Work Sample:
Engineering Design
Grades 3-5
Engineering Design:
Background for the Instructor
How do engineers solve problems?
– Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem
• What is the design for?
• What are the criteria and constraints of a
successful solution?
– Developing Possible Solutions
• What is the process for developing potential
design solutions?
– Optimizing the Design Solution
• How can the various proposed design solutions
be compared and improved?
2
Resource: http://www.cposcience.com/
Resource:
http://download.intel.com/education/common/en/resource
s/DD/ResourceCard_wholePage.pdf
3
The Engineering Cycle
How do engineers solve problems?
First of all, help students understand the Engineering Cycle
•THINK IT!
• First describe the problem or need you want to
solve
•EXPLORE IT!
• Make a list of possible ways to solve the problem
•SKETCH IT!
• Draw a picture of your idea
•CREATE IT!
• Build your prototype and be sure to write down each step
•TRY IT!
• Perform experiments to find out how well your prototype works
•TWEAK IT!
• How can you improve on your prototype or model?
4
Scoring Domain 1:
Identifying and Defining a Problem
to Be Solved
Based on observations and scientific principles,
formulate the statement of a problem or need
that can be addressed through the process of
engineering design.
Scoring Guide:
• Uses design criteria and constraints to clarify the problem
Identifying and Defining
a Problem to be Solved
The design constraints and criteria* should reflect
the needs of society or the end-user and address
such things as:
• The product’s or system’s function (students need to identify
what job it will perform and how)
• Availability or cost of materials (provide students with an
example of a Bill of Materials, a budget, and/or a cost analysis
sheet)
• Aesthetics
• Its reliability and durability
• Limits on its size
* Help students understand the terms - constraints and criteria. A
constraint is a limitation or condition that must be satisfied by a
design. A criterion is a standard or attribute of a design that can be
measured.
4
Third Grade
Expectations
Teacher gives students a problem to be
solved, design criteria, and constraints.
Students need to be able to…
- Explain the problem they need to solve.
- Specify how they will solve it.
Note: The problem should be related to the
science curriculum previously studied.
Fourth and Fifth Grade
Expectations
Students need to be able to…
• Identify a testable engineering problem that they
could solve.
• Specify how they will solve it (design criteria and
constraints).
• Link their problem and solution to prior knowledge,
observations, or scientific principles.
Note: The problem should be related to the
science curriculum previously studied.
Instructional Scaffolds
• Discuss current world or community problems that
could be solved through engineering (pollution, oil
spills, building new bridges, better school designs).
• Provide examples of problems that have been solved
through engineering (inventions).
• Bring in everyday objects and discuss the problems
they were designed to solve (hammer, can opener,
tape dispenser, stapler) .
• Create sentence frames such as “A _____ solved the
problem of ____.”
Scoring Domain 2:
Generating Possible Solutions
Select an engineering solution and evaluate that
solution using criteria and constraints.
Scoring Guide:
• Proposes a testable engineering solution to the identified
problem
• Evaluates (Communicates – grade 3) the proposed solution in
terms of design criteria and constraints
Components of Effective Possible
Engineering Solutions
• More than one possible solution
• Evaluate the proposed solution to see if it would
work
• Evaluate constraints of problems. i.e. “What is
important? What is not?”
• Justifies a solution for testing.
Scaffolding:
Generating Possible Solutions
• Review real life engineering problems and
solutions: Failed inventions, oil spills, and
historical events
• Provide current research examples of
problems and solutions
• Start with whole class activity (Gradual
Release)
• Provide models and modeling
Instruction
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Understand cause and effect
Materials
Prototype Defined
Sequencing
Solution needs to directly relate
to the problem
Understand how to evaluateevaluate a solution
Have to perform a solution that
is testable
Define testable
Solution connects to the
problem
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Scaffolding
• Sentence Frame/Graphic Organizer
• How to use and list available materials
• Examples of a prototype “working
model”
• Act it out, arrange a sequence, graphic
organizer
• Speech to verbally justify solution
• Rubric, science checklist, defend their
solution
• Guidelines for design
Scoring Domain 3:
Testing Solutions and Collecting Data:
Test solution by collecting, organizing, and
displaying data to facilitate the analysis of test
results.
Scoring Guide:
• Designs and builds a prototype that addresses the problem
and can be tested with appropriate tools, materials, and
resources.
• Records the results from testing the solution.
• Presents the results in a format that facilitates analysis
(Uses a teacher provided data table - grade 3)
Scaffolds
• Create a student friendly checklist that students
need to follow
• Use the Gradual Release of Responsibility model for
instruction
• Provide sentence frames to support students
development of ideas
Scoring Domain 4:
Analyzing and Interpreting Results
Select an engineering solution and
evaluate that solution using criteria and
constraints.
Scoring Guide:
•Proposes an engineering solution to the identified
problem
•Evaluates the proposed solution in terms of design
criteria and constraints
Steps for Analyzing and Interpreting Results
• Summarize the results
• Was the problem solved?
• Can the problem be solved?
- without being too expensive?
- without hurting people or the environment?
- by matching its appearance to its intended
purpose?
• List possible problems created by the design
• What happens if the design doesn’t work?
Scaffolding Skills and Sentence Frames
Summarizing
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The problem began when __________.
The ___________ tried to __________.
After that, ________________.
Then, __________________
The problem was finally resolved when __________________.
Cause and Effect
• If ____ is ____, then ____.
• One possible outcome of ____ might be ____.
• Because ____ is ____, the result will be ____.
Making Judgments
• I think ________ are ____________.
• I think that ________ is important to ________ because
__________.
• In my opinion ___________decided to __________.
Lessons and Links
• Test specifications 2011-12
– https://salkeiz-cia.orvsd.org/sites/salkeizcia.orvsd.org/files/Grade%203-5%20Blueprints.pdf
p. 14-16 – grade 3
p. 27-29 – grade 4
p. 39-41 – grade 5
• 2011-12 Student Language Scoring Guide
– http://www.ode.state.or.us/wma/teachlearn/testing/scoring/guides/s
tudent/sciscorguide_stdnteng_proposed1112.doc
• Lessons
– http://teachers.egfi-k12.org/category/lessons/grades-k-5-lessons/
• Museum of Science, Boston: “Engineering is Elementary “
-- http://www.mos.org/eie/
Vocabulary (Taken from ODE Test Specifications and Blueprints)
Grade 3
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engineering design
limitations
convenience
invention
lifestyle
necessity
technology
magnify
Grade 4
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science principles
engineering design
mass
consequence
outcome
Grade 5
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feasibility
prototype
constraints
engineering design
environmental impact
novel
Some definitions can be found at: http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=518
ODE Support:
http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=518
- Key Terms (definitions)
- Sample Middle School Engineering Design Notebook
- Sample Middle School Engineering Design Template
http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=496
Test Specifications and Blueprints – provides information on
content eligible for OAKS testing for all science content including
Engineering and Design
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Identifying and Defining a Problem to Be Solved