EL SUBJUNTIVO
Capítulo 4A
EL SUBJUNTIVO – UN REPASO
The subjunctive is a not a verb TENSE.
It is a MOOD.
Mood = how the speaker feels about the action
Tense = when an action takes place
(past, present, future)
THE 3 MOODS IN SPANISH:
1) Indicative (facts, certainty, objectivity)
2) Imperative (commands)
3) Subjunctive (doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity)
SUBJUNCTIVE – REGULAR VERBS
1.
2.
3.
Put the verb in present tense “yo” form of indicative.
Drop the “-o”
Add subjunctive endings.
-ar
-e
-es
-e
-er/-ir
-emos
-éis
-en
-a
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an
SUBJUNCTIVE - IRREGULAR
Dar (dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den)
Ir (vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan)
Ser (sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean)
Haber *haya
Estar (esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén)
Saber (sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan)
SUBJUNCTIVE – STEM-CHANGE
-ar and -er stem changers will do regular BOOT pattern.
contar (o-ue)
cuente
cuentes
cuente
contemos
contéis
cuenten
-ir stem changers will change in BOOT and *SOCCER BALL!
*only e>i or o>u
duerma
duermas
duerma
dormir (o-ue)
durmamos
durmáis
duerman
EL SUBJUNTIVO – UN REPASO
A sentence with subjunctive has 2 parts:
1st clause + que + 2nd clause
Ex: Mis padres quieren que yo estudie mucho.
1st clause
2nd clause
(indicative)
(subjunctive)
INDICATIVE
VS
SUBJUNCTIVE
Indicative:
- John goes to the store. (fact)
- I know that John goes to the store. (fact)
Subjunctive:
- I want John to go to the store. (uncertainty)
- I hope that John goes to the store. (uncertainty)
- It’s good that John goes to the store. (subjective opinion)
USES OF SUBJUNCTIVE
(DOUBT, UNCERTAINTY, SUBJECTIVITY)
Wishes/wants (3B)
Emotions (NEW - 4A) – subjective opinion
Impersonal expressions
Recommendations
Doubt/denial
Ojalá
SUBJUNCTIVE - EMOTIONS
*Subjunctive is used after verbs and impersonal phrases
that express emotions. (subjective opinion)
Temo que…
Siento que…
Me alegro de que…
Me molesta que…
Me sorprende que…
Me gusta que…
Me enoja que…
Espero que…
Es triste que…
Es bueno/malo que…
Es una lástima que…
Ojalá que…
VAMOS A PRACTICAR:
1. It surprises me that she is jealous.
2. I fear that we have nothing in common.
3. She hopes that you change your mind.
SUBJUNCTIVE VS INFINITIVE
*When the sentence has only ONE subject, you
will use an INFINITIVE instead of the subjunctive.
Compare the following:
1. Es bueno que nosotros seamos honestos.
2. Es bueno ser honesto.
VAMOS A PRACTICAR:
¿Infinitivo o Subjuntivo?
1. Es malo ______ celos. (tener)
2. Me molesta que mi amiga no me ___. (apoyar)
3. Espero que tú ______ mi secreto. (guardar)
4. Siento no ______ ir al cine contigo. (poder)
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El Subjuntivo