Alternative Assessment
Chapter 5
Alternative Assessment

Any type of assessment that differs
from a traditional test.
Can you give two examples of alternative
assessment and two examples of
traditional assessment?
Authentic Assessment

Any type of alternative assessment
done in a “real world setting” (Linn and
Gronlund, 1995)

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Perform in gamelike conditions
Requires cognitive engagement (rules,
strategy, positioning)
Apply skills and knowledge in dynamic,
gamelike conditions
Rationale for Alternative
Assessment

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Accountability
Weakness of Standard Testing
Procedures
Authenticity
Accuracy
Measurement Issues
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Validity
Reliability
Objectivity
Scoring Criteria for
Alternative Assessment

The specific assessment chosen,
combined with the performance criteria,
create the evaluation of student
achievement.

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Analytic assessment – particular skill
Holistic assessment – playing the game
Types of Alternative Assessment
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Student project
Portfolio
Event task
Student log
Student journal
Observations – teacher, peer, self
Student Projects
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Your imagination is the limit
Excellent ways to assess higher levels
of cognitive understanding
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Fitness Plan Project
Playbook Project
Aerobic Project
Integration Project
Can you think of other projects?
Guidelines for assigning
projects

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Check for instructional alignment
Relevance to students’ lives
Fair and free of bias
More than just busy work
Feasibility
Usually assessed using a rubric that is
developed by the teacher
Portfolios

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A representative collection of student
work over time.
Evaluation based on ability to show that
student has met goals for the class.
What goes in is determined by the
purpose of the portfolio
Assessed by a rubric
Portfolio Examples

Soccer Play:

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videotape of game play
brief review of key rules
critique of soccer game watched
skill chart demonstrating improvement
journal of student success
evidence of play in recreational league
Event Tasks

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Application of learning to real life
situations (synthesis level of cognition)
May include: the development of a
routine that can be performed in class
or at a community function
Student Logs

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A record of student performance
showing critical factors relative to
expected results.
Keep reporting forms simple.
Use the log as a motivational tool.
Student Log Sample Entries

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Performance changes
Documentation of progress
Documentation of participation
(especially outside of school hours).
Student Journals

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A record of student attitudes, choices
and feelings.
Entries are not viewed as right or wrong
since they are reflective.
Criteria include ability to analyze,
explain and describe.
Rubrics

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The scoring criteria by which student
performance is judged.
Evaluates multiple criteria
simultaneously.
Each level has descriptors or standards.
Purpose of Rubrics
Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters (1996)
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Help teachers define excellence and plan how
to help students achieve
Communicate to students what constitutes
excellence and how to evaluate their work
Communicate goals and results to parents
and others
Help teachers be accurate, unbiased, and
consistent in scoring
Document the procedures used in making
important judgments about students
Developing Rubrics
Wiggins, 1998
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Discriminate between performances
Rely on descriptive language
Provide useful discrimination
Emphasize finished product
Checklists

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Used to determine presence or absence
of critical elements.
Generally uses a “yes/no” response.
Use elements that are easily
observable.
Use elements that are critical to
success.
Developing a Checklist
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Decide on behavior or skill to be assessed.
Determine how many elements to include.
Use vivid language for each element.
Determine the order of elements.
Use parallel language to describe the
elements.
6. Pilot the checklist.
7. Revise as necessary.
Rating Scales

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Numerical or qualitative
Used to determine the degree to which
a desired behavior has been observed
Can be analytic or holistic
Developing a Rating Scale
1. Decide on the behavior or skill to be
evaluated.
2. Determine how many levels of performance
to include. 3–5 levels are preferred.
3. Determine the top level of performance.
4. Create additional levels using parallel
language.
5. Pilot the rubric.
6. Revise as necessary.
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