Spanish American War ? Objective: To examine the causes of the Spanish – American War. The Battleship Maine Our relationship with Cuba had strengthened through Pan Americanism. Cuba and Puerto Rico where commonwealth states of Spain. Commonwealth is: a group of sovereign states and their dependencies associated by their own choice and linked with common objectives and interests of another country (like the US, Britain or Spain). War With Spain Pan-American Union – a group of nations organized to solve the problems of the Western Hemisphere Lola Rodríguez de Tió – Puerto Rican poet that wrote patriotic poems in favor of Puerto Rican and Cuban independence from Spain La Borinqueña Lyrics: Lola Rodríguez de Tió Despierta, borinqueño que han dado la señal! Despierta de ese sueño que es hora de luchar! Arise, Puerto Rican! the call to arms has sounded! Awake from this dream, it is time to fight! A ese llamar patriótico no arde tu corazón? Ven! Nos será simpático el ruido del cañon. Doesn't this patriotic call set your heart alight? Come! We are in tune with the roar of the cannon. Mira, ya el cubano libre será; le dará el machete su libertad... le dará el machete su libertad. Ya el tambor guerrero dice en su son, que es la manigua el sitio, el sitio de la reunión, de la reunión, de la reunión. El Grito de Lares Come, the Cuban will soon be free; the machete will give him his liberty... the machete will give him his liberty. Now the war drum says with its sound, that the jungle is the place of the meeting, of the meeting... of the meeting. se ha de repetir, y entonces sabremos vencer o morir. Bellísima Borinquen, a Cuba hay que seguir; tu tienes bravos hijos que quieren combatir. ya por mas tiempo impávido no podemos estar, ya no queremos, tímidos dejarnos subyugar. The Cry of Lares must be repeated, and then we will know: victory or death. Beautiful Puerto Rico must follow Cuba; you have brave sons who wish to fight. Now, no longer can we be unmoved; now we do not want timidly to let them subjugate us. Nosotros queremos ser libre ya, y nuestro machete afilado esta y nuestro machete afilado esta. Por que entonces, nosotros hemos de estar, tan dormidos y sordos y sordos a esa señal? a esa senil, a esa senil? No hay que temer, riquenos al ruido del canon, que salvar a la patria es deber del corazón! We want to be free now, and our machete has been sharpened... and our machete has been sharpened. Why then have we been so sleepy and deaf and deaf to the call? There is no need to fear, Puerto Ricans, the roar of the cannon; saving the nation is the duty of the heart. ya no queremos déspotas, caiga el tirano ya, las mujeres indómitas también sabrán luchar. We no longer want despots, tyranny shall fall now; the unconquerable women also will know how to fight. Nosotros queremos la libertad, y nuestros machetes nos la dará... y nuestro machete nos la dará. We want liberty, and our machetes will give it to us... and our machete will give it to us. Vámonos, borinqueños, vámonos ya, que nos espera ansiosa, ansiosa la libertad. La libertad, la libertad! Come, Puerto Ricans, come now, since freedom awaits us anxiously, anxiously freedom. freedom! freedom! José Martí - Cuban patriot that wrote about the need for Cuban independence. He died fighting the Spanish in 1895. Listen to La Guantanamera, Cuba's most famous song, based upon Jose Martí's poem Versos Sencillos. José Martí - 1875 José Martí - Quotations On Liberty: “Like bones to the human body, the axle to the wheel, the wing to the bird, and the air to the wing, so is liberty the essence of life. Whatever is done without it is imperfect.” On Morality and Human Behavior: “Just as he who gives his life to serve a great idea is admirable, he who avails himself of a great idea to serve his personal hopes of glory and power is abominable, even if he too risks his life. To give one's life is a right only when one gives it unselfishly.” General Valeriano Weyler – Spanish governor of Cuba that used brutal tactics against the Cubans. He was responsible for detaining over 500,000 Cubans and killing over 100,000. * Americans sympathized with the Cuban desire for freedom. Yellow Journalism Joseph Pulitzer’s New York Word William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal competed to publish the most grisly stories of Spanish cruelty. (left) Joseph Pulitzer (right) William Randolph Hearst This competition became known as Yellow Journalism: • bold headlines and articles · political cartoons that portrayed the Spanish as bloodthirsty. · Joseph Pulitzer once stated, “You supply me the photos, I’ll supply you the war.” - President McKinley, however, wanted to avoid war with Spain. Remember the Maine! · President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American citizens and property. · An explosion destroyed the Maine killing 260 U.S. sailors. Jingoism Aggressive nationalism established by the Republican Party towards President McKinley not going to war with Spain over Cuba. (Egs. In history Pearl Harbor, Anti-semetism, Japanese internment, War with Iraq) · Spain was accused of destroying the Maine, even though there was no proof! · On April 25, 1898, Congress declared war on Spain. Video - wreckage of the battleship Maine The Events and Results of the Spanish American War Objective: To examine the results of the Spanish – American War. U.S. soldiers in a trench near Manila, the Philippines, during the Spanish – American War. (1898) Spanish-American War (1898) The Philippines · Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish navy in the Philippines after only six hours of battle. Commodore George Dewey (1837-1917) Brave Dewey and His Men - Audio · The Philippine capital, Manila, was captured with the help of Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Cuba · Theodore Roosevelt led a volunteer regiment known as the Rough Riders to victory at the battle of San Juan Hill. Col Roosevelt in Rough Rider uniform. October 26, 1898 Rough Riders: Video Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 · Spain surrendered after their fleet was destroyed two days later in Santiago Bay. The torpedo was a new, highly feared weapon system which saw very little use during the war. In spite of all of the amazing claims of its abilities, the Spanish American War saw no vessel on either side sunk through the use of a torpedo. However, at the battle of Santiago, the Spanish cruiser VIZCAYA apparently suffered a torpedo hit, putting the ship out of action. Results of the War "The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning." --Henry Cabot Lodge 1. Cuba was given its independence. 2. The U.S. was given control of the islands of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. 3. Spain received $20 million dollars. “School Begins” - In the back of the classroom students representing California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there. “The American Policy” Miss Columbia, teacher at the Liberty School, is ringing a bell. Uncle Sam, switch in hand, is dragging by the ear a Filipino boy in loincloth and amulet. Boys from Hawaii, Cuba, and Puerto Rico are standing around watching. Ruling Cuba Ruling Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines The Teller Amendment gave Cuba their independence in 1899 at the conclusion of the Spanish – American War. · Cuba was forced to sign the Platt Amendment, which: - limited Cuba’s right to make treaties and borrow money - allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba - gave the U.S. control of the naval base in Guantanamo Bay Ruling Puerto Rico • The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Ricans their own government. • Puerto Ricans were given American citizenship in 1917. Puerto Rico's official flag was adopted in 1952 on the same day that Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. The red symbolizes blood, the white symbolizes individual liberty and rights, and the blue triangle symbolizes the three branches of the republican government (and also the sky and coastal waters of this beautiful Caribbean island). War in the Philippines • Filipinos were angry with the U.S. for refusing to grant them independence. • Therefore, Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops continued to fight against the U.S. • The war ended in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured. • Over 4,000 Americans and 220,000 Filipinos died in the war, including 20,000 Filipino soldiers. • The Philippines were finally given their independence in 1946.