his girlfriend. 6. JOSÉ SE SIGUE CASANDO A SU NOVIA. 7. They are celebrating my sister’s engagement. 6. ELLOS ESTÁN CELEBRANDO EL COMPROMISO DE MI HERMANA. 8. We are still mixing the yogurt. 6. SEGUIMOS MEZCLANDO EL YOGUR. 9. I am always cutting celery. 6. ANDO CORTANDO EL APIO. 10.You are still cleaning it (the bedroom). 6. SIGUES LIMPIÁNDOLO/LA. 7. LO/LA SIGUES LIMPIANDO. Present Perfect Indicative To form the present perfect indicative, use the present tense of the helping verb HABER followed by the PAST PARTICIPLE of the main verb. HABER HE HEMOS HAS HA HAN If the stem of an –er or –ir verb ends in a vowel, other than U placed an accent on the i in ido. Traer TRAÍDO Leer LEÍDO The present indicative is used to say WHAT HAS/HAS NOT HAPPENED IN A PERIOD OF TIME UP TO THE PRESENT or to talk about what something that happened very recently. We use the verb “ HAVE” in English. MUERTO (MORIR)-TO DIE VUELTO (VOLVER)-TO GO BACK/RETURN PUESTO (PONER)-TO PUT/PLACE DICHO (DECIR)-TO SAY/TELL HECHO (HACER)-TO DO/MAKE DEVUELTO (DEVOLVER)-TO RETURN RESUELTO (RESOLVER)-TO RESOLVE DESCRITO (DESCRIBIR)-TO DESCRIBE ROTO (ROMPER)- TO BREAK DESCUBIERTO (DESCUBRIR)—TO DISCOVER ABIERTO (ABRIR)-TO OPEN VISTO (VER)-TO SEE IDO (IR)-TO GO ESCRITO (ESCRIBIR)-TO WRITE When an object pronoun is used with the present perfect, it should always go BEFORE the conjugated form of haber. It CANNOT be attached to the participle, unlike the present progressive. 1. Sonia has arrived with her boyfriend. SONIA HA LLEGADO CON SU NOVIO. 2. He has taken the book to the library. ÉL HA TOMADO EL LIBRO A LA BIBLIOTECA. 3. My cousin Emily has gone to the family reunion. MI PRIMA EMILY HA IDO A LA REUNIÓN FAMILIAR. 4. My parents have divorced. MIS PADRES SE HAN DIVORCIADO. 5. Our mother-in-law has separated from her husband. NUESTRA SUEGRA SE HA SEPARADO DE SU ESPOSO. 6. We have eaten the chocolate cake. NOSOTROS HEMOS COMIDO EL BIZCOCHO DE CHOCOLATE. 7. I have cooked the roast pork. HE COCINADO EL PUERCO ASADO. 8. She has tried (probar) the chocolate cake(use the vocab word!) ELLA HA PROBADO EL BIZCOCHO DE CHOCOLATE. 9. They have put lemon& lime in their water. ELLOS HAN PUESTO EL LIMÓN Y LA LIMA EN SU AGUA. 10. You have cut the grapefruit. HAS CORTADO LA TORONJA. HABER-SUBJUNTIVO HAYA HAYAMOS HAYAS HAYA HAYAN Complete the following sentences with the present perfect subjunctive of the verb in parentheses. 1. Me sorprende que el profesor ______ (dar) el examen tan pronto. HAYA DADO 2. Al profesor no le gusta que los estudiantes no ________ (estudiar) para el examen. HAYAN ESTUDIADO 3. Me da gusto que los estudiantes ________ (hablar) con el director. HAYAN HABLADO 4. Me alegra que mis amigos ______ (hacer) la tarea de historia. HAYAN HECHO 5. A mis amigos les enoja que el entrenador ________ (cancelar) el partido de béisbol. HAYA CANCELADO 6. Es una lástima que mis compañeros no ________ (poder) terminar su trabajo. HAYAN PODIDO 1. It’s good that they have studied for the test. 1. ES BUENO QUE HAYAN ESTUDIADO PARA EL EXAMEN. 2. It’s horrible that we have gone to 5 funerals this year. 1. ES HORRIBLE QUE HAYAMOS IDO A 5 FUNERALES ESTE ANO. 3. It’s logical that I have told a lie. (una mentira) 1. ES LÓGICO QUE YO HAYA DICHO UNA MENTIRA. 4. It’s marvelous that Amber has bought 10 cats. (NOT!!) 1. ES MARAVILLOSO QUE AMBER HAYA COMPRADO 10 GATOS. 5. It makes us happy that she has divorced from her husband. 1. NOS ALEGRA QUE ELLA SE HAYA DIVORCIADO DE SU ESPOSO. 6. It angers me that she has forgot (olvidar) the cucumber in the salad. 6. ME ENOJA QUE ELLA HAYA OLVIDADO EL PEPINO EN LA ENSALADA. 7. It bothers you that she has put shrimp on the table. 6. TE MOLESTA QUE ELLA HAYA PUESTO EL CAMARÓN EN LA MESA. 8. It surprises her that I have eaten zucchini. 6. LE SORPRENDE QUE YO HAYA COMIDO EL CALABACÍN. 9. We like that our mom has made roast pork. 6. NOS GUSTA QUE NUESTRA MADRE HAYA HECHO EL PUERCO ASADO. 10.It’s good that you have opened the milk. 6. ES BUENO QUE HAYAS ABIERTO LA LECHE. 1. As soon as she cooked the lobster, she ate it. 1. EN CUANTO COCINÓ LA LANGOSTA, ELLA LA COMIÓ. 2. I met my half brother last year. 1. CONOCÍ MI MEDIO HERMANO EL AÑO PASADO. 3. As soon as I tasted (probar) the peas, I said, “That’s disgusting!” 1. EN CUANTO PROBÉ LOS CHÍCHAROS, DIJE “<<QUÉ ASCO!>> 4. Upon going to the mall, you bought jeans. 1. AL IR AL CENTRO COMERCIAL, COMPRASTE LOS JEANS. 5. They met her stepsister yesterday. 1. ELLOS CONOCIERON SU HERMANASTRA AYER.