Chapter 2
Ethnic and Racial Diversity
Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society,
9th Edition
Donna M. Gollnick and Philip C. Chinn
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2-1
A Brief History of the Immigrant Population
Involuntary
Voluntary
Reason
Example
Escape
religious/
political
persecution
Western
Europeans
Work/labor
needs
Eastern
Europeans/
Mexicans/
Asians
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Reason
2-2
Example
Slavery
Africans
Annexation
Mexican/
Native
Americans/
Native
Hawaiians
The Control of Immigration
Nativism: Protecting
the rights of nativeborn citizens
JohnsonReed Act
of 1924
Dillingham
1790
Naturalizati Commissio
n of 1917
on Act
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Immigration
Reform and
Control Act of
1986
The Control of Immigration
Legal
Immigration
Routes
Family
Sponsorshi
p
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Refugees/
Employer
Requests
Asylees
2-4
Lottery
Unauthorized Immigrants
May become legal immigrants due to employment, refugee
status, or family sponsorship
Plyler v. Doe (1982)
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Supreme Court ruled undocumented children have
a right to seek a public education.
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Educators cannot inquire about, or require
students or parents to declare, their immigration
status.
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Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society, 9e © 2013, by
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2-5
Refugees and Asylees
Refugees are recognized as being persecuted in their home
country for religious, ethnic, or political reasons.
Refugee students may feel disconnected from school and be
coping with stress.
Educators will need to work with parents to forge appropriate
goals and meet the needs of refugee students.
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2-6
Education of Immigrants
A key factor in the academic success of immigrant children is
the level of their parents’ education.
Parents’ ability to speak English well improves their children’s
chances of academic success.
Teachers should work together to provide students every
opportunity possible to achieve success.
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Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society, 9e © 2013, by
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2-7
Ethnicity
Based on a number of factors, including national origin or
origin of ancestors when they immigrated to the United States
Character of ethnic groups changes over time
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2-8
Ethnic Identity
One does not have to live in the same community with others
of same ethnic group to continue ethnic identity.
Degree of ethnic identity is determined by recognition and
promotion of ethnicity in the family.
For some, ethnic identity provides them with the security of
belonging and knowing who they are.
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2-9
Acculturation
Acculturation is the adoption of the dominant group’s cultural
patterns by a new or oppressed group.
The degree of acculturation is determined, in part, by
individuals or families.
Acculturation does not guarantee acceptance by the dominant
group.
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2-10
Race
Racial groups are comprised of many ethnic groups:
conversely, ethnic groups may include members of more than
one racial group.
Race is a social-historical concept used to classify individuals
based on difference.
Racial identification has been used to classify groups of people
as inferior or superior to other racial groups, resulting in
discrimination and inequality against persons of color.
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Identification of Race
Benefits
Drawbacks
Allows tracking
of the
participation of
groups in
schools,
colleges, and
professional
fields to
determine
discriminatory
outcomes
Imposes
boundaries
that do not
always reflect
how group
members see
themselves
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Racial Diversity
More than one third of the nation is currently African American,
Latino, Asian American, and American Indian.
Factors that contribute to the population growth of persons of
color:
• Birthrate
• Immigration
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Racial Identity
Evolves with education and life experiences.
Elementary and secondary students will be at different stages
of developing their racial identity.
Educators must remember that students of color face societal
constraints and restrictions that seldom affect white students.
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2-14
Civil Rights
Oppressed groups have a long history of struggle to
gain their basic rights in the United States.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination
in schools, employment, and public
accommodations, and gave voting rights to
millions.
Changes did not necessarily follow.
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Brown v. Board of Education
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown was the
result of several class action suits.
The Supreme Court unanimously declared that separate but
equal schooling was not equal.
Although effects were not immediate, the Brown decision
began desegregation of schools.
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Post Brown Turn Around
The goal of desegregation has changed from the physical integration
of students to the achievement of equal learning opportunities and
outcomes.
Educators have an increasing responsibility for ensuring that all
students learn and for helping them understand that the world in
which they are likely to work is multiethnic and multiracial, unlike the
school they may be attending.
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2-17
Racism
To understand racism, one must understand and
acknowledge that there are differential levels of access
to prestige, power, and privilege based on culture,
ethnicity, and race.
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2-18
Intergroup Relations
• Discriminatory
practices by those
having
Intergroup
institutional
conflict
advantages.
results
from
• Competition for
economic
resources.
 To reduce and overcome
intergroup conflicts, training and
work on intergroup/human relations
skills is necessary.
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2-19
Hate Groups
There now are over 1,000 organized hate groups in the
United States, most located east of the Mississippi River.
They often target areas of the country that have
experienced economic and racial change.
Most have sophisticated websites and some reach out to
school-age children in spreading their message of hate.
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Affirming Race and Ethnicity in Classrooms
Students’ race and ethnicity can have a significant impact on
how educators perceive students and their behavior and
performance in school.
It is critical that teachers are aware of the cultures and
experiences of their students.
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Acknowledging Race and Ethnicity in
Schools
Many educators claim color blindness.
Rather than pretending that race and ethnicity do not
exist, teachers should acknowledge the differences and
be aware of ways they can influence learning.
Equity does not mean sameness; students can be
treated differently to accomplish the goal of student
learning.
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Confronting Racism in Classrooms
Educators must confront these issues on a
personal level prior to entering a classroom.
Educators should not fail to confront racism
when it develops in the classroom.
White students may deny problems in
society or own prejudices.
Educators should teach about the harm and
dangers of racist behaviors.
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Incorporating Race and
Ethnicity in the Curriculum
Ethnic Studies
•
Introduces all students
to history, conditions,
and contributions of
ethnic groups
•
Are designed to correct
distortions and
misconceptions
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Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society, 9e © 2013, by
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Ethnocentric
Curriculum
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Ethnic groups
established private
schools to reinforce
culture, traditions, and
native languages.
Afrocentric curriculum
offers an African
perspective of the
world and historical
events.
2-24
Multiethnic
Curriculum
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The curriculum should
promote awareness
and recognition of the
multiethnic population
in all classroom
experiences.
Closing the Achievement Gap
There is a considerable disparity between achievement by
students of color (particularly poor students) and majoritygroup achievement.
Low-income students are likely to have a low-level curriculum
and low performance standards.
Students of color in poor communities have less-experienced,
less-qualified teachers.
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Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society, 9e © 2013, by
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Who Is Responsible for Closing the Gaps?
Teacher effectiveness is more important in student
achievement than a student’s race, poverty, or parent’s
education.
With effective teachers, low-achieving students become high
achievers.
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Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society, 9e © 2013, by
Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Desegregation and Intergroup Relations
The most integrated schools today are in rural and small town
areas.
The most segregated schools are located in central cities of large
urban areas and the suburban areas closest to cities.
There is a strong need for intergroup relations training to assist
students and teachers in respecting each other and working
together effectively.
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Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society, 9e © 2013, by
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Ethnicity, Race, and Racism