Alternative Assessment Chapter 5 Alternative Assessment Any type of assessment that differs from a traditional test. Can you give two examples of alternative assessment and two examples of traditional assessment? Authentic Assessment Any type of alternative assessment done in a “real world setting” (Linn and Gronlund, 1995) Perform in gamelike conditions Requires cognitive engagement (rules, strategy, positioning) Apply skills and knowledge in dynamic, gamelike conditions Rationale for Alternative Assessment Accountability Weakness of Standard Testing Procedures Authenticity Accuracy Measurement Issues Validity Reliability Objectivity Scoring Criteria for Alternative Assessment The specific assessment chosen, combined with the performance criteria, create the evaluation of student achievement. Analytic assessment – particular skill Holistic assessment – playing the game Types of Alternative Assessment Student project Portfolio Event task Student log Student journal Observations – teacher, peer, self Student Projects Your imagination is the limit Excellent ways to assess higher levels of cognitive understanding Fitness Plan Project Playbook Project Aerobic Project Integration Project Can you think of other projects? Guidelines for assigning projects Check for instructional alignment Relevance to students’ lives Fair and free of bias More than just busy work Feasibility Usually assessed using a rubric that is developed by the teacher Portfolios A representative collection of student work over time. Evaluation based on ability to show that student has met goals for the class. What goes in is determined by the purpose of the portfolio Assessed by a rubric Portfolio Examples Soccer Play: videotape of game play brief review of key rules critique of soccer game watched skill chart demonstrating improvement journal of student success evidence of play in recreational league Event Tasks Application of learning to real life situations (synthesis level of cognition) May include: the development of a routine that can be performed in class or at a community function Student Logs A record of student performance showing critical factors relative to expected results. Keep reporting forms simple. Use the log as a motivational tool. Student Log Sample Entries Performance changes Documentation of progress Documentation of participation (especially outside of school hours). Student Journals A record of student attitudes, choices and feelings. Entries are not viewed as right or wrong since they are reflective. Criteria include ability to analyze, explain and describe. Rubrics The scoring criteria by which student performance is judged. Evaluates multiple criteria simultaneously. Each level has descriptors or standards. Purpose of Rubrics Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters (1996) Help teachers define excellence and plan how to help students achieve Communicate to students what constitutes excellence and how to evaluate their work Communicate goals and results to parents and others Help teachers be accurate, unbiased, and consistent in scoring Document the procedures used in making important judgments about students Developing Rubrics Wiggins, 1998 Discriminate between performances Rely on descriptive language Provide useful discrimination Emphasize finished product Checklists Used to determine presence or absence of critical elements. Generally uses a “yes/no” response. Use elements that are easily observable. Use elements that are critical to success. Developing a Checklist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Decide on behavior or skill to be assessed. Determine how many elements to include. Use vivid language for each element. Determine the order of elements. Use parallel language to describe the elements. 6. Pilot the checklist. 7. Revise as necessary. Rating Scales Numerical or qualitative Used to determine the degree to which a desired behavior has been observed Can be analytic or holistic Developing a Rating Scale 1. Decide on the behavior or skill to be evaluated. 2. Determine how many levels of performance to include. 3–5 levels are preferred. 3. Determine the top level of performance. 4. Create additional levels using parallel language. 5. Pilot the rubric. 6. Revise as necessary.