Day Six: Supporting Your
Speech: Materials & more
Yana Cornish
Hamilton College
Supporting Materials (Ch. 7)
 Types of supporting materials (Ch. 8)
 Activity
Read chapters 7 & 8
 Do suggested activity p. 165
 Select a video speech and provide its
 Perfect your introduction and conclusion
 Continue selecting supporting materials
for your first speech
 Continue putting together biographical
Supporting Material
Ideas, opinions, and information
that help to explain a
presentation’s main idea and
 The best presenters use a mix
of many different kinds of
supporting material
What Materials to Use?
 Illustrations (verbal or visual)
 Descriptions & explanations
 Definitions
 Analogies
 Statistics
 Opinions
 Examples
 Stories
 Testimonies
What Materials to Use?
Fact - verifiable observation, experience,
or event known to be true
Most effective when the audience can accept
them as true
Illustrations (verbal or visual):
Brief illustration – a short example (a
sentence or two)
 Extended illustration – a detailed example
What Materials to Use?
Descriptions & explanations:
– detailed mental images of
people, concepts, or things.
 Explanation – a statement that makes clear
how something is done or why it exists.
 They offer causes, effects, characteristics, and
background information.
 Description
Definition – explanations or clarifications of
a word’s meaning.
What Materials to Use?
Analogy – a comparison of unfamiliar
concepts or objects with familiar ones.
 can
be alike or different
 Alike: America
is like a quilt- many patches,
pieces, colors, and sizes, all woven and held
together by a common thread.
 Different: If a copilot must be qualified to fly a
plane, then a U.S. Vice President should be
qualified to govern the country.
What Materials to Use?
Statistics – systematically collected and
numerically classified information.
-only factual if analyzed correctly
Opinion – a statement made by an
 Examples- provides a reference to a
specific case or instance in order to make
an idea understandable.
 can
be facts, brief descriptions, or detailed
What Materials to Use?
Stories- accounts or
reports about things that
have happened.
 Can
have a great impact
on the audience
 Use stories to gain
attention, create a mood,
or reinforce an important
What Materials to Use?
Testimony- statements or opinions that
someone has said or written in magazines,
speeches, on the radio, books, etc.
 Believability
depends on the credentials of the
speaker or writer, so use testimony from famous
people and experts to enhance your credibility.
 Expert testimony – an opinion offered by
someone who is an authority on the subject.
 Lay testimony – an opinion offered by a
nonexpert who has firsthand experience.
How to choose good materials:
Magnitude – bigger is better!
 Proximity – the most relevant to the
listeners (‘closest to home’)
 Concreteness – use concrete
examples and statistics
 Variety – use a mix!
 Humor – audience will appreciate it!
 Suitability of material – to you, your
speech, your audience, and
Search for Supporting materials
Start with your own knowledge
 To supplement library sources, not replace them
 Directories
 Search engines
 Alta Vista
 Google
 Yahoo!
 Lycos
 Dogpile
Search Engine
Supporting materials:
Library resources:
Full-text Databases
Government documents
Reference resources (maps,
encyclopedias, etc.)
Special services (interlibrary loan)
Supporting materials:
Needs to be set up
Requires planning
Can provide very
useful information
 Special
Important Questions for Interviews
Why am I conducting this
interview? What do I hope to
 What do I know about the
person I’m interviewing?
 What do I want or need to
know for my presentation?
 In what order should I ask the
Evaluating Your Sources
Is the source identifiable and credible?
 Are
the author and publisher identified and
Example: Which is more respected and
 The
National Inquirer or
 The Wall Street Journal
Is the source biased?
 Is
the information slanted in one direction so
much that it isn’t fair?
Evaluating Your Sources
Is the information recent?
 When
was the information collected and
published? Use magazines, web sources, etc.
for current events.
Is the information consistent?
 Is
the information similar to other information on
the same subject?
Are the statistics valid?
 Use
sophisticated research methods to provide
valid statistics and information.
Questions for Determining Validity
Who collected and analyzed the data?
 Is the researcher a well-respected
 How was the information collected and
 Who is reporting the statistics: the
researcher or a reporter?
 Are the statistics believable?
Record Your Sources
Make a bibliography card,
recording all relevant
information for each source
you intend to use.
 Make copies of the material
you will use
 Save material you find
online by printing it,
emailing it to yourself, or
saving it to a disk.
Record Your Sources
Read the copies you
have made carefully
 Take careful notes on
information related to
your paper topic.
 Distinguish exact
quotations from
summaries and record
all page numbers.
Cite Your Sources
In writing (bibliography) and/or orally during
your speech
In Writing (bibliography):
 Must include author, title, publisher, and date
 There should be no question which words
are yours and which words belong to other
 Not necessary for facts regarded as common
knowledge (available in many sources), such
as chronological events, author’s birth date...
Cite Your Sources (cont.)
If you are not sure,
cite your sources!
 Cite all supporting
material unless it is
common knowledge.
 Cite someone else’s
ideas and opinions,
even if you restate it
in your own words.
Citing Your Sources Orally
Provide sufficient
information to allow others
to find your source, don’t
read the whole citation.
 Provide the name of the
person, saying a word or
two about their credentials,
and mentioning the source
(or title) of the information.
Citing: Directly or Paraphrasing
In a 1988 article
published by English
Journal, Dr. James
Stalker described the
absurdity of adopting an
official language for the
United States. He wrote:
“We cannot…”
In a 1988 article
published by English
Journal, Dr. James
Stalker noted that in a
Democracy like ours,
we cannot pass laws
against the use of
other languages.
Supporting materials:
How to develop a bibliography:
 In alphabetical order at the end of the
speech outline
 Author’s name
 Title of the article (book)
 Title of the book/website
 Date of publication (date when
accessed if it is a web site)
 Publisher (books only)
Outline Review (see pp. 32-33):
 General and Specific Purposes: at the
end of the speech…
 Central idea
 Description:
 Introduction
(write your statement)
 Body (structure only)
 Conclusion (write your statement)
Read chapters 7 & 8
 Do suggested activity p. 165
 Select a video speech and provide its
 Perfect your introduction and conclusion
 Continue selecting supporting materials
for your first speech
 Continue putting together biographical

Day Five: Supporting Your Speech: Materials & more