Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns In this presentation, we will study the subject pronouns along with the verb ser (to be) in Spanish. Subject Pronouns ¡Empezamos! Let’s get started! Compare these two sentences. Carlos es mexicano. Él es mexicano. In the first sentence, we name the person who is Mexican. In the second sentence, we replace the person’s name with the pronoun él (he). • In other words…. A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. Jorge = él. Examples of subject pronouns in English are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. Subject pronouns replace the noun in a sentence. Example: John is nice. He is nice. It works the same in Spanish. Juan es amable. Él es amable. los pronombres The Spanish subject pronouns are: I = yo you = tú he she you we they you (use when talking to one person you call by their first name) = él = ella = usted (Ud) (use when taking to one person you call by their last name) = nosotros, nosotras = ellas, ellos = ustedes (Uds.) (use when taking to more than one person) Yo = I Yo means “I” and it used in the same way as it is used in English. Yo soy americano. Yo soy estudiante. Note: yo is not capitalized unless it starts a sentence. Mi amigo y yo……. Él and ella These pronouns are used the same as their English counterparts. Carlos y Luisa son mexicanos. Él es de Acapulco y ella es de Cabo San Lucas. Don’t forget to put the accent mark on él. Ellos and ellas In English we have one way to say ‘they’ but in Spanish we distinguish between masculine and feminine. Carlos y Diego son americanos. Ellos son americanos. Carmen y Ana son americanas. Ellas son americanas. Remember: if the group is mixed, you use the masculine form. David y Carla son americanos. Ellos son americanos. Nosotros y nosotras In English we have one way to say ‘we’ but in Spanish we distinguish between masculine and feminine when saying ‘we’. Diego: Pablo y yo somos de Omaha, Ne. Nosotros somos de Omaha, Ne. Ana: Claudia y yo somos americanas. Nosotras somos americanas. Again: if you have a mixed group, remember to use the masculine forms. Juan: Mi hermana y yo vivimos en Omaha. Nosotros vivimos en Omaha. Hey, you! In English we use ‘you’ to speak to: •One person •Many people •A person older or younger than us •A person the same age •A person of higher ranking (president, boss) In Spanish things are not that simple! Tú & usted There is more than one form of ‘you’ in Spanish. You must learn each form. Tú: use when talking to one person that is younger OR someone that you know well enough to call them by their first name. Usted: (abbreviated Ud.) use when talking to someone older, of higher rank or anyone that you might call my their last name. Wait! There’s more! When you want to speak to more than one person as in ‘you all’, we have other forms of ‘you’. Ustedes: (abbreviated Uds) use when speaking to more than one person. You may use this form either when taking to someone you call by their first name (informal) or when you call them by their last name (formal). There is another form vosotros/vosotras but we will not be learning this form. Just be award that it does exist in case you see it somewhere. Is that confusing? It’s easy, let’s review. It is all the word ‘you’. Singular: informal – tú formal - usted Plural: informal and formal: ustedes One more point! •In English, we always have to use the subject pronoun: (I, we, you etc.) Look at these sentences. Am American. Went to the store. Speaks German. •Without the subject pronoun, it is often impossible to tell who you are talking about. Speaks German….does that mean “I”, “he”, “we”, “You”, etc. Spanish is different! •Look at these sentences: Soy americano. Eres americano. Es americano. Somos americanos. Son americanos. •The verb in each sentence changes and therefore gives us imformation about who the subject is. Soy = I, therefore Soy americano.= I am American. Eres = you, therefore Eres americano. = You are American. Es = he, she, it Somos = we Son = they •Because the verb makes it clear who the subject is, the subject pronoun if often dropped in Spanish. You will have to get used to looking at a sentence in a whole new way. ¡Practicamos! Let’s practice! Choose the correct subject pronoun! • _____ eres profesora yo • _____ somos amigos tú • _____ es doctor él • _____ son estudiantes ella • _____ soy policia nosotros • _____ es profesora nosotras • _____ eres bueno ustedes • _____ somos altas usted ¡Practicamos! Let’s practice! Choose the correct subject pronoun! • __ tú _ eres profesora yo • nosotros somos amigos tú • __ él _ es doctor él • ustedes son estudiantes ella • yo__ soy policia nosotros • ella _ es profesora nosotras • tú __ eres bueno ustedes • nosotras _ somos altas usted The verb ‘ser’ = to be The verb ‘ser’ is one of the most important verbs in the Spanish language. Be sure you learn it well! Proud to be an American. To be Look at the English forms of this verb. I am You are He is She is “To be or not to be” We are They are Notice, that this very verb does not have a pattern to reflect the subject pronoun changes. You must memorize the verb forms. That means this verb is irregular. The Spanish verb ‘ser’ (to be) is also irregular. You must memorize the verb forms! Know them well! Ser = to be yo soy = I am tú eres = you are él es = he is ella es = she is usted es = you are nosotros/as somos = we are ellos/ellas son= they are ustedes son = you’all are Atención! Unlike English, Spanish sentences do not always require a subject. The verb tells us enough about the subject that we only need to pay attention to the verb to know who the sentence is about. For example: Soy de Miami. Soy is paired up with “yo”, so we know the person is speaking about himself/herself. The subject ‘yo’ does not need to appear in the sentence. And in English: English verbs do not tell you who the subject is. Live in Miami does not tell you who lives in Miami. In English we must use the subject. I live in Miami. He lives in Miami. Trust me on this one! All Spanish verbs change but fortunately most verbs have a predictable pattern of change. The verb ‘ser’ is an exception and must be memorized. Ser is an important verb. I’m reminding you again—memorize it all! So, let’s practice! Yo ______________ estudiante. An the answer is…. Yo ____soy______ estudiante. Another…. Tú__________ estudiante. An the answer is…. Tú__eres_____ estudiante. Still more…. Yo _________ de Chicago. Mi mamá ________ de Omaha y Mi papá _________ de Washington. Nosotros _________ una familia. Did you know them?…. Yo __soy____ de Chicago. Mi mamá __es____ de Omaha y Mi papá ___es____ de Washington. Nosotros __somos____ una familia. In review: Here are the forms again. Learn them well! yo soy tú eres él es ella es usted es nosotros/nosotras ellos son ellas son ustedes son somos Good job! Buen trabajo! ¡Hasta la vista!