Human Geography
People and Places
Culture
The total of knowledge, attitudes, and
behaviors shared by and passed on by
the numbers of a specific group.
Put what you think makes up culture in this circle.
Government
Food
Family
Interaction
Shelter
Music
Language
Art
Dance
Religion
Education
Culture
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Food and Shelter
Religion
Relationship to family
and others
Language
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Education
Security and
Protection
Political and Social
Organization
Creative Expression
Cultural Exchange
Innovation
Diffusion
Acculturation
The gold miners wanted
clothes that were strong
and did not
tear easily. In 1853, Leob
Strauss started a
wholesale business,
supplying clothes.
Strauss later changed his
name from Leob to Levi.
During WWII jeans
were introduced to the
world by American
soldiers,
who sometimes wore
them when they were
off duty. In the 1950's,
denim became popular
with young people.
It was the symbol of
the teenage rebel on
T.V. and in movies.
Some schools banned
the wearing of jeans.
Different styles of jeans
were made to match the
60's fashions. In many
non-western countries,
jeans became a symbol
of “western decadence”
and were very hard to
get. In the summer of '99
Tom Ford's feathered,
beaded, beat-up, tornknee Gucci blue jeans,
seen globally, sell out
instantaneously at $3715
a pop.
There are between 3000 and 6500
different languages spoken in the
world today!!!
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Chinese (937,132,000)
Spanish (332,000,000)
English (322,000,000)
Bengali (189,000,000)
Hindi/Urdu (182,000,000)
Arabic (174,950,000)
Portuguese (170,000,000)
Russian (170,000,000)
Japanese (125,000,000)
German (98,000,000)
French (79,572,000)
Language Tree
Monotheistic
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1 God
Christianity, Judaism,
and Islam are
examples.
Polytheistic
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Belief in many Gods.
Hinduism and ancient
Greek and Egyptian
religions are
examples.
Animistic or Traditional

Often a belief in the
divine forces of
nature.
World Religions
Population Terms
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Birthrate – live births per 1000 population.
Fertility Rate – Average number of
children a woman has.
Mortality Rate – Number of deaths per
1000 people.
Infant Mortality Rate – Number of deaths
among infants under age of one per 1000
live births.
World Mortality Rate
Don’t Believe that?
Then check this out!
Poodwaddle World Clock
Urban Geography
 Study
of how people use space
in a city.
Key terms
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The rise in the number of cities and the changes
in lifestyle that result is called urbanization.
City – Areas with large populations that are
centers for business and culture.
Suburbs – Political units touching the central city
or another suburb.
Exurbs – Smaller cities or towns with open land
between them and the central city.
Metropolitan Area – When a city, suburbs, and
exurbs link together economically.
Megalopolis – When multiple metro areas
overlap.
SIM City !!!!!
Residential – single family housing and
apartments
 Industrial – where goods are
manufactured
 Commercial – where finished goods are
sold
The core of a city is almost always based on
commercial activity. This area of a city is called
the central business district (CBD).
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State – Independent unit that occupies a
territory. Often we use the term “Country”
instead of state.
Nation – Refers to a group of people with similar
culture living within a territory.
Nation State – When a nation and a state
occupy the same territory.
Stateless Nation – When a nation has no
territory. Palestinians, Kurds, and Basques are
examples.
Growing in Number
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In 1900 there were only 57 countries.
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In 2000 there were 192 countries.
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Today there are 195 countries.
What is the largest state /
country?
Russia with an area over 17 million square km !
That is 1.8 times the size of the U.S..
What is the smallest state /
country?
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Vatican City (Holy See) has a area of .44 square km.
That is less than 140 acres!
It is also landlocked. That means it is surrounded by
land with no direct access to the sea.
There are 195 Nation States. And that
number is growing!
Democracy
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Citizens hold the
power either directly
or through elected
representation.
Monarchy

A ruling family
headed by a king or
queen holds political
power and may or
may not share power
with citizen bodies.
Dictatorship

An individual or group
holds complete
political power.
North Korea’s Kim Jong Il
Cuba’s Castro
Russia’s Stalin
Chile’s Pinochet
Hurricane
Civil Rights
Unemployment
Epidemic
Earthquake
Famine
Rising Fuel Prices
Health Care
Poverty
Traditional Economy
 Goods
and
services are
traded without
using money.
Market Economy
 Production
of
goods and
services are
determined by
demand from
consumers.
Command Economy

Production of
goods and services
is determined by
the government.
Production does
not necessarily
reflect consumer
demand.
WHO AND WHY?

Who makes economic decisions?
Who owns resources?
Who provides goods and services?
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Why?
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Either ... or ...
FREE MARKET ECONOMY
WHO
makes
economic
decisions?
WHY?
COMMAND ECONOMY
(PLANNED ECONOMY)
Either ... or ...
FREE MARKET
ECONOMY
COMMAND ECONOMY
(PLANNED ECONOMY)
WHO
makes
economic
decisions
The market:
-supply and demand
-sellers-buyers
-producers –consumers
The state
WHY?
-to allow competition and thus
make the economy more
efficient
↓
-to provide better quality
products at lower costs
-to redistribute wealth in the
country more fairly
-to care for public needs
Group the following expressions:
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government interference
privately-owned companies
market mechanism
market reliance
state-owned companies
central planners
laissez-faire
government-run business
central planning system
privately-run companies
government intervention
communism
PLANNED E. vs.
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government
interference
state-owned
companies
central planning
government
intervention
communism
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MARKET E.
market mechanism
market reliance
privately-owned
companies
privately-run
companies
laissez-faire
... or both...
FREE MARKET
ECONOMY
(FREE ENTERPRISE
ECONOMY)
COMMAND
ECONOMY
(PLANNED
ECONOMY)
MIXED
ECONOMY
WHO
makes
economic
decisions
The market:
-supply and demand
-sellers-buyers
-producers –consumers
The state
Both the
market and
the state
WHY
-to allow competition and
make the economy more
efficient
-to provide better quality
products at lower costs
-to redistribute
wealth in the
country more
fairly
-to care for public
needs
To benefit
from both
economic
systems
Identify the advantages and
disadvantages of the market economy
as opposed to the command economy.
FREE MARKET
ECONOMY
advantages
disadvantages
COMMAND ECONOMY
(PLANNED ECONOMY)
“The market has a keen ear for
private wants, and a deaf ear
for public needs.”
(R. Heilbroner)
Economic Activities

Primary –
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Secondary –
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Tertiary –
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Gather raw materials
- Pick Cotton
Manufacture products
Provide services
– Make into textiles
– Salesperson at store
Quarternary – Provide info& management – Create disease
resistant cotton plant.
Natural Resources

Renewable –
Replaced through
natural processes.
Natural Resources

Non- Renewable
– Can not be
replaced once
removed from the
ground.
Natural Resource

Inexhaustible
Energy Source –
Resources, used for
producing power, that
are the result of solar
or planetary
processes and are
unlimited in quantity.
Infrastructure

Support systems needed to keep an
economy going.
Transportation Routes
Water Supply
Power lines
Sanitation
Per Capita Income – Average amount of
money earned by a person.

GNP – Gross
National Product –
The value of goods
produced by a
country, inside or
outside of it’s
boundaries.

GDP – Gross
Domestic Product –
The value of goods
produced within a
country’s borders.
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Human Geography