Human Geography People and Places Culture The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the numbers of a specific group. Put what you think makes up culture in this circle. Government Food Family Interaction Shelter Music Language Art Dance Religion Education Culture Food and Shelter Religion Relationship to family and others Language Education Security and Protection Political and Social Organization Creative Expression Cultural Exchange Innovation Diffusion Acculturation The gold miners wanted clothes that were strong and did not tear easily. In 1853, Leob Strauss started a wholesale business, supplying clothes. Strauss later changed his name from Leob to Levi. During WWII jeans were introduced to the world by American soldiers, who sometimes wore them when they were off duty. In the 1950's, denim became popular with young people. It was the symbol of the teenage rebel on T.V. and in movies. Some schools banned the wearing of jeans. Different styles of jeans were made to match the 60's fashions. In many non-western countries, jeans became a symbol of “western decadence” and were very hard to get. In the summer of '99 Tom Ford's feathered, beaded, beat-up, tornknee Gucci blue jeans, seen globally, sell out instantaneously at $3715 a pop. There are between 3000 and 6500 different languages spoken in the world today!!! Chinese (937,132,000) Spanish (332,000,000) English (322,000,000) Bengali (189,000,000) Hindi/Urdu (182,000,000) Arabic (174,950,000) Portuguese (170,000,000) Russian (170,000,000) Japanese (125,000,000) German (98,000,000) French (79,572,000) Language Tree Monotheistic 1 God Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are examples. Polytheistic Belief in many Gods. Hinduism and ancient Greek and Egyptian religions are examples. Animistic or Traditional Often a belief in the divine forces of nature. World Religions Population Terms Birthrate – live births per 1000 population. Fertility Rate – Average number of children a woman has. Mortality Rate – Number of deaths per 1000 people. Infant Mortality Rate – Number of deaths among infants under age of one per 1000 live births. World Mortality Rate Don’t Believe that? Then check this out! Poodwaddle World Clock Urban Geography Study of how people use space in a city. Key terms The rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result is called urbanization. City – Areas with large populations that are centers for business and culture. Suburbs – Political units touching the central city or another suburb. Exurbs – Smaller cities or towns with open land between them and the central city. Metropolitan Area – When a city, suburbs, and exurbs link together economically. Megalopolis – When multiple metro areas overlap. SIM City !!!!! Residential – single family housing and apartments Industrial – where goods are manufactured Commercial – where finished goods are sold The core of a city is almost always based on commercial activity. This area of a city is called the central business district (CBD). State – Independent unit that occupies a territory. Often we use the term “Country” instead of state. Nation – Refers to a group of people with similar culture living within a territory. Nation State – When a nation and a state occupy the same territory. Stateless Nation – When a nation has no territory. Palestinians, Kurds, and Basques are examples. Growing in Number In 1900 there were only 57 countries. In 2000 there were 192 countries. Today there are 195 countries. What is the largest state / country? Russia with an area over 17 million square km ! That is 1.8 times the size of the U.S.. What is the smallest state / country? Vatican City (Holy See) has a area of .44 square km. That is less than 140 acres! It is also landlocked. That means it is surrounded by land with no direct access to the sea. There are 195 Nation States. And that number is growing! Democracy Citizens hold the power either directly or through elected representation. Monarchy A ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share power with citizen bodies. Dictatorship An individual or group holds complete political power. North Korea’s Kim Jong Il Cuba’s Castro Russia’s Stalin Chile’s Pinochet Hurricane Civil Rights Unemployment Epidemic Earthquake Famine Rising Fuel Prices Health Care Poverty Traditional Economy Goods and services are traded without using money. Market Economy Production of goods and services are determined by demand from consumers. Command Economy Production of goods and services is determined by the government. Production does not necessarily reflect consumer demand. WHO AND WHY? Who makes economic decisions? Who owns resources? Who provides goods and services? Why? Either ... or ... FREE MARKET ECONOMY WHO makes economic decisions? WHY? COMMAND ECONOMY (PLANNED ECONOMY) Either ... or ... FREE MARKET ECONOMY COMMAND ECONOMY (PLANNED ECONOMY) WHO makes economic decisions The market: -supply and demand -sellers-buyers -producers –consumers The state WHY? -to allow competition and thus make the economy more efficient ↓ -to provide better quality products at lower costs -to redistribute wealth in the country more fairly -to care for public needs Group the following expressions: government interference privately-owned companies market mechanism market reliance state-owned companies central planners laissez-faire government-run business central planning system privately-run companies government intervention communism PLANNED E. vs. government interference state-owned companies central planning government intervention communism MARKET E. market mechanism market reliance privately-owned companies privately-run companies laissez-faire ... or both... FREE MARKET ECONOMY (FREE ENTERPRISE ECONOMY) COMMAND ECONOMY (PLANNED ECONOMY) MIXED ECONOMY WHO makes economic decisions The market: -supply and demand -sellers-buyers -producers –consumers The state Both the market and the state WHY -to allow competition and make the economy more efficient -to provide better quality products at lower costs -to redistribute wealth in the country more fairly -to care for public needs To benefit from both economic systems Identify the advantages and disadvantages of the market economy as opposed to the command economy. FREE MARKET ECONOMY advantages disadvantages COMMAND ECONOMY (PLANNED ECONOMY) “The market has a keen ear for private wants, and a deaf ear for public needs.” (R. Heilbroner) Economic Activities Primary – Secondary – Tertiary – Gather raw materials - Pick Cotton Manufacture products Provide services – Make into textiles – Salesperson at store Quarternary – Provide info& management – Create disease resistant cotton plant. Natural Resources Renewable – Replaced through natural processes. Natural Resources Non- Renewable – Can not be replaced once removed from the ground. Natural Resource Inexhaustible Energy Source – Resources, used for producing power, that are the result of solar or planetary processes and are unlimited in quantity. Infrastructure Support systems needed to keep an economy going. Transportation Routes Water Supply Power lines Sanitation Per Capita Income – Average amount of money earned by a person. GNP – Gross National Product – The value of goods produced by a country, inside or outside of it’s boundaries. GDP – Gross Domestic Product – The value of goods produced within a country’s borders.