Understanding
Student
Behavior in its
Context
Division of Students with Disabilities
and English Language Learners
May 2012
If a child doesn’t know how to read
…we teach
If a child doesn’t know how to swim
…we teach
If a child doesn’t know how to tie his shoes
…we teach
If a child doesn’t know how to multiply
…we teach
If a child doesn’t know how to behave
... we?
2
Science of behavior has taught us that
students….
Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”
Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive
consequences
BUT do learn better ways of behaving
if taught directly & given positive feedback
Every time any adult interacts with any student, it is an
instructional moment!
3
Our Objectives
1) Review the conceptual foundations of positive
behavioral support,
2) Apply our understanding to an individual student
example, and
3) Design a sample classroom system of positive
behavioral support for ALL students
Guiding Behavioral Science Principles
> Human behavior is pro-social
> Human behavior is important, meaningful,
understandable, & predictable
> Human behavior is learned
> Human behavior is changeable & teachable
> Human behavior does NOT occur in a vacuum….it is
affected directly by environmental events (such as social,
emotional, physiological, cognitive and cultural factors)
> This is true for ALL students—including students with
disabilities, and in ALL settings—school, community, and
at home.
Adapted from: D Browning Wright, from
Nishioka and Sprague, 2010
6
Principles of School-Based
Behavioral Support
Behavior is shaped by one’s experiences
Behavior is learned and can be taught
Functional relationship between behavior & environmental
events (the “ABCs”)
> Antecedent events
> Behavior
> Consequence events
Behavior is COMMUNICATION
Adapted from From: D Browning Wright, from
Nishioka and Sprague, 2010
All Behavior has a Purpose
Motivation
2 basic premises:
To “get” something
To “get out of” something
UNDERSTANDING Function of Behavior
Behavior
Obtain/
Get Something
Stimulation/
Sensory
Adult
Escape/
Avoid Something
Social
Tangible/
Activity
Peer
From: Loman and Borgmeier, 2010
Most Common Functions of Behavior
To Obtain/ Get :
To Escape/Avoid:
• Peer attention
• Difficult Task
• Adult attention
• Boring Task
• Desired activity
• Easy Task
• Desired object/ items
• Physical demand
• Sensory stimulation: auditory,
• Non-preferred activity
tactile, etc.
• Peer attention
• Staff attention
• Reprimands
From: Loman and Borgmeier, 2010
The Behavioral Pathway
Unpacking the ABCs of Behavior
Setting Events
Antecedents
Behaviors
Infrequent Events
that increase the
likelihood of a
behavior occurring.
Aspects of the
situation that
reliably predict
when behavior will
occur.
What the student
does.
What typically
happens after the
behavior occurs.
Define behavior in
measurable and
observable terms.
“What happened
after?”
“What happened
before?”
Consequences
11
Goal of the
Behavior Intervention Plan
Prevent
Increase
Desired
Behavior
and
Decrease
Problem
Behavior
12
The ABCs of Behavior
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Teacher
working with
student
Humming
Teacher
working at
board
Yawning/tap
ping pencil
Teacher tells
student to be
quiet.
Teacher helps
with task
Independent
reading
Yells across
the room
Teacher
reprimands
then answers
question
13
Step 1:
Developing a Hypothesis
EXAMPLE
Setting Event
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Terry is
late to
school
Terry is
assigned
math
work
Terry gets
out of his
seat
Gets attention
from peers &
Escapes math
(avoidance)
Step 2:
Selecting An Alternative Behavior
EXAMPLE
Setting Event
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Terry is
late to
school
Terry is
assigned
math
work
Terry gets
out of his
seat
Gets
attention
from peers &
Escapes math
Antecedent /
Setting Event
Changes
Consequence
Terry
Changes
completes
math
with Peer Tutor
Step 3: EXAMPLE
Setting Events
Strategies
Antecedent
Strategies
Check in
Break down
assignment
Selfregulation
exercises
Scaffold
instructions
Preview the
day
Provide other
choices to
intersperse
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
PLANNING
Behavior
Teaching
Consequence
Strategies
Ask for help
Specifically
praise and
socially
acknowledge
within shorter
time frames
Ask to work
with Peer
Ask for time
to selfregulate
Provide
tutoring
Step 3 More detailed
EXAMPLE
Setting Events
Strategies
*Assess whether
Math Level
appropriate
*Increase amount of
Math instruction
*Provide more
appropriate peer
access re:
Math & Social
Antecedent
Strategies
*Review class
expectations prior to
assigning
*Group according to
strengths
*Give lead to student
based on strength
then switch to Peer
Tutor
*Break into do-able
time segments inc.
social breaks
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
PLANNING
Behavior
Teaching
Consequence
Strategies
*Teach
expectations
*Teach SelfRegulating skills
*Teach student
appropriate
attention seeking
skills
*Teach to ask for
assistance
*Use natural
social praise
*Use praising
“schedule” and
fade
*Redirect
positively
*Construct plan
so student
“earns” attention
time
Functional Assessment
Desired
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequence
BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PATHWAY
Triggering
Antecedents
Setting Events
Problem
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequences
FUNCTION
Acceptable
Alternative
Behavior
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING
Setting Event
Strategies
Neutralize/
eliminate
setting
events
Antecedent
Strategies
Add relevant
& remove
irrelevant
triggers
Behavior Teaching
Strategies
Consequence
Strategies
Teach
alternative
that is more
efficient
Add effective/
remove
ineffective
reinforcers
18
Classroom Systems for Student Success:
Multi-tiered Frameworks
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
>Individual students
>Assessment-based
>High intensity
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
>Some students (at-risk)
>High efficiency
>Rapid response
>Small group interventions
> Some individualizing
1-5%
5-15%
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
>All students
>Preventive, proactive
1-5%
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
>Individual students
>Assessment-based
>High intensity
5-15%
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
>Some students (at-risk)
>High efficiency
>Rapid response
>Small group interventions
> Some individualizing
80-90%
Tier 1/Universal Interventions
>All students
>Preventive, proactive
(Illinois PBIS Network (2008). Adapted from
“What is school-wide PBS?”. [PowerPoint slides]
Retrieved from
http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm)
19
CLASSROOM- Routines/ Tasks
Core Values/ Expectations
Teaching
Matrix
ENTRY
GROUP WORK
INDEPENDENT
WORK
EXIT
Respect
Greet
others by
saying
hello
Use polite
and
courteous
language
Raise hand
quietly for
teacher
assistance
Wait for
teacher to
dismiss
class
Safety
Slowly
enter the
room and
sit in
assigned
seat
Keep hands
and feet to
self
Stay in your
seat
Slowly
gather
personal
belongings
Be
prepared
with class
materials
Work with
your partner
to complete
assigned
task
Stay on task
Plan for
homework
or finishing
class work
Responsibility
Teaching Expectations
Using an Instructional Approach
Define
Observable, measurable
Teach
Identify, prior knowledge, model, structured practice,
acknowledge
Remind
Pre-correct, prompt behaviors/rules prior to entering natural
context
Monitor
Supervise, feedback/acknowledgement, data
Evaluate
Data, adaptations needed, non-responders needing more
support
21
PBIS and Federal Law
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
The IDEA as amended in 1997, provides support for the use of PBIS in its
provisions by authorizing states to use professional development funds to "provide
training in methods of . . . positive behavioral interventions and supports to improve
student behavior in the classroom" (20 U.S.C. §1454(a)(3)(B)(iii)(I)).
PBIS and New York State Policy
New York State Guidelines
The New York State Education Department (NYSED) has established a State PBIS
Technical Assistance Center (NYS PBIS TAC).
NYSED has integrated PBIS support as part of its coordinated statewide special
education technical assistance network, the Regional Special Education Technical
Assistance Support Centers (RSE-TASC).
22
PBIS and New York City Policy
NYC DOE Discipline Code
Each school is expected to promote a positive school climate and culture
that provides students with a supportive environment in which to grow both
academically and socially.
Schools are expected to take a proactive role in nurturing students’ prosocial behavior by providing them with a range of positive behavioral
supports as well as meaningful opportunities for social emotional learning.
Effective social emotional learning helps students develop fundamental
skills for life… including: recognizing and managing emotions; developing
caring and concern for others; establishing positive relationships; making
responsible decisions; and handling challenging situations constructively
and ethically.
(The Discipline Code and Bill of Student Rights and Responsibilities, K-12,
September 2011)
23
PBIS Practices Align with Other
Evidence-Based Instructional Practices:
> Universal Design for Learning
(Accessibility)
> Teacher Effectiveness
> Social and Emotional Learning
(Engagement)
> Culturally Responsive Instruction
> Response to Intervention
24
PBIS Resources
NYS Regulations
http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/lawsregs/part200.htm
NYSED memorandum “Requirements relating to the Use of Behavioral
Interventions and Supports”
http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/publications/policy/BI-909.pdf
Guides for conducting FBA and BIP within SESIS
http://intranet.nycboe.net/SpecialPopulations/SpecialEd/Behavior.htm
NYS Quality Indicators:
www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/techassist/behaviorQI-310
NYS PBIS
www.nyspbis.org
National PBIS
www.pbis.org
25
Descargar

Document