Spanish American War
?
Objective: To examine the causes of the Spanish –
American War.
The Battleship Maine
Our relationship with Cuba had strengthened
through Pan Americanism.
Cuba and Puerto Rico where commonwealth
states of Spain.
Commonwealth is:
a group of sovereign states and their
dependencies associated by their own choice and
linked with common objectives and interests of
another country (like the US, Britain or Spain).
War With Spain
Pan-American Union – a group of nations organized to solve
the problems of the Western Hemisphere
Lola Rodríguez de Tió
– Puerto Rican poet that
wrote patriotic poems in
favor of Puerto Rican
and Cuban independence
from Spain
La Borinqueña
Lyrics: Lola Rodríguez de Tió
Despierta, borinqueño
que han dado la señal!
Despierta de ese sueño
que es hora de luchar!
Arise, Puerto Rican!
the call to arms has sounded!
Awake from this dream,
it is time to fight!
A ese llamar patriótico
no arde tu corazón?
Ven! Nos será simpático
el ruido del cañon.
Doesn't this patriotic call
set your heart alight?
Come! We are in tune
with the roar of the cannon.
Mira, ya el cubano
libre será;
le dará el machete
su libertad...
le dará el machete
su libertad.
Ya el tambor guerrero
dice en su son,
que es la manigua el sitio,
el sitio de la reunión,
de la reunión,
de la reunión.
El Grito de Lares
Come, the Cuban
will soon be free;
the machete will give
him his liberty...
the machete will give
him his liberty.
Now the war drum
says with its sound,
that the jungle is the place
of the meeting,
of the meeting...
of the meeting.
se ha de repetir,
y entonces sabremos
vencer o morir.
Bellísima Borinquen,
a Cuba hay que seguir;
tu tienes bravos hijos
que quieren combatir.
ya por mas tiempo impávido
no podemos estar,
ya no queremos, tímidos
dejarnos subyugar.
The Cry of Lares
must be repeated,
and then we will know:
victory or death.
Beautiful Puerto Rico
must follow Cuba;
you have brave sons
who wish to fight.
Now, no longer can we be
unmoved;
now we do not want timidly
to let them subjugate us.
Nosotros queremos
ser libre ya,
y nuestro machete
afilado esta y nuestro machete
afilado esta.
Por que entonces, nosotros
hemos de estar,
tan dormidos y sordos
y sordos a esa señal?
a esa senil, a esa senil?
No hay que temer, riquenos
al ruido del canon,
que salvar a la patria
es deber del corazón!
We want
to be free now,
and our machete
has been sharpened...
and our machete
has been sharpened.
Why then have we been
so sleepy and deaf
and deaf to the call?
There is no need to fear,
Puerto Ricans,
the roar of the cannon;
saving the nation
is the duty of the heart.
ya no queremos déspotas,
caiga el tirano ya,
las mujeres indómitas
también sabrán luchar.
We no longer want despots,
tyranny shall fall now;
the unconquerable women
also will know how to fight.
Nosotros queremos
la libertad,
y nuestros machetes
nos la dará...
y nuestro machete
nos la dará.
We want liberty,
and our machetes
will give it to us...
and our machete
will give it to us.
Vámonos, borinqueños,
vámonos ya,
que nos espera ansiosa,
ansiosa la libertad.
La libertad, la libertad!
Come, Puerto Ricans,
come now,
since freedom awaits us anxiously,
anxiously freedom.
freedom! freedom!
José Martí - Cuban patriot
that wrote about the need
for Cuban independence.
He died fighting the
Spanish in 1895.
Listen to La
Guantanamera, Cuba's
most famous song, based
upon Jose Martí's poem
Versos Sencillos.
José Martí - 1875
José Martí - Quotations
On Liberty:
“Like bones to the human body, the axle to the wheel, the
wing to the bird, and the air to the wing, so is liberty the
essence of life. Whatever is done without it is imperfect.”
On Morality and Human Behavior:
“Just as he who gives his life to serve a great idea is
admirable, he who avails himself of a great idea to serve his
personal hopes of glory and power is abominable, even if he
too risks his life. To give one's life is a right only when one
gives it unselfishly.”
General Valeriano Weyler – Spanish governor of Cuba that
used brutal tactics against the Cubans. He was responsible for
detaining over 500,000 Cubans and killing over 100,000.
* Americans
sympathized
with the Cuban
desire for
freedom.
Yellow Journalism
Joseph Pulitzer’s
New York Word
William Randolph Hearst’s
New York Journal
competed to publish the most grisly stories of Spanish cruelty.
(left)
Joseph
Pulitzer
(right)
William
Randolph
Hearst
This competition became known as Yellow Journalism:
• bold headlines and articles
· political cartoons that portrayed the Spanish as bloodthirsty.
· Joseph Pulitzer once stated, “You supply me the photos, I’ll
supply you the war.”
- President McKinley, however, wanted to avoid war with
Spain.
Remember the Maine!
· President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to
protect American citizens and property.
· An explosion destroyed the Maine killing 260 U.S. sailors.
Jingoism
Aggressive nationalism established by the
Republican Party towards President
McKinley not going to war with Spain over
Cuba.
(Egs. In history Pearl Harbor, Anti-semetism,
Japanese internment, War with Iraq)
· Spain was accused of destroying the Maine, even though
there was no proof!
· On April 25, 1898,
Congress declared war on
Spain.
Video - wreckage of the
battleship Maine
The Events and Results
of the
Spanish American War
Objective: To examine the results of the Spanish
– American War.
U.S. soldiers
in a trench
near
Manila, the
Philippines,
during the
Spanish –
American
War. (1898)
Spanish-American
War (1898)
The Philippines
· Commodore George
Dewey defeated the
Spanish navy in the
Philippines after only six
hours of battle.
Commodore George Dewey
(1837-1917)
Brave Dewey and His Men - Audio
· The Philippine capital,
Manila, was captured
with the help of Filipino
rebels, led by Emilio
Aguinaldo.
Cuba
· Theodore Roosevelt
led a volunteer
regiment known as the
Rough Riders to
victory at the battle of
San Juan Hill.
Col Roosevelt in Rough
Rider uniform. October
26, 1898
Rough
Riders:
Video
Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop
San Juan Heights, 1898
· Spain surrendered
after their fleet was
destroyed two days
later in Santiago Bay.
The torpedo was a new, highly feared weapon system which
saw very little use during the war. In spite of all of the amazing
claims of its abilities, the Spanish American War saw no vessel
on either side sunk through the use of a torpedo. However, at
the battle of Santiago, the Spanish cruiser VIZCAYA
apparently suffered a torpedo hit, putting the ship out of
action.
Results of the War
"The war of the United States
with Spain was very brief.
Its results were many,
startling, and of world-wide
meaning."
--Henry Cabot Lodge
1. Cuba was given its independence.
2. The U.S. was given control of the islands of Puerto Rico,
Guam and the Philippines.
3. Spain received $20 million dollars.
“School Begins” - In the back of the classroom students representing
California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly
reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Puerto
Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there.
“The American Policy”
Miss Columbia, teacher at
the Liberty School, is ringing
a bell. Uncle Sam, switch in
hand, is dragging by the ear a
Filipino boy in loincloth and
amulet. Boys from Hawaii,
Cuba, and Puerto Rico are
standing around watching.
Ruling Cuba
Ruling Cuba,
Puerto Rico and
the Philippines
The Teller Amendment
gave Cuba their
independence in 1899 at
the conclusion of the
Spanish – American
War.
· Cuba was forced to sign the Platt Amendment, which:
- limited Cuba’s right to make treaties and borrow money
- allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba
- gave the U.S. control of the naval base in Guantanamo Bay
Ruling Puerto Rico
• The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Ricans their own
government.
• Puerto Ricans were given
American citizenship in 1917.
Puerto Rico's official flag was adopted in 1952 on the same
day that Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. The red
symbolizes blood, the white symbolizes individual liberty and
rights, and the blue triangle symbolizes the three branches of
the republican government (and also the sky and coastal
waters of this beautiful Caribbean island).
War in the Philippines
• Filipinos were angry with the U.S. for refusing to grant them
independence.
• Therefore, Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops continued to
fight against the U.S.
• The war ended in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured.
• Over 4,000 Americans and 220,000 Filipinos died in the war,
including 20,000 Filipino soldiers.
• The Philippines were finally given their independence in
1946.
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1920 AH Spanish Amer War