Work Sample: Engineering Design Grades 3-5 Engineering Design: Background for the Instructor How do engineers solve problems? – Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem • What is the design for? • What are the criteria and constraints of a successful solution? – Developing Possible Solutions • What is the process for developing potential design solutions? – Optimizing the Design Solution • How can the various proposed design solutions be compared and improved? 2 Resource: http://www.cposcience.com/ Resource: http://download.intel.com/education/common/en/resource s/DD/ResourceCard_wholePage.pdf 3 The Engineering Cycle How do engineers solve problems? First of all, help students understand the Engineering Cycle •THINK IT! • First describe the problem or need you want to solve •EXPLORE IT! • Make a list of possible ways to solve the problem •SKETCH IT! • Draw a picture of your idea •CREATE IT! • Build your prototype and be sure to write down each step •TRY IT! • Perform experiments to find out how well your prototype works •TWEAK IT! • How can you improve on your prototype or model? 4 Scoring Domain 1: Identifying and Defining a Problem to Be Solved Based on observations and scientific principles, formulate the statement of a problem or need that can be addressed through the process of engineering design. Scoring Guide: • Uses design criteria and constraints to clarify the problem Identifying and Defining a Problem to be Solved The design constraints and criteria* should reflect the needs of society or the end-user and address such things as: • The product’s or system’s function (students need to identify what job it will perform and how) • Availability or cost of materials (provide students with an example of a Bill of Materials, a budget, and/or a cost analysis sheet) • Aesthetics • Its reliability and durability • Limits on its size * Help students understand the terms - constraints and criteria. A constraint is a limitation or condition that must be satisfied by a design. A criterion is a standard or attribute of a design that can be measured. 4 Third Grade Expectations Teacher gives students a problem to be solved, design criteria, and constraints. Students need to be able to… - Explain the problem they need to solve. - Specify how they will solve it. Note: The problem should be related to the science curriculum previously studied. Fourth and Fifth Grade Expectations Students need to be able to… • Identify a testable engineering problem that they could solve. • Specify how they will solve it (design criteria and constraints). • Link their problem and solution to prior knowledge, observations, or scientific principles. Note: The problem should be related to the science curriculum previously studied. Instructional Scaffolds • Discuss current world or community problems that could be solved through engineering (pollution, oil spills, building new bridges, better school designs). • Provide examples of problems that have been solved through engineering (inventions). • Bring in everyday objects and discuss the problems they were designed to solve (hammer, can opener, tape dispenser, stapler) . • Create sentence frames such as “A _____ solved the problem of ____.” Scoring Domain 2: Generating Possible Solutions Select an engineering solution and evaluate that solution using criteria and constraints. Scoring Guide: • Proposes a testable engineering solution to the identified problem • Evaluates (Communicates – grade 3) the proposed solution in terms of design criteria and constraints Components of Effective Possible Engineering Solutions • More than one possible solution • Evaluate the proposed solution to see if it would work • Evaluate constraints of problems. i.e. “What is important? What is not?” • Justifies a solution for testing. Scaffolding: Generating Possible Solutions • Review real life engineering problems and solutions: Failed inventions, oil spills, and historical events • Provide current research examples of problems and solutions • Start with whole class activity (Gradual Release) • Provide models and modeling Instruction • • • • • • • • • Understand cause and effect Materials Prototype Defined Sequencing Solution needs to directly relate to the problem Understand how to evaluateevaluate a solution Have to perform a solution that is testable Define testable Solution connects to the problem - Scaffolding • Sentence Frame/Graphic Organizer • How to use and list available materials • Examples of a prototype “working model” • Act it out, arrange a sequence, graphic organizer • Speech to verbally justify solution • Rubric, science checklist, defend their solution • Guidelines for design Scoring Domain 3: Testing Solutions and Collecting Data: Test solution by collecting, organizing, and displaying data to facilitate the analysis of test results. Scoring Guide: • Designs and builds a prototype that addresses the problem and can be tested with appropriate tools, materials, and resources. • Records the results from testing the solution. • Presents the results in a format that facilitates analysis (Uses a teacher provided data table - grade 3) Scaffolds • Create a student friendly checklist that students need to follow • Use the Gradual Release of Responsibility model for instruction • Provide sentence frames to support students development of ideas Scoring Domain 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Results Select an engineering solution and evaluate that solution using criteria and constraints. Scoring Guide: •Proposes an engineering solution to the identified problem •Evaluates the proposed solution in terms of design criteria and constraints Steps for Analyzing and Interpreting Results • Summarize the results • Was the problem solved? • Can the problem be solved? - without being too expensive? - without hurting people or the environment? - by matching its appearance to its intended purpose? • List possible problems created by the design • What happens if the design doesn’t work? Scaffolding Skills and Sentence Frames Summarizing • • • • • The problem began when __________. The ___________ tried to __________. After that, ________________. Then, __________________ The problem was finally resolved when __________________. Cause and Effect • If ____ is ____, then ____. • One possible outcome of ____ might be ____. • Because ____ is ____, the result will be ____. Making Judgments • I think ________ are ____________. • I think that ________ is important to ________ because __________. • In my opinion ___________decided to __________. Lessons and Links • Test specifications 2011-12 – https://salkeiz-cia.orvsd.org/sites/salkeizcia.orvsd.org/files/Grade%203-5%20Blueprints.pdf p. 14-16 – grade 3 p. 27-29 – grade 4 p. 39-41 – grade 5 • 2011-12 Student Language Scoring Guide – http://www.ode.state.or.us/wma/teachlearn/testing/scoring/guides/s tudent/sciscorguide_stdnteng_proposed1112.doc • Lessons – http://teachers.egfi-k12.org/category/lessons/grades-k-5-lessons/ • Museum of Science, Boston: “Engineering is Elementary “ -- http://www.mos.org/eie/ Vocabulary (Taken from ODE Test Specifications and Blueprints) Grade 3 – – – – – – – – engineering design limitations convenience invention lifestyle necessity technology magnify Grade 4 – – – – – science principles engineering design mass consequence outcome Grade 5 – – – – – – feasibility prototype constraints engineering design environmental impact novel Some definitions can be found at: http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=518 ODE Support: http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=518 - Key Terms (definitions) - Sample Middle School Engineering Design Notebook - Sample Middle School Engineering Design Template http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=496 Test Specifications and Blueprints – provides information on content eligible for OAKS testing for all science content including Engineering and Design

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# Identifying and Defining a Problem to Be Solved