Creating a Positive Environment:
Positive Behavioral
Interventions & Supports
Carol Frodge
Former Principal, Edmonds School District
PBIS Trainer
Fierce Conversations Trainer
What is your vision?
On your card, write one word or phrase that
describes the kind of school culture you want for
yourself and your child.
Assess Where We Are
•What already works well in regards to a
positive social environment and behavior?
How do you know?
• What is not working well? How do you
know?
•If you make changes, how will you know
if it’s getting better?
What is School-wide PBIS?
• School-wide PBIS is:
– A systems approach, establishing the social culture
and behavioral supports needed for schools to be
effective learning environments for all students.
– Utilizes Three Tiers of Intervention
• Evidence-based features of PBIS
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Prevention
Define and teach positive social expectations
Acknowledge positive behavior
Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior
Collection and use of data for decision-making
Continuum of intensive, individual interventions.
Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation
PBS is NOT:
• A specific practice or curriculum, but rather a
general approach to preventing problem
behavior
• Limited to any particular group of students, but
rather for all students
• New, but rather is based on a long history of
behavioral practices and effective instructional
design strategies
Systems
How things are done.
Practices
How staff interacts
with students.
Data
How decisions are
made.
OUTCOMES
Supporting
Decision
Making
Supporting
Staff Behavior
Adapted from “What is a
systems Approach in schoolwide PBS?”OSEP Technical
Assistance on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and
Supports. Accessed at
http://www.Pbis.org/schoolwid
e.htm
PRACTICES
Supporting
Student Behavior
AIM: ALIGNMENT
Increased
Student Achievement
Aim of the
Aim of the
Organization
Organization
Goals and Measures
Random Acts of Improvement
From Jim Shipley & Associates
Goals and Measures
Aligned Acts of Improvement
Why implement PBIS?
Students do their best in a positive school culture:
School environment is predictable
1. common language
2. common vision (understanding of expectations)
3. common experience (everyone knows)
School environment is positive
regular recognition for positive behavior
School environment is safe
violent and disruptive behavior is not tolerated
School environment is consistent
adults use similar expectations.
Positive School Climate
• Maximizes academic engagement and achievement
• Minimizes rates of rule violating behaviors
• Encourages acts of respectful and responsible behaviors
• Improves supports for students with disabilities and those
placed at risk of educational failure
School-wide and Classroom-wide
Systems
1. Identify a common purpose and approach to discipline
2. Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors
3. Implement procedures for teaching expected behavior
4. Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for
encouraging expected behavior
5. Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for
discouraging inappropriate behavior
6. Implement procedures for on-going monitoring and
evaluation.
1. Identify a common purpose and approach to
discipline.
Why do students behave appropriately
or not appropriately?
Ever Heard These?
• “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re
going to suspend you for 2 more.”
• “Phoebe, I’m taking your book away because
you obviously aren’t ready to learn.”
• “You want my attention?! I’ll show you
attention...let’s take a walk down to the office &
have a little chat with the Principal.”
What is the underlying belief behind these
behavioral interventions?
Science of Behavior has Taught
Us that Students:
• Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”
• Do NOT learn when presented contingent
aversive consequences
Do learn better ways of behaving by being
taught directly and receiving positive
feedback.
Ineffective Responses to
Problem Behavior
• “Get Tough” (practices)
• “Train and Hope” (systems)
Worry #1
“Teaching” by Getting Tough
Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, &
you’re a dumbf_____.”
Teacher: “That is disrespectful language.
I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn
never to say those words again….starting
now!”
Reactive Responses are
Predictable
When we experience aversive situations,
we select interventions that produce
immediate relief and:
•
•
•
•
Remove students
Remove ourselves
Modify physical environments
Assign responsibility for change to students and/or
others
based on the erroneous
assumption that students:
• Are inherently “bad”
• Will learn more appropriate behavior through
increased use of “aversives”
• Will be better tomorrow
When behavior doesn’t improve,
we “Get Tougher!”
• Zero tolerance policies
• Increased surveillance
• Increased suspension and expulsion
• In-service training by expert
• Alternative programming
A predictable, systemic response, but…
creates a false sense of security!
• Fosters environments of control
• Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior
• Shifts accountability away from school
• Devalues child-adult relationship
• Weakens relationship between academic
and social behavior programming
Worry #2:
“Train & Hope”
WAIT for
New
Problem
REACT to
Problem
Behavior
Expect, But
HOPE for
Implementation
Select &
ADD
Practice
Hire EXPERT
to Train
Practice
Science of Human Behavior
• Behavior is learned
• Behavior occurrences are linked to
environmental factors
• Challenging behavior occurs when the
demands of the environment exceed a
kid’s capacity to respond adaptively.
• Behavior change occurs through teaching
needed skills and minimizing environmental
triggers.
The single factor common to successful change
[in schools] is that relationships improve. If
relationships improve, schools get better. If
relationships remain the same or get worse,
ground is lost.”
– Michael Fullan
Education reform authority
Why Every Moment Matters
• We experience approximately 20,000 moments
every day.
• We react first emotionally, second rationally.
Daniel Kahneman — Nobel Prize-winning scientist
• The “magic ratio” is 5 positive interactions for
every 1 negative interaction.
– 9 out of 10 people say they are more productive when
they are around positive people.
– Increasing positive emotions could lengthen life span
by 10 years.
.
Resiliency and Protective Factors at
School
• Caring Relationships: A supportive and
respectful environment
• High expectations and academic standards
• Opportunities for participation and
contribution
Bonnie Barnard Risk to Resiliency: What Schools Can
Do
Which of these statements best summarizes
your philosophy about student misbehavior?
1.
Students who misbehave will learn
appropriate behavior through
punishment.
2.
Students who misbehave will learn
appropriate behavior through intentional
teaching of appropriate behavior.
2. Define a clear set of common expectations
and behaviors.
Schoolwide Social Expectations
• Guidelines
Identify 3-5 Expectations That:
– Desired Behaviors that Replace Your Problem
Behaviors
– Short, Positive Statements (what to do!)
– Easy to remember
– Consider the Culture of Community
• For all students, staff, parents and others who
come to your school
Redesign Learning &
Teaching Environment
Clear and Consistent
Expectations
Student Ownership
• Identify Ten Problem Behaviors
• Identify 3-5 Potential School wide Expectations
that:
Broadly Address Your Problem Behaviors
Consider Culture of Community
• If You Have Expectations – Do They Need
Revising?
3. Implement procedures for teaching of
expected behaviors.
Why Develop a System for
Teaching Behavior?
• Behaviors are prerequisites for academics
• Procedures and routines create structure
• Repetition is key to learning new skills:
• For a child to learn something new, it needs to be
repeated on average of 8 times
• For a child to unlearn an old behavior and replace
with a new behavior, the new behavior must be
repeated on average 28 times (Harry Wong)
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
5-15%
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
• Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
5-15%
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
• Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
1-5%
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•High intensity
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
1-5%
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•High intensity
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
5-15%
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
• Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
1-5%
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•High intensity
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
5-15%
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
• Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
Tier 1/Universal Interventions
•All settings, all students
•Preventive, proactive
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?”
OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
1-5%
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•High intensity
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
5-15%
5-15%
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
•Some individualizing
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
• Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
Tier 1/Universal Interventions
•All settings, all students
•Preventive, proactive
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?”
OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
1-5%
1-5%
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•High intensity
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•Intense, durable procedures
5-15%
5-15%
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
•Some individualizing
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
• Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
Tier 1/Universal Interventions
•All settings, all students
•Preventive, proactive
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?”
OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
Traditional Approach to
Service Delivery
Amount of
Resources
Needed
To Solve
Problem
General
Education
Intensity of Problem
Special
Education
Sea of
Ineligibility
Levels of Support
“Response to Intervention”
Amount
of
Resources
Needed
To Solve
Problem
Special
Education
General Education
With Support
General
Education
Intensity of Problem
Teaching Expectations
• Teach at the start of the year and review when needed
• Define and offer a rationale for each expectation
• Describe what the behavior looks like
• Actively involve students in discriminating between nonexamples and examples of the expectations
• Have students role play the expected behaviors
• Re-teach the expectations often
• Reinforce desired behavior
Source: Washbrun S., Burrello L., & Buckman S. (2001). Schoolwide behavioral support. Indiana University.
Kuleana: Be Responsible
Have lunch card ready
Be orderly in all lines
Cafeteria
Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
Use proper table manners
Eat your own food
Laulima: Be Cooperative
Wait patiently/ quietly
Malama: Be Safe
Walk at all times
Wash hands
Chew food well; don’t rush
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Effective Classroom Management
Systems
• Teach and encourage classroom-wide positive
expectations
• Teach and encourage classroom routines and cues
• Use a ratio of 5 positives to 1 negative adultstudent interaction
• Supervise actively
• Redirect for minor, infrequent behavior errors
• Precorrect chronic errors frequently
• Who should create the lessons in each
setting?
• Who should teach the lessons in each
setting?
• Are there some areas that you need to
prioritize for teaching?
• How will you assess results?
• How will you know when re-teaching is
needed?
4. Differentiate supports from a continuum of
procedures for encouraging appropriate behavior.
Motivation
• “Most people are motivated by a mix of
intrinsic and extrinsic factors, so we must
increase both of these” - Sprick
• Thinking about your job. What are the factors
that motivate you for this both intrinsically
and extrinsically?
Expectancy X Value
• Expectancy multiplied by Value = Motivation
– Expectancy is the degree to which the student
expects to be successful at the given task.
– Value is how much the student values the reward
for the success.
– This applies for both academics and behavior.
“Celebrate what you want to
see more of."
--Thomas J. Peters,
Reinforcement : Rationale
• Focuses attention on desired behaviors
• Increases the repetition of desired
behaviors
• Fosters a positive school climate
• Reduces amount of time spent on
discipline
• Increases instructional hours
positive feedback = reinforcement
Praise and positive feedback have an
enhancing effect on intrinsic
motivation.
Daniel Pink DRIVE: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us 2009
Edward L. Deci, “Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Reinforcement, and Inequity,” Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology 22 (1972):119-20
What is effective praise?
Characteristics of Effective Praise
• Good praise includes student’s names.
• Good praise is descriptive.
– Simply describe what the student is doing at the
time - focusing on actions.
• Good praise is convincing.
• Good praise is varied.
• Good praise is about effort and
accomplishment. (Carol Dweck Mindset )
Why praise effort?
“Effort is one of those things that gives meaning
to life. Effort means you care about something,
that something is important to you and you are
willing to work for it. It would be an
impoverished existence if you were not willing
to value things and commit yourself to working
toward them.”
Carol Dweck, Mindset
Reward = Reinforcement
The big debate:
Rewards
No Rewards
Reinforcement Systems:
Types of Reinforcement
• Social (lunch with friends, principal,
teacher)
• Activity (dance, extra recess, assembly,
picnic)
• Sensory (music, books/magazines)
• Token Economies (school store)
• Tangibles (treasure box)
Reinforcement Systems:
Guidelines for Implementing
• Encourage every staff member to
reinforcement positive student behavior and
review often
• Reward frequently in the beginning (4 to 1
minimum)
• Ensure that earned = kept
• Provide equal access to reinforcement for all
students
• Collect data on frequency of reinforcement
Starbucks PBIS Example
Dolphin Pride Awards
Posters
Desired Behaviors Reinforced
Washington High
Franklin Pierce School District
“Super Sub Slips”
• Procedures
– Give 5 slips in
subfolder for each
class
– Subs gives 2 out
immediately for
students who start
class correctly
•
Cottage Grove, OR
“Bus Bucks”
• Procedures
–
–
–
–
–
•
Review bus citations
On-going driver meetings
Teaching expectations
Link bus bucks w/ schools
Acknowledging bus drivers
Springfield P.S., OR
What Methods Could You Use to Recognize &
Reinforce Students?
–
–
–
–
Ideas for high Level and low level reinforcement
Who will manage the reinforcement system?
How will you know if it is effective?
How will you reinforce staff?
5. Differentiate supports from a continuum of
procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviors.
Responding to
Problem Behaviors
83
Consequences to behavior
We need to have an agreed upon continuum for
managing behavior, that is enforceable and
reasonable.
We also need to understand the function of the
behavior, and individualize the response at
times. (One size does not fit all)
Classrooms with poor behavior
management produce
negative student outcomes
– Classroom management linked to the number of
students at risk for EBD (National Research
Council, 2002)
– Poor classroom management place students at
risk of current and future behavior problems (Aber,
Jones, Brown, Chaudry, & Samples,1998; Ialongo,
Poduska, Werthamer, & Kellam, 2001)
Mirror, Mirror- Neurons
“Neural Wi-Fi”
Cause & Effect, Logic
are “High Road” aspects
of social interaction
The frontal lobe does not fully
develop until the mid-twenties
Mirror neurons pick
up on others’
emotional states,
assist with empathy
and compassion,
along with survival
Fight, Flight, or Freeze and
Mirroring are “Low Road” aspects
of social interaction
Emotions and the Brain
Discouraging Problem Behavior
• Clearly defined problem and context
– e.g., hat in class, tardies, transitions, etc.
• Precorrection/preventive strategy
– for identified risk times or settings
• Consistent procedures
– e.g, all staff, settings, minor behaviors
• Teaching Opportunity
– focus on appropriate expectation
Keep in mind…
An effective correction system
will work for most students and
staff, most of the time
It won’t be perfect…there will
always be the top of the triangle
to keep us humble.
Teach Correction Procedures for
Level One Behaviors
• Teach Students How You Will Respond and
Be Consistent
–
–
–
–
–
I will make eye contact
I will move closer to you
I will ask you “Are you with me?”
I will point to the in class “Break Space”
I will hand you the Buddy Room Form
Responding to
Level One Behaviors
• Acknowledge students exhibiting expected behavior
• Secure attention & redirect student to expected behavior
• Provide choice between expected behavior and staffmanaged consequence
• Deliver staff-managed consequences consistently
• Do not make Mountains out of Molehills
• Avoid escalating problems
• Follow through with office-managed consequences
• RETEACH and REINFORCE
Correction Procedures
• Analyze and Adjust the Implementation of
Your Basic Management Plan
• Analyze and Adjust the Strategies You Are
Using to Build a Positive Relationship
• Analyze the Misbehavior and Develop a
Function Based Intervention
• Have You Reviewed Desired Behavior?
Chronic Errors
• Precorrect=prompt for desired behavior in
problem context
–
–
–
–
–
go to problem setting/situation
get attention of students
give reminder or opportunity to practice skills
watch child for demonstration of skill
acknowledge demonstration
• Provide positive feedback
Major Problem Behaviors
• Time Owed
• Time-out
• Restitution
• Positive Practice /Overcorrection
• Response Cost
• Detention
• Office Referral
Adapted from CHAMPs
Red Zone –
The Final Frontier
• We all share this story……
• What can we really do?
–
–
–
–
–
–
Be in youth’s shoes.
Build a relationship.
Set clear limits.
Monitor frequently.
Reinforce desired behaviors.
Work with your student support team.
1. Look at the list of possible misbehaviors
and decide whether they should be
handled in the classroom or the office.
(handout: List of Misbehaviors)
2. What is the general rule for how you
decided?
6. Implement procedures for ongoing monitoring
and evaluation.
Importance of Data
• “Insanity is doing the same thing over and
over, but expecting different results”
~ Einstein
PBIS Implementation & Suspensions
In Highline School District
15 Elementary Schools Suspension Data
1600
1393
1400
1244.5
1200
1000
423
800
3
Years
600
400
200
0
1
2
3
Impacts In Highline in Just One Year
Time Bought Back When We Reduce
Problem Behaviors that Lead to
Office Referrals
This Data Reported Yearly to the Highline School Board
As Part of Their Visibility and Sustainability Efforts
Emphasize Data-based Evaluation
•
Conduct self-assessment and action
planning
•
Evaluate self-improvement continuously
•
Identify strengths and needs
•
Plan and implement strategic
dissemination
Results from PBIS
•
Reduction in Office Referrals
•
Reduction in Suspension
•
Reduction in Drop Outs
•
Increase in Academic Gains
•
Increase in Staff Satisfaction
•
Increase in Student Satisfaction
•
Increase in Parent Satisfaction
* Return on Investment is High
• Do you have a data system where you can
easily store office referral information
and analyze it for decision making?
• What systems do have in place to analyze
the data about problem behavior?
What Does PBS Look Like?
SW-PBS (primary)
• >80% of students can tell you what is expected of
them and give behavioral example because they have
been taught, actively supervised, practiced, and
acknowledged
• Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative
• Function-based behavior support is foundation for
addressing problem behavior
• Data and team-based action planning and
implementation are operating
• Administrators are active participants
• Full continuum of behavior support is available to all
students
Secondary and Tertiary
• Team-based coordination and problem-solving occurs
• Local specialized behavioral capacity is built
• Function-based behavior support planning occurs
• Person-centered, contextually and culturally relevant
supports are provided
• District/regional behavioral capacity is built
• Supports are instructionally oriented
• SW-PBS practices and systems are linked
• School-based comprehensive supports are
implemented
Active Administrative Participation
•
Actively participates as a member of the
leadership team
•
Establishes PBS initiative as one of the
top three improvement plan priorities
•
Commits to and invests in a 2-3 year
implementation effort
School Wide PBIS Team
• Team is representative
• Team has regular meetings and creates an
action plan
• Team assesses progress regularly and
reports back to staff
• Team uses data to drive decisions
Coaches
• Establish a network of highly skilled
personnel who have:
– Fluency with PBS systems and practices
– Capacity to deliver technical assistance
– Capacity to sustain team efforts
• Follow-up training throughout the year
includes:
– Specialized topics
– Communication and problem-solving
District Scale Up Model
• School-wide PBS Team
– Represents school, meets regularly, et cetera
• Coach
– Provides technical assistance to school
– Links school to district to state
• District Leadership Team
– Guides planning and development
– Coordinates Training
– Comprises regional teams/structure
1. Look at Team Implementation Checklist.
2. Where is your school?
Want more information?
• www.pbisnetwork.org
• www.pbis.org - Creating the Culture of
Change
• www.swis.org
• [email protected]
What Works Clearinghouse
• Research to Practice
• Evaluation of Research Evidence
• Recommendations on best practices
ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
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RTI for Social Behavior: Positive Behavioral Interventions