School-wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS):
Coaching for Effective Implementation
Rob Horner
University of Oregon
pbis.org
uoecs.org
Goals
Current status of SWPBIS nationally
 SWPBIS in Kentucky
 Coaching






Who
When
How
Why
Lessons Learned
Purpose

The purpose of SWPBIS is to make
schools more effective learning
environments for all students.
A Concern
We are narrowing the vision of
education in the United States.
School-wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS)

The social culture of a
school matters.

A continuum of supports
that begins with the whole
school and extends to
intensive, wraparound
support for individual
students and their families.

Effective practices with the
systems needed for high
fidelity and sustainability

Multiple tiers of intensity
What is School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and
Support?

School-wide PBIS is:
◦ A systems framework for establishing the social culture and
behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning
environment (e.g. academic and behavior) for all students.

Evidence-based features of SWPBIS
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Prevention
Define and teach positive social expectations
Acknowledge positive behavior
Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior
Classroom linkage of behavioral and academic supports
On-going collection and use of data for decision-making
Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.
Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
Establishing a Social Culture
Common
Language
MEMBERSHIP
Common
Experience
Common
Vision/Values
Reduction in Incidence of Mental
Retardation and Learning Disabilities
The Oregon Department of Education
has released graduation rates for all
public high schools.
Sobering Observation
Nearly one-third of all high school students
don't receive a diploma after four years of
study.
"All organizations [and systems] are designed,
Betsy
Hammond,
intentionally or unwittingly,byto
achieve
precisely
in Incidence
of Autism
The Oregonian Monday June 29, 2009,
the Rise
results
they
get."
R. Spencer Darling
Business Expert
© Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase,
Robert Horner, George Sugai,
2008
Systems Change

Effective practices produce effective
outcomes only within effective systems

We have invested in defining effective
practices but not in defining the systems
needed for these practices to produce
effective outcomes.
The challenge of too many initiatives
Wraparound
Equity
Math
Alignment for Systems change
ALIGNMENT
Literacy
Response to Intervention/Prevention
Primary
Prevention
Early Intervention
Universal
Screening
Multi-tiered
Support
Wraparound
Early
Math
Intervention
Family Support
Behavior Support
Student Outcomes
© Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008
Progress
Monitoring
Systems to
support
practices
Supporting Social Competence,
Academic Achievement and Safety
School-wide PBIS
OUTCOMES
Supporting
Student
Behavior
Supporting
Decision
Making
SYSTEMS
Supporting
Staff Behavior
SCHOOL-WIDE
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT
~5%
~15%
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
K
~80% of Students
27
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
SCHOOL-WIDE
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
~80% of Students
27
School-Wide
Positive Behavior
Support
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
~5%
~15%
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students with
At-Risk Behavior
~80% of Students
15
ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS
~5%
~15%
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
~80% of Students
TERTIARY
TERTIARY PREVENTION
PREVENTION
Function-based support
Wraparound
Person-centered planning
SECONDARY
SECONDARY PREVENTION
PREVENTION
Check in/out
Targeted social skills instruction
Peer-based supports
Social skills club
PRIMARY
PRIMARY PREVENTION
PREVENTION
•• Teach SW expectations
•• Proactive SW discipline
•• Positive reinforcement
•• Effective instruction
•• Parent engagement
•• School-wide Bully Prevention
Math
Remember that the multiple
tiers of support refer to our
SUPPORT not Students.
Avoid creating a new disability
labeling system.
Behavior
Health
Reading
Six Basic Recommendations for
Implementing PBIS

Never stop doing what already works

Always look for the smallest change that will
produce the largest effect
 Avoid defining a large number of goals
 Do a small number of things well
 Define what you will do with operational precision

Do not add something new without also
defining what you will stop doing to make the
addition possible.
Six Basic Recommendations for
Implementing PBIS

Collect and use data for decision-making
 Fidelity data: Are we doing what we said we would do?
 Impact Data: Are we benefiting students?

Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school
community, culture, context.





Families
Students
Faculty
Fiscal-political structure
Establish policy clarity before investing in
implementation
Michigan State Board of Education Positive Behavior Support Policy
The vision of the State Board of Education is to create learning environments that prepare
students to be successful citizens in the 21st century. The educational community must provide a
system that will support students’ efforts to manage their own behavior and assure academic
achievement. An effective behavior support system is a proactive, positive, skill-building approach
for the teaching and learning of successful student behavior. Positive behavior support systems
ensure effective strategies that promote pro-social behavior and respectful learning environments.
Research-based positive behavior support systems are appropriate for all students, regardless of
age. The principles of Universal Education reflect the beliefs that each person deserves and needs a
positive, concerned, accepting educational community that values diversity and provides a
comprehensive system of individual supports from birth to adulthood. A positive behavior support
policy incorporates the demonstration and teaching of positive, proactive social behaviors
throughout the school environment. A positive behavior support system is a data-based effort that
concentrates on adjusting the system that supports the student. Such a system is implemented by
collaborative, school-based teams using person-centered planning. School-wide expectations for
behavior are clearly stated, widely promoted, and frequently referenced. Both individual and schoolwide learning and behavior problems are assessed comprehensively. Functional assessment of
learning and behavior challenges is linked to an intervention that focuses on skill building. The
effectiveness of the selected intervention is evaluated and reviewed, leading to data-based revisions.
Positive interventions that support adaptive and pro-social behavior and build on the strengths of
the student lead to an improved learning environment. Students are offered a continuum of
methods that help them learn and maintain appropriate behavior and discourage violation of codes
of student conduct. In keeping with this vision, it is the policy of the State Board of Education that
each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support
strategies.
Adopted September 12, 2006
…it is the policy of the State Board of Education
that each school district in Michigan implement
a system of school-wide positive behavior
support strategies.
Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000
18000
17,123 Schools
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
2010
2011
2012
0
Colorado*
Oregon*
Wyoming
Wisconsin
West Virginia
Washington DC
Washington State
Virginia
Vermont
Utah*
Texas
Tennessee
South Dakota
South Carolina*
Rhode Island
Pennsylvania
1400
Oklahoma
Kentucky
Ohio
North Dakota*
North Carolina*
New York
New Mexico
New Jersey*
New Hampshire
Nevada
Nebraska
Montana*
Missouri*
Mississippi
Minnesota
Michigan
Massachusetts
Maryland*
Maine
1600
Louisiana*
Illinois
Kentucky
Kansas*
Iowa*
Indiana
Illinois
Idaho
Hawaii
Georgia
Florida*
Delaware
Connecticut
1800
California
Arkansas
Arizona
Alaska
Alabama
Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State
August, 2011
12 States > 500
Schools
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Wyoming
Wisconsin
West Virginia
Washington DC
Washington State
Virginia
Vermont
Utah*
Texas
Tennessee
South Dakota
South Carolina*
Rhode Island
Pennsylvania
Oregon*
Oklahoma
Ohio
North Dakota*
North Carolina*
New York
New Mexico
New Jersey*
New Hampshire
Nevada
Nebraska
Montana*
Missouri*
Mississippi
Minnesota
Michigan
Massachusetts
Maryland*
Maine
Louisiana*
Kentucky
Kansas*
Iowa*
Indiana
Illinois
Idaho
Hawaii
Georgia
Florida*
Delaware
0.9
Connecticut
Colorado*
California
Arkansas
Arizona
Alaska
Alabama
Proportion of School Implementing SWPBIS by State
August, 2011
1
Kentucky
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Experimental Research on SWPBIS
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention
Science, 10(2), 100-115
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008).The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology
Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.
Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in
elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.
Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized
trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.
Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list
controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of
Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145.
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior
support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.
Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports
on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics.
Waasdorp,T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and
Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of
Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156
Academic-Behavior Connection
Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic
achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16.
Algozzine, R., Putnam, R., & Horner, R. (2012). Support for teaching students with learning disabilities
academic skills and social behaviors within a response-to-intervention model: Why it doesn’t
matter what comes first. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 9(1), 7-36.
Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for
students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary
results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25.
McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in
school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges
in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154.
McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and
function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147.
Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative
learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with
behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 5362.
Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early
elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.
Using PBIS to Achieve
Quality, Equity and Efficiency

QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports
◦
◦
◦
◦

EQUITY: Making schools work for all
◦
◦
◦
◦

North Carolina (valued outcomes)
Michigan (behavior and literacy supports)
Commitment to Fidelity Measures
Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford)
Scott Ross
Russ Skiba
Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin
Bully prevention
EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into
large scale adoption.
◦ Using teacher and student time better.
◦ Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education
Coaching within SWPBIS
A Context for Coaching
 Coaching Defined (What is it?)
 The Outcomes of Coaching (Why?)
 Who/When/ How

Reliable Student Benefits
Implementation
Drivers
Performance Assessment
(fidelity)
Coaching
Systems
Intervention
Facilitative
Administration
Training
Selection
Effective PBIS
Implementation
Decision Support
Data System
Leadership Drivers
Technical
Adaptive
© Fixsen & Blase, 2008
Coaching Defined

Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of:
◦ (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and
◦ (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior.
◦ (c) problem solving to adapt core concepts and
practices to the local context.
◦ Coaching is done by someone with credibility and
experience with the target skill(s)
 Knowledge of SWPBIS, Knowledge of Behavioral Theory
◦ Coaching is done on-site, in real time
◦ Coaching is done after initial training
 Coaching is NOT training
◦ Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly)
◦ Coaching intensity is adjusted to need
Outcomes of Coaching

School team improves Precision and Fluency with
SWPBIS skills developed during training

PBIS procedures are Adapted to fit local contexts and
challenges

Increased fidelity of overall SWPBIS implementation

Rapid redirection from miss-applications

Team improves Problem Solving
◦ Especially use of data for problem solving

Improved Sustainability
 Most often due to ability to increase coaching intensity at critical points
in time.
Training Outcomes Related to Training Components
Training Outcomes
Training
Components
Presentation/
Lecture
Knowledge of
Content
Skill Implementation Classroom
Application
10%
5%
0%
Plus
Demonstration
30%
20%
0%
Plus
Practice
60%
60%
5%
Plus Coaching/
Admin Support
Data Feedback
95%
95%
95%
Joyce & Showers, 2002
Avg. Referrals per Day
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:
Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month
7
6
5
4
Coach goes
on leave
3
2
1
0
Sep
05-06
Oct
06-07
Nov Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr May
Avg. Referrals per Day
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:
Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month
Coach returns
from leave
7
6
5
4
3
Coach goes
on leave
2
1
0
Sep
05-06
Oct
06-07
Nov Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr May
Coaching vs. Training

Coaching involves active collaboration
and participation, but not group
instruction.
◦ Small group
◦ Build from local competence
◦ Sustainable
Who should be a coach
Coaching Competencies
Necessary
Preferred
Knowledge about SWPBIS core features
Able to attend team meetings at least
monthly (Time)
Ability to attend coaches meetings/ work
with leadership team
Knowledgeable about school operating
systems
Participate in team training
Knowledgeable about SWPBIS Fidelity and
Outcome Measures
Knowledge about behavioral theory
and behavior support practices
(universal, targeted, individual)
Skilled in collection and use of data
for problem solving and decisionmaking.
Defined organizational role
* The job description, and authority
to match the responsibility
Activity: Rate your current skills/knowledge
Trainer Core Requirements
Current Self-Assessment
Low
High
Knowledge about SWPBIS
Tier II (CICO, First Step, Study Skills, etc.)
Tier III (FBA, BSP, Wraparound, Mental Health)
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
Experience with Team Imp (stages)
1
2
3
4
5
Coordination with Leadership Team
1
2
3
4
5
Use of Assessment and Evaluation Data
(Using data for decision making)
1
2
3
4
5
Knowledge of School Systems
1
2
3
4
5
Time/Availability/ Professional
Connections
1
2
3
4
5
Tier I (School-wide expectations)
What Coaches Do

Work with team during initial SWPBIS training

Meet with new teams monthly on-site until they meet Tier
I criterion

Telephone/email contact as needed (with on-going teams)

Pre-correct





Self-assessment (EBS Survey, Team Checklist, BoQ, MATT)
Action planning
Activity implementation
On-going evaluation
 School self-evaluation efforts
 State-wide Initiative evaluation efforts (SET)
Guide State-wide initiative
 Feedback to Taskforce/ Leadership Team
Commitment of Coaches

Team Support
◦ First Year (1-5 teams) (participate in training and planning)
◦ Second Year (Maintain initial teams, start 3-5 new teams)
◦ Future Years (10-15 teams total)

FTE commitment
◦ 20-50%

Roles/Background
◦ Behavior Specialists, Special Education Teachers
◦ Consultants, Administrators
◦ School Psychologists, Counselors, Social Workers
Guiding Principles for Effective Coaching

Build local capacity
 Become unnecessary…but remain available

Maximize current competence (action planning)
 Never change things that are working
 Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact

Focus on valued outcomes
 Tie all efforts to the benefits for children

Emphasize Accountability
 Measure and report; measure and report; measure and report.

Build credibility through:
 (a) consistency, (b) competence with behavioral principles/practices, (c)
relationships, (d) time investment.

Pre-correct for success
Sustainability/ Scaling

Acknowledge that there are Stages of
Implementation
Sages of Implementation
How long at a district level?
How long at a state level?
How long at a national level?
Fixsen & Blase 2012
Summary

SWPBIS is effective, possible and scalable

Coaching is a core function within SWPBIS
implementation
 Coaching makes a difference

Coaching involves a complex set of skills
 Each of us should be able to identify the next set of coaching
skills we are developing.

Coaching affects:
 Initial implementation
 Sustained implementation
 Scaling of SWPBIS implementation
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School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and …