Total Instructional
Alignment
Defining, Designing, and Aligning
Educational Systems for Learning
Presented by
Lisa Carter
Meaningful Change
Makes a difference and has a positive
impact on student learning.
1. Knowledge
2. Conditions of support
The Work of Professional
Learning Communities and TIA
• What is that we want our students to learn?
• How will we know they have learned and
learned well?
• How will we respond to those students who have
not learned?
• How will we challenge those that have learned?
Total Instructional
Alignment
Ten Common Myths
1. Curriculum Alignment and
Instructional Alignment
are synonyms.
2. Instructional Alignment is
encouraging teachers to
“teach the test.”
3. If we hold our breath, this
accountability thing will
go away.
4. Innovations, in and of
themselves, can improve results
on student assessments.
5. Standards and expectations
are synonyms.
6. Standards stifle creativity.
7. The new mission of schools,
compulsory “learning for all”,
can be delivered in the old
system of compulsory
“attendance for all!”
8. Give them the standards
and teachers will figure it all
out.
9. A school or school district can
“do” Instructional Alignment
during a summer workshop.
10. The textbook is my curriculum.
Deep Understanding 1
Total Instructional Alignment ensures
equity in learning opportunities for all
students through alignment of
standards, curriculum, assessment,
and instruction.
What Is Total Instructional
Alignment?
It is making sure that what we are
teaching, what we are assessing, and
how we are teaching are congruent.
The Three Domains of Total
Instructional Alignment
Alignment of the system
Alignment of standards, curriculum
and assessment
Alignment of instructional practice
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
k
Mom
Dad
Alignment of the
Instructional
Delivery System
12
11
10
999999
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
111111
k
Alignment of the
System Through
Horizontal Structures
Planning Agenda
100
75
100
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
k
Alignment of the
System Through
Vertical Structures
Planning Agenda
Deep Understanding 2
Alignment of time structures through
flexible scheduling and grouping
practices ensures students the
opportunity to learn based on their
unique learning clocks.
What Do We Know?
1. Time affects learning.
2. Schools were never designed to
teach all children.
The Research of John Carroll
Aptitude =
Degree of learning =
Time spent
Time needed
What Affects Time Spent?
•
Perseverance
• Attention span
• Opportunity structures
What Affects Time Needed?
•
Aptitude
• Prior knowledge
• Quality of instruction
What We Know
Students come to us with a variance of
knowledge and skill level.
Students learn at different rates.
Learning is an incremental process.
What We Do
Group students for instruction based on
chronological age.
Give all students the same amount of
time to learn the same amount of
content.
Alignment of the System
First Grade
Algebra 1
English I
Second Grade
Algebra 2
English II
Time
x
x
Norm
Rodney
Kim
Mary
x
Kathy
x
x
Sam
Tia
Miguel
Joey
x
Jane
Content
x
x
x
x
The School of Horace Mann
The School of Horace Mann
•Over 100 years old
•Built around the agrarian calendar
•Modeled after the factory
•One size fits all
The Four Circles
of
Time
12
1
Extended School Time
11
2
Actual School Time
10
Academic Time
3
9
Engaged-Learning
Time
4
8
5
7
6
The Dog Test
All =
School Independent and
School Dependent Students
I
C
E
Instruction
Curriculum
Evaluation
Total Instructional Alignment
I
C
E
Instruction
Curriculum
Evaluation
Any innovation you bring into the
classroom or school to improve
outcomes on student assessments
presumes that there is already alignment
of the intended (curriculum), taught
(instruction), and tested (evaluation)
objectives. The innovation itself will not
improve outcomes if alignment does not
exist.
Drilling Deeper: TIA Tools
and Processes
In order to successfully
align instruction, teachers
need tools, processes,
time, materials, resources,
and support!
Effective Implementation of TIA:
Tools and Processes
Essential Alignment Tools
• The congruence matrix
• Standards-based/objective-based
instruction
• Higher-order thinking
• Task analysis to determine essential
knowledge and skills
• Effective ongoing assessment
• Quality instructional strategies
The Congruence Matrix
One Grade Level or Subject Area
Standard
Benchmark
or SLE
CriterionReferenced Test
Norm-Referenced
Test
Other
Standards-Based/
Objective-Based Instruction
Higher-Order Thinking
Remember
Understand
Apply
Analyze
Evaluate
Create
(Revised Blooms’ Taxonomy)
Constructing Learning Objectives – Z Chart
Behavior
Level of Thinking
Learning
1
Unit or Strand
2
General
Doing - Verb
Specific
3
Specific Content
4
Constructing Learning Objectives
Objective:
The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of
mammals.
Level of Thinking
1
remember
Doing - Verb
listing
Unit or Strand
2
Mammals
3
Specific Content
Three characteristics
of a mammal
4
Constructing Learning Objectives
Objective:
The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of
mammals.
Level of Thinking
1
understand
Doing - Verb
Unit or Strand
2
Mammals
3
Specific Content
Three characteristics
of a mammal
4
Constructing Learning Objectives
Objective:
The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of
mammals.
Level of Thinking
1
apply
Doing - Verb
Unit or Strand
2
Mammals
3
Specific Content
Three characteristics
of a mammal
4
Constructing Learning Objectives
Objective:
The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of
mammals.
Level of Thinking
1
analyze
Doing - Verb
Unit or Strand
2
Mammals
3
Specific Content
Three characteristics
of a mammal
4
Constructing Learning Objectives
Objective:
The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of
mammals.
Level of Thinking
1
evaluate
Doing - Verb
Unit or Strand
2
Mammals
3
Specific Content
Three characteristics
of a mammal
4
Constructing Learning Objectives
Objective:
The learner will demonstrate a knowledge of mammals by listing three characteristics of
mammals.
Level of Thinking
1
create
Doing - Verb
Unit or Strand
2
Mammals
3
Specific Content
Three characteristics
of a mammal
4
Behavioral Objectives
design a well-balanced meal.
•label the parts of a cell.
•compare any two fractions using >,< or =.
•justify the actions of a story character.
•create a model of the solar system.
•explain three causes of the Civil War.
•solve ten addition problems (two digits added to two digits with regrouping).
•distinguish between obedience and conformation in the judging of dogs.
1
3
2
4
Task Analysis
Formulate the objective
Clarify the objective
Identify all essential learnings
Sequence in the order of simple to complex
Task Analysis
• The learner will use correct form to swim
freestyle without assistance a distance of
50 yards across the pool.
U.S. History
The learner will interpret economic,
social, and political trends of the late
19th and early 20th centuries.
Advanced Math
The learner will find the zeroes, vertical
asymptotes, and horizontal asymptotes of
a basic function or a rational function
through analysis of the polynomials in the
numerator and denominator and sketch
the graph of a rational function labeling
the horizontal and vertical asymptotes
and the x- and y- intercepts.
.
English II
The learner will write a literary analysis
to show understanding of repetition,
mood/tone, maxims, anecdotes, and
figurative language in Chinese and
Japanese poetry.
Primary Math
The learner will tell time to the hour,
half hour, and quarter hour.
Task Analysis: Pre-Calculus
Goal 2: The learner will use
relations and functions to
solve problems.
2.01
Use functions
(polynomial, power,
rational, exponential,
logarithmic, logistic,
piecewise-defined,
and greatest integer)
to model and solve
problem; justify results
a.) Solve using graphs
and algebraic
properties.
b.) Interpret the
constants,
coefficients, and
bases in the context of
the problem.
THE LEARNER WILL:
 Graph and state the domain and range of the following
functions: constant, linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, rational,
radical, square root, absolute value, semicircle, cube root,
greatest integer, piecewise, exponential, natural exponential,
logarithmic, and natural logarithmic.
P.2, 1.2, 2.2, 2.3, 2.7,
3.1, 3.2
 Solve polynomial equations and inequalities both algebraically
and graphically
 Solve rational equations and inequalities both algebraically and
graphically.
 Solve exponential equations algebraically and graphically.
 Solve logarithmic equations algebraically and graphically.
 Write polynomial functions to model real world data.
 Write rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions to model
real world data (exponential growth and decay, logistic growth).
 Illustrate the following transformations for functions: y = cf(x), y =
f(cx), y = f(x – c), y = f(x) + c
 Illustrate the following reflections for functions: y = -f(x), y = f(-x),
y = -f(-x), y = |ƒ(x) | , y = f( | x | )
 Analyze complex polynomial functions by determining f(x) = 0,
f(x) < 0, f(x) > 0 to sketch the function.
 Identify the domain, range, intercepts, and symmetry both
graphically and analytically of functions using interval notation
where appropriate.
 Determine intervals of increasing/decreasing functions and
determine local extrema using a graphing utility.
 Evaluate functions numerically, analytically, and graphically
(include difference quotient).
P.4, P.5, Graphics
Calculator
P.4, P.5, Graphics
Calculator
3.4, Graphics Calculator
3.4, Graphics Calculator
P.4, P.5, 3.4, 3.5
P.4, P.5, 3.4, 3.5
©Lisa Carter 2007. www.solution-tree.com
Reproducible.
1.3, Graphics Calculator
1.3, Graphics Calculator
2.2, Graphics Calculator
2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 1.2,
Graphics Calculator
1.2, Graphics Calculator
1.1, Graphics Calculator
Task Analysis: Mathematics Grade 5
MA-05-1.1.3
Students will compare (<, >, =) and order whole numbers (0 to
99,999,999), fractions, and decimals, and explain the
relationships (equivalence, order) between and among them.







MA-05-1.2.1
Students will apply and describe appropriate strategies for
estimating quantities of objects and computational results in realworld situations.
MA-05-1.3.1
Students will analyze real-world situations to identify the
appropriate mathematical operations, and will apply operations to
solve real-world problems with the following constraints:
 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers (less
than 100,000,000);
 Add and subtract fractions with the like denominators
through 16, with sums less than or equal to one; and
 Add and subtract decimals through hundredths.

















Compare positive and negative integers using greater
than, less than, and equal to
Use a number line to locate positive and negative
numbers
Order numbers up to a billion
Express equivalencies between fractions, decimals, and
whole numbers
Recognize equivalent fractions
Express fractions in lowest terms
Compare with like and unlike denominators
Estimate products and quotients
Estimate sums and differences
Use rounding to estimate
Estimate decimal sums, differences, and products
Use estimation to add and subtract fractions and mixed
numbers
Estimate using orders of magnitude
Estimate using number sense
Represent multiplication as an array
Use order of operations, including parentheses, to
simplify numerical expressions
Multiply four-digit numbers by four-digit numbers
Divide four-digit numbers by two-digit numbers
Add and subtract positive and negative integers
Add and subtract decimals
Solve multiplication and division story problems
Solve two-step story problems
Solve equations involving multiplication and division
Solve problems with more than one operations
©Lisa Carter 2007. www.solution-tree.com.
Reproducible
Northwest Arkansas Instructional Alignment
Mathematics Grade 8
AR Department of Education
Objective
Task Analysis
Essential
Vocabulary
CONTENT STANDARD/ Student
Learning Expectations (SLE)
Strand: Number and Operations
Standard 1-Number Sense:
Students shall understand numbers,
ways of representing numbers,
relationships among numbers and
number systems.
NO.1.8.1 Read, write, compare, and
solve problems, with and without
appropriate technology, including
numbers less than 1 in scientific
notation.
Restate in writing,
compare, and
solve problems,
with and without
appropriate
technology,
including numbers
less than 1 in
scientific notation.
 Use patterns of exponents to
evaluate zero and negative
exponents
 Use the properties of exponents to
simplify expressions
 Convert from written form to
standard form
 Convert from standard form to
scientific notation, with and without
technology
 Convert from scientific notation to
standard form, with and without
technology
 Compare numbers in scientific
notation
 Identify operations to use to solve
problems.
 Compute with scientific notation
©Lisa Carter 2007. www.solution-tree.com
Reproducible.
 Scientific
notation
 Exponent
 Power
 Base
The Role of Formative
Assessment
Learn and Adjust Based on Data
Deep Understanding 3
Designing appropriate remediation
and enrichment opportunities aligned
to individual student needs ensures
student learning success.
Effective Schools Are Data
Driven and Results Oriented
Definition
In the effective school, student academic progress is measured
frequently using a variety of assessment procedures. The results
of the assessments are used to improve individual student
performance and to improve the overall instructional program
First generation
Teachers monitor student progress
Second generation
Students monitor their own progress
Two Ways to View Assessment
A tool to assist in the sort and select
mission of the school.
A tool that helps us gain invaluable
information about student learning and
allows us to make better instructional
decisions.
Traditional Classroom
Instruction
10-20%
.
. .
30-40%
40-50%
F’s
50-60%
D’s
C’s
B’s
A’s
Test or quiz
Record Grade
80-90%
.
.
.
80-90%
80-90%
80-90%
Formative Test
Second Test
F’s
D’s
Corrective or Enrichment
C’s
B’s
A’s
Dr. Thomas Guskey
Implementing Mastery Learning
The Mastery Learning Model
Unit 2
Enrichment
Lesson
Unit 1
Test A
Corrective
Lesson
Test B
Dr. Thomas Guskey
Implementing Mastery Learning
The Leadership Factor
Contact Information
Lisa Carter
3628 Lakeshore Drive
Hope Mills, NC 28348
910.424.3004
910.987.1234 (cell)
[email protected]
www.TotalInstructionalAlignment.com
Descargar

Slide 1