Total Instructional Alignment Defining, Designing, and Aligning Educational Systems for Learning Presented by Lisa Carter Meaningful Change Makes a difference and has a positive impact on student learning. 1. Knowledge 2. Conditions of support The Work of Professional Learning Communities and TIA • What is that we want our students to learn? • How will we know they have learned and learned well? • How will we respond to those students who have not learned? • How will we challenge those that have learned? Total Instructional Alignment Ten Common Myths 1. Curriculum Alignment and Instructional Alignment are synonyms. 2. Instructional Alignment is encouraging teachers to “teach the test.” 3. If we hold our breath, this accountability thing will go away. 4. Innovations, in and of themselves, can improve results on student assessments. 5. Standards and expectations are synonyms. 6. Standards stifle creativity. 7. The new mission of schools, compulsory “learning for all”, can be delivered in the old system of compulsory “attendance for all!” 8. Give them the standards and teachers will figure it all out. 9. A school or school district can “do” Instructional Alignment during a summer workshop. 10. The textbook is my curriculum. Deep Understanding 1 Total Instructional Alignment ensures equity in learning opportunities for all students through alignment of standards, curriculum, assessment, and instruction. What Is Total Instructional Alignment? It is making sure that what we are teaching, what we are assessing, and how we are teaching are congruent. The Three Domains of Total Instructional Alignment Alignment of the system Alignment of standards, curriculum and assessment Alignment of instructional practice 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 k Mom Dad Alignment of the Instructional Delivery System 12 11 10 999999 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 111111 k Alignment of the System Through Horizontal Structures Planning Agenda 100 75 100 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 k Alignment of the System Through Vertical Structures Planning Agenda Deep Understanding 2 Alignment of time structures through flexible scheduling and grouping practices ensures students the opportunity to learn based on their unique learning clocks. What Do We Know? 1. Time affects learning. 2. Schools were never designed to teach all children. The Research of John Carroll Aptitude = Degree of learning = Time spent Time needed What Affects Time Spent? • Perseverance • Attention span • Opportunity structures What Affects Time Needed? • Aptitude • Prior knowledge • Quality of instruction What We Know Students come to us with a variance of knowledge and skill level. Students learn at different rates. Learning is an incremental process. What We Do Group students for instruction based on chronological age. Give all students the same amount of time to learn the same amount of content. Alignment of the System First Grade Algebra 1 English I Second Grade Algebra 2 English II Time x x Norm Rodney Kim Mary x Kathy x x Sam Tia Miguel Joey x Jane Content x x x x The School of Horace Mann The School of Horace Mann •Over 100 years old •Built around the agrarian calendar •Modeled after the factory •One size fits all The Four Circles of Time 12 1 Extended School Time 11 2 Actual School Time 10 Academic Time 3 9 Engaged-Learning Time 4 8 5 7 6 The Dog Test All = School Independent and School Dependent Students I C E Instruction Curriculum Evaluation Total Instructional Alignment I C E Instruction Curriculum Evaluation Any innovation you bring into the classroom or school to improve outcomes on student assessments presumes that there is already alignment of the intended (curriculum), taught (instruction), and tested (evaluation) objectives. The innovation itself will not improve outcomes if alignment does not exist. Drilling Deeper: TIA Tools and Processes In order to successfully align instruction, teachers need tools, processes, time, materials, resources, and support! Effective Implementation of TIA: Tools and Processes Essential Alignment Tools • The congruence matrix • Standards-based/objective-based instruction • Higher-order thinking • Task analysis to determine essential knowledge and skills • Effective ongoing assessment • Quality instructional strategies The Congruence Matrix One Grade Level or Subject Area Standard Benchmark or SLE CriterionReferenced Test Norm-Referenced Test Other Standards-Based/ Objective-Based Instruction Higher-Order Thinking Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create (Revised Blooms’ Taxonomy) Constructing Learning Objectives – Z Chart Behavior Level of Thinking Learning 1 Unit or Strand 2 General Doing - Verb Specific 3 Specific Content 4 Constructing Learning Objectives Objective: The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of mammals. Level of Thinking 1 remember Doing - Verb listing Unit or Strand 2 Mammals 3 Specific Content Three characteristics of a mammal 4 Constructing Learning Objectives Objective: The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of mammals. Level of Thinking 1 understand Doing - Verb Unit or Strand 2 Mammals 3 Specific Content Three characteristics of a mammal 4 Constructing Learning Objectives Objective: The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of mammals. Level of Thinking 1 apply Doing - Verb Unit or Strand 2 Mammals 3 Specific Content Three characteristics of a mammal 4 Constructing Learning Objectives Objective: The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of mammals. Level of Thinking 1 analyze Doing - Verb Unit or Strand 2 Mammals 3 Specific Content Three characteristics of a mammal 4 Constructing Learning Objectives Objective: The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of mammals. Level of Thinking 1 evaluate Doing - Verb Unit or Strand 2 Mammals 3 Specific Content Three characteristics of a mammal 4 Constructing Learning Objectives Objective: The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of mammals. Level of Thinking 1 create Doing - Verb Unit or Strand 2 Mammals 3 Specific Content Three characteristics of a mammal 4 Behavioral Objectives design a well-balanced meal. •label the parts of a cell. •compare any two fractions using >,< or =. •justify the actions of a story character. •create a model of the solar system. •explain three causes of the Civil War. •solve ten addition problems (two digits added to two digits with regrouping). •distinguish between obedience and conformation in the judging of dogs. 1 3 2 4 Task Analysis Formulate the objective Clarify the objective Identify all essential learnings Sequence in the order of simple to complex Task Analysis • The learner will use correct form to swim freestyle without assistance a distance of 50 yards across the pool. U.S. History The learner will interpret economic, social, and political trends of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Advanced Math The learner will find the zeroes, vertical asymptotes, and horizontal asymptotes of a basic function or a rational function through analysis of the polynomials in the numerator and denominator and sketch the graph of a rational function labeling the horizontal and vertical asymptotes and the x- and y- intercepts. . English II The learner will write a literary analysis to show understanding of repetition, mood/tone, maxims, anecdotes, and figurative language in Chinese and Japanese poetry. Primary Math The learner will tell time to the hour, half hour, and quarter hour. Task Analysis: Pre-Calculus Goal 2: The learner will use relations and functions to solve problems. 2.01 Use functions (polynomial, power, rational, exponential, logarithmic, logistic, piecewise-defined, and greatest integer) to model and solve problem; justify results a.) Solve using graphs and algebraic properties. b.) Interpret the constants, coefficients, and bases in the context of the problem. THE LEARNER WILL: Graph and state the domain and range of the following functions: constant, linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, rational, radical, square root, absolute value, semicircle, cube root, greatest integer, piecewise, exponential, natural exponential, logarithmic, and natural logarithmic. P.2, 1.2, 2.2, 2.3, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2 Solve polynomial equations and inequalities both algebraically and graphically Solve rational equations and inequalities both algebraically and graphically. Solve exponential equations algebraically and graphically. Solve logarithmic equations algebraically and graphically. Write polynomial functions to model real world data. Write rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions to model real world data (exponential growth and decay, logistic growth). Illustrate the following transformations for functions: y = cf(x), y = f(cx), y = f(x – c), y = f(x) + c Illustrate the following reflections for functions: y = -f(x), y = f(-x), y = -f(-x), y = |ƒ(x) | , y = f( | x | ) Analyze complex polynomial functions by determining f(x) = 0, f(x) < 0, f(x) > 0 to sketch the function. Identify the domain, range, intercepts, and symmetry both graphically and analytically of functions using interval notation where appropriate. Determine intervals of increasing/decreasing functions and determine local extrema using a graphing utility. Evaluate functions numerically, analytically, and graphically (include difference quotient). P.4, P.5, Graphics Calculator P.4, P.5, Graphics Calculator 3.4, Graphics Calculator 3.4, Graphics Calculator P.4, P.5, 3.4, 3.5 P.4, P.5, 3.4, 3.5 ©Lisa Carter 2007. www.solution-tree.com Reproducible. 1.3, Graphics Calculator 1.3, Graphics Calculator 2.2, Graphics Calculator 2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 1.2, Graphics Calculator 1.2, Graphics Calculator 1.1, Graphics Calculator Task Analysis: Mathematics Grade 5 MA-05-1.1.3 Students will compare (<, >, =) and order whole numbers (0 to 99,999,999), fractions, and decimals, and explain the relationships (equivalence, order) between and among them. MA-05-1.2.1 Students will apply and describe appropriate strategies for estimating quantities of objects and computational results in realworld situations. MA-05-1.3.1 Students will analyze real-world situations to identify the appropriate mathematical operations, and will apply operations to solve real-world problems with the following constraints: Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers (less than 100,000,000); Add and subtract fractions with the like denominators through 16, with sums less than or equal to one; and Add and subtract decimals through hundredths. Compare positive and negative integers using greater than, less than, and equal to Use a number line to locate positive and negative numbers Order numbers up to a billion Express equivalencies between fractions, decimals, and whole numbers Recognize equivalent fractions Express fractions in lowest terms Compare with like and unlike denominators Estimate products and quotients Estimate sums and differences Use rounding to estimate Estimate decimal sums, differences, and products Use estimation to add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers Estimate using orders of magnitude Estimate using number sense Represent multiplication as an array Use order of operations, including parentheses, to simplify numerical expressions Multiply four-digit numbers by four-digit numbers Divide four-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Add and subtract positive and negative integers Add and subtract decimals Solve multiplication and division story problems Solve two-step story problems Solve equations involving multiplication and division Solve problems with more than one operations ©Lisa Carter 2007. www.solution-tree.com. Reproducible Northwest Arkansas Instructional Alignment Mathematics Grade 8 AR Department of Education Objective Task Analysis Essential Vocabulary CONTENT STANDARD/ Student Learning Expectations (SLE) Strand: Number and Operations Standard 1-Number Sense: Students shall understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers and number systems. NO.1.8.1 Read, write, compare, and solve problems, with and without appropriate technology, including numbers less than 1 in scientific notation. Restate in writing, compare, and solve problems, with and without appropriate technology, including numbers less than 1 in scientific notation. Use patterns of exponents to evaluate zero and negative exponents Use the properties of exponents to simplify expressions Convert from written form to standard form Convert from standard form to scientific notation, with and without technology Convert from scientific notation to standard form, with and without technology Compare numbers in scientific notation Identify operations to use to solve problems. Compute with scientific notation ©Lisa Carter 2007. www.solution-tree.com Reproducible. Scientific notation Exponent Power Base The Role of Formative Assessment Learn and Adjust Based on Data Deep Understanding 3 Designing appropriate remediation and enrichment opportunities aligned to individual student needs ensures student learning success. Effective Schools Are Data Driven and Results Oriented Definition In the effective school, student academic progress is measured frequently using a variety of assessment procedures. The results of the assessments are used to improve individual student performance and to improve the overall instructional program First generation Teachers monitor student progress Second generation Students monitor their own progress Two Ways to View Assessment A tool to assist in the sort and select mission of the school. A tool that helps us gain invaluable information about student learning and allows us to make better instructional decisions. Traditional Classroom Instruction 10-20% . . . 30-40% 40-50% F’s 50-60% D’s C’s B’s A’s Test or quiz Record Grade 80-90% . . . 80-90% 80-90% 80-90% Formative Test Second Test F’s D’s Corrective or Enrichment C’s B’s A’s Dr. Thomas Guskey Implementing Mastery Learning The Mastery Learning Model Unit 2 Enrichment Lesson Unit 1 Test A Corrective Lesson Test B Dr. Thomas Guskey Implementing Mastery Learning The Leadership Factor Contact Information Lisa Carter 3628 Lakeshore Drive Hope Mills, NC 28348 910.424.3004 910.987.1234 (cell) [email protected] www.TotalInstructionalAlignment.com

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